Search results for 'Selfishness' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. David Sloan Wilson (1992). On the Relationship Between Evolutionary and Psychological Definitions of Altruism and Selfishness. Biology and Philosophy 7 (1):61-68.score: 22.0
    I examine the relationship between evolutionary definitions of altruism that are based on fitness effects and psychological definitions that are based on the motives of the actor. I show that evolutionary altruism can be motivated by proximate mechanisms that are psychologically either altruistic or selfish. I also show that evolutionary definitions do rely upon motives as a metaphor in which the outcome of natural selection is compared to the decisions of a psychologically selfish (or altruistic) individual. Ignoring the precise nature (...)
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  2. Linnda R. Caporael, Robyn M. Dawes, John M. Orbell & Alphons J. C. van de Kragt (1989). Selfishness Examined: Cooperation in the Absence of Egoistic Incentives. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 12 (4):683.score: 21.0
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  3. Joshua M. Ackerman & Douglas T. Kenrick (2009). Selfishness and Sex or Cooperation and Family Values? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 32 (1):21-21.score: 18.0
    Evolutionary models of behavior often encounter resistance due to an apparent focus on themes of sex, selfishness, and gender differences. The target article might seem ripe for such criticism. However, life history theory suggests that these themes, and their counterparts, including cooperation, generosity, and gender similarities, represent two sides of the same coin – all are consequences of reproductive trade-offs made throughout development.
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  4. Pierre Le Morvan (2009). Selfishness, Altruism, and Our Future Selves. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 87 (3):409 – 424.score: 18.0
    In this article, I defend the thesis that selfishness and altruism can be intrapersonal . In doing so, I argue that the notions of intrapersonal altruism and selfishness usefully pick out behavioural patterns and have predictive value. I also argue that my thesis helps enrich our understanding of the prudential, and can subsume some interesting work in economic and psychological theory.
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  5. Sarah F. Brosnan & Frans B. M. de Waal (2005). A Cross-Species Perspective on the Selfishness Axiom. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 28 (6):818-818.score: 18.0
    Henrich et al. describe an innovative research program investigating cross-cultural differences in the selfishness axiom (in economic games) in humans, yet humans are not the only species to show such variation. Chimpanzees and capuchin monkeys show signs of deviating from the standard self-interest paradigm in experimental settings by refusing to take foods that are less valuable than those earned by conspecifics, indicating that they, too, may pay attention to relative gains. However, it is less clear whether these species also (...)
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  6. Tibor R. Machan (1974). Selfishness and Capitalism1. Inquiry 17 (1-4):338-344.score: 18.0
    Richard Schmitt's case against the psychological defense of capitalism (Inquiry, Vol. 16, No. 2) has merit, but in stating it he attributes to a defender of capitalism the argument that capitalism suits people's innate selfishness. The position more plausibly attributed to the author in question is not only resistant to Schmitt's own arguments but is worth consideration in itself.
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  7. Voltairine de Cleyre, The Philosophy of Selfishness and Metaphysical Ethics (1891).score: 18.0
    interested. Interested because I believe that as one of the leaders of the ethical movement Mr. Slater is aware that there is no more frequent or more fatal error to overcome, in his work, than this very philosophy of selfishness, and therefore should be one of those best conversant with the proofs of its shallowness and falsity.
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  8. Howard Rachlin (2002). Altruism and Selfishness. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 25 (2):239-250.score: 16.0
    Many situations in human life present choices between (a) narrowly preferred particular alternatives and (b) narrowly less preferred (or aversive) particular alternatives that nevertheless form part of highly preferred abstract behavioral patterns. Such alternatives characterize problems of self-control. For example, at any given moment, a person may accept alcoholic drinks yet also prefer being sober to being drunk over the next few days. Other situations present choices between (a) alternatives beneficial to an individual and (b) alternatives that are less beneficial (...)
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  9. George Morgan Jr (1940). Selfishness and Unselfishness. Journal of Philosophy 37 (15):401-407.score: 15.0
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  10. Richard G. Henson (1988). Butler on Selfishness and Self-Love. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 49 (1):31-57.score: 15.0
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  11. Joseph Katz (1948). On the Nature of Selfishness. Journal of Philosophy 45 (4):96-103.score: 15.0
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  12. Leonard A. Kennedy (1966). The Morality of Self-Interest. By Robert G. Olson. Longmans Canada, Toronto. 1965. Pp. X, 182. $4.35.The Virtue of Selfishness. By Ayn Rand. General Publishing Company Limited, Don Mills, Ontario. 1965. Pp. Xv, 207. [REVIEW] Dialogue 5 (03):461-462.score: 15.0
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  13. Charles F. Smith (2010). The Genial Gene: Deconstructing Darwinian Selfishness. By Joan Roughgarden. Zygon 45 (1):284-285.score: 15.0
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  14. David K. Levine (2002). An Economist's Perspective on Altruism and Selfishness. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 25 (2):267-268.score: 15.0
    Few disagree that altruism exists. The frequency and source of altruistic behavior remain mysterious, however.
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  15. Andrew Oldenquist (1980). The Possibility of Selfishness. American Philosophical Quarterly 17 (1):25 - 33.score: 15.0
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  16. Michael Taylor (1983). Book Review:Selfishness, Altruism, and Rationality: A Theory of Social Choice. Howard Margolis. [REVIEW] Ethics 94 (1):150-.score: 15.0
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  17. Ted Honderich (1996). Consequentialism, Moralities of Concern, and Selfishness. Philosophy 71 (278):499 - 520.score: 15.0
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  18. A. MacC Armstrong (1980). A Dialogue on Selfishness. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 40 (4):496-511.score: 15.0
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  19. Mary Midgley (2011). The Mythology of Selfishness. The Philosophers' Magazine 53:35-45.score: 15.0
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  20. Lawrence E. Mitchell (1998). Stacked Deck: A Story of Selfishness in America. Temple University Press.score: 15.0
    In Stacked Deck, Mitchell shows us how this artificial reality buries the way we truly,live.Mitchell uses examples drawn from history, politics, law, and ...
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  21. R. I. M. Dunbar (1989). Selfishness Reexamined. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 12 (4):700.score: 15.0
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  22. David W. Pfennig (1998). The Evolution of Selflessness and Selfishness. BioScience 48 (11):956-958.score: 15.0
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  23. J. M. B. (1967). The Virtue of Selfishness. Review of Metaphysics 20 (4):729-729.score: 15.0
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  24. Alasdair I. Houston & William D. Hamilton (1989). Selfishness Reexamined: No Man is an Island. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 12 (4):709.score: 15.0
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  25. John O'Connor (1987). Philanthropy and Selfishness. Social Philosophy and Policy 4 (02):113-.score: 15.0
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  26. Michael Ruse (1988). Response to Williams: Selfishness is Not Enough. Zygon 23 (4):413-416.score: 15.0
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  27. Robert C. Solomon & Patricia Werhane (1993). Beyond Selfishness: Adam Smith and the Limits of the MarketAdam Smith and His Legacy for Modern Capitalism. Business Ethics Quarterly 3 (4):453.score: 15.0
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  28. Robert C. Solomon (1993). Beyond Selfishness. Business Ethics Quarterly 3 (4):453-460.score: 15.0
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  29. Philip E. Tetlock (1989). The Selfishness-Altruism Debate: In Defense of Agnosticism. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 12 (4):723.score: 15.0
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  30. R. Machan Tibor (2003). The Benefits of Selfishness. Free Inquiry 23 (3):61.score: 15.0
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  31. Barry Allen (2010). The Genial Gene: Deconstructing Darwinian Selfishness. Common Knowledge 16 (3):559-559.score: 15.0
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  32. Daniel Brudney (2010). Styles of Selfishness. In Garry Hagberg & Walter Jost (eds.), A Companion to the Philosophy of Literature. Wiley-Blackwell.score: 15.0
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  33. A. C. Graham (1985). The Right to Selfishness: Yangism, Later Mohism, Chuang Tzu. In Donald J. Munro (ed.), Individualism and Holism: Studies in Confucian and Taoist Values. Center for Chinese Studies, University of Michigan. 73--84.score: 15.0
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  34. Alan Kirman & Miriam Teschl (2010). Do Markets Foster Selfishness? Revue de Philosophie Économique 11 (1):113.score: 15.0
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  35. David Lowenthal (1998). Stewardship, Sanctimony and Selfishness–a Heritage Paradox. In John Arnold, Kate Davies & Simon Ditchfield (eds.), History and Heritage: Consuming the Past in Contemporary Culture. Donhead. 169--179.score: 15.0
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  36. Susan Oyama (1989). Innate Selfishness, Innate Sociality. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 12 (4):717.score: 15.0
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  37. Stephen Pruett-Jones (2010). The Genial Gene: Deconstructing Darwinian Selfishness. BioScience 60 (1):76-78.score: 15.0
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  38. Mathias Risse (2008). Nietzsche on Selfishness, Justice, and the Duties of the Higher Men. In Paul Bloomfield (ed.), Morality and Self-Interest. Oxford University Press.score: 15.0
  39. Stefan Sütterlin, Cornelia Herbert, Michael Schmitt, Andrea Kübler & Claus Vögele (2011). Overcoming Selfishness: Reciprocity, Inhibition, and Cardiac-Autonomic Control in the Ultimatum Game. Frontiers in Psychology 2.score: 15.0
    The processes underlying decision-making in response to unfair offers in the ultimatum game (UG) have recently been discussed in light of models of reciprocity and fairness-related behavior. It has been suggested that behavior following norm-oriented, internalized expectations of reciprocity requires overcoming economic self-interest. In this study we investigated both, behavioral and peripheral-physiological indicators of inhibitory capacity related to neuronal networks that are likely to be involved in the behavioral response to unfair offers. Both heart-rate variability as an index of inhibitory (...)
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  40. Helan M. Toole (1944). Selfishness and the Social Order. Thought 19 (4):754-756.score: 15.0
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  41. Ian Vine (1989). Selfishness, Sociobiology, and Self-Identities: Dilemmas and Confusions. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 12 (4):725.score: 15.0
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  42. Sangeetha Menon (2002). The Selfish Meme & the Selfless ATMA. Sophia 41 (1):83-88.score: 11.0
    Abstract The word ‘meme’ was first used by Richard Dawkins (Dawkins, 1976)1 in the sense of a replicator to introduce the idea of cultural transmission through the process of imitation, just as genes are responsible for the evolution of organisms. Following Dawkins several writers came forth to have a closer look at ‘meme’. The consensus was that this was a fascinating way of explaining cultural evolution and transmission; that meme is the basic unit of (cultural) information whose existence influences events (...)
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  43. John Lippitt (2009). True Self-Love and True Self-Sacrifice. International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 66 (3):125 - 138.score: 9.0
    In recent commentary on Kierkegaard’s Works of Love , a distinction is commonly drawn between ‘proper’ and ‘selfish’ forms of self-love. In arguing that not all vices of self-focus can be captured under the heading of selfishness, I seek to distinguish selfishness from self-centredness. But the latter vice has a far more handsome cousin: proper self-focus of the kind necessary for ‘becoming a self’. As various feminist thinkers have argued, this will be missed if we valorise (...)
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  44. David W. Tien (2012). Oneness and Self-Centeredness in the Moral Psychology of Wang Yangming. Journal of Religious Ethics 40 (1):52-71.score: 9.0
    Rather than “selfishness,” a more accurate and revealing interpretation of Wang's use of siyuis “self-centeredness.” One of the main goals in Wang's model of moral cultivation was to attain a state devoid of self-centered desires. Wang relied a great deal on the exercise and cultivation of an emotional identification and feeling of oneness with others. In this paper, I first provide a brief summary of the role of Wang's concept of siyu in his moral psychology. I then examine key (...)
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  45. Michael K. McCuddy, Musa Pinar, Ibrahim Birkin & Metin Kozak (2009). Gender and Perceived Fundamental Moral Orientations: An Empirical Study of the Turkish Hotel Industry. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 89 (3):331 - 349.score: 9.0
    Recent history is replete with scandalous acts and charitable acts within the business community. Unfortunately, scandalous acts seem to occur with greater frequency than charitable acts – at least as reported in the broadcast and print media. An interesting corollary to the incidence of scandalous and charitable acts is the apparent differential involvement of men and women, particularly in scandals. This article explores a possible explanation for the apparent gender differential in involvement in scandals and acts of charity. Drawing on (...)
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  46. Norvin Richards (2005). Choosing When to Die. Journal of Ethics 9 (3-4):517 - 531.score: 9.0
    What would make it the right time for you to die, or the wrong one? In particular, could it be the right time for you to die even if your loved ones want to make the sacrifices needed to prolong your life, because that would cost them too dearly? The worry is that it would be selfish to permit these sacrifies, and wrong for that reason. I think it matters that the sacrifies would occur within a relationship of mutual devotion, (...)
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  47. W. A. Rottschaefer (2000). It's Been a Pleasure, but That's Not Why I Did It. Are Sober and Wilson Too Generous Toward Their Selfish Brethren? Journal of Consciousness Studies 7 (1-2):1-2.score: 8.0
    Sober and Wilson demonstrate convincingly the fallacies of arguments for fundamental biological and psychological selfishness and establish the plausibility of both biological and psychological altruism. However, I suggest that they are more generous to proponents of fundamental selfishness than they need be and that morality is closer to our evolved and learned capacities than they suggest. I am less generous toward advocates of fundamental selfishness than are our altruistic authors.
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  48. Daniel Dennett, The Selfish Gene as a Philosophical Essay.score: 6.0
    One critic complained that my argument was ‘philosophical’, as though that was sufficient condemnation. Philosophical or not, the fact is that neither he nor anybody else has found any flaw in what I said. And ‘in principle’ arguments such as mine, far from being irrelevant to the real world, can be more powerful than arguments based on particular factual research. My reasoning, if it is correct, tells us something important about life everywhere in the universe. Laboratory and field research can (...)
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  49. Mark Steen (2011). Why Everyone Acts Altruistically All the Time: What Parodying Psychological Egoism Can Teach Us. Philosophia 39 (3):563-570.score: 6.0
    Psychological Altruism (PA) is the view that everyone, ultimately, acts altruistically all the time. I defend PA by showing strong prima facie support, and show how a reinterpretive strategy against supposed counterexamples is successful. I go on to show how PA can be argued for in ways which exactly mirror the arguments for an opposing view, Psychological Egoism. This shows that the case for PA is at least as plausible as PE. Since the case for PA is not plausible, neither (...)
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  50. Alejandro Rosas (2004). Mind Reading, Deception and the Evolution of Kantian Moral Agents. Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 34 (2):127–139.score: 6.0
    Classical evolutionary explanations of social behavior classify behaviors from their effects, not from their underlying mechanisms. Here lies a potential objection against the view that morality can be explained by such models, e.g. Trivers’reciprocal altruism. However, evolutionary theory reveals a growing interest in the evolution of psychological mechanisms and factors them in as selective forces. This opens up perspectives for evolutionary approaches to problems that have traditionally worried moral philosophers. Once the ability to mind-read is factored-in among the relevant variables (...)
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