66 found
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  1.  20
    Serious Ethical Violations in Medicine: A Statistical and Ethical Analysis of 280 Cases in the United States From 2008–2016. [REVIEW]Heidi A. Walsh, Jessica Mozersky, John T. Chibnall, Emily E. Anderson & James M. DuBois - 2019 - American Journal of Bioethics 19 (1):16-34.
    Serious ethical violations in medicine, such as sexual abuse, criminal prescribing of opioids, and unnecessary surgeries, directly harm patients and undermine trust in the profession of medicine. We review the literature on violations in medicine and present an analysis of 280 cases. Nearly all cases involved repeated instances of intentional wrongdoing, by males in nonacademic medical settings, with oversight problems and a selfish motive such as financial gain or sex. More than half of cases involved a wrongdoer with a suspected (...)
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  2.  7
    The “Ought-Is” Problem: An Implementation Science Framework for Translating Ethical Norms Into Practice.Bryan A. Sisk, Jessica Mozersky, Alison L. Antes & James M. DuBois - 2020 - American Journal of Bioethics 20 (4):62-70.
    We argue that once a normative claim is developed, there is an imperative to effect changes based on this norm. As such, ethicists should adopt an “implementation mindset” when formulating...
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  3.  20
    The Role of Culture and Acculturation in Researchers’ Perceptions of Rules in Science.Alison L. Antes, Tammy English, Kari A. Baldwin & James M. DuBois - 2018 - Science and Engineering Ethics 24 (2):361-391.
    Successfully navigating the norms of a society is a complex task that involves recognizing diverse kinds of rules as well as the relative weight attached to them. In the United States, different kinds of rules—federal statutes and regulations, scientific norms, and professional ideals—guide the work of researchers. Penalties for violating these different kinds of rules and norms can range from the displeasure of peers to criminal sanctions. We proposed that it would be more difficult for researchers working in the U.S. (...)
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  4.  40
    Professional Decision-Making in Research : The Validity of a New Measure.James M. DuBois, John T. Chibnall, Raymond C. Tait, Jillon S. Vander Wal, Kari A. Baldwin, Alison L. Antes & Michael D. Mumford - 2016 - Science and Engineering Ethics 22 (2):391-416.
    In this paper, we report on the development and validity of the Professional Decision-Making in Research measure, a vignette-based test that examines decision-making strategies used by investigators when confronted with challenging situations in the context of empirical research. The PDR was administered online with a battery of validity measures to a group of NIH-funded researchers and research trainees who were diverse in terms of age, years of experience, types of research, and race. The PDR demonstrated adequate reliability and parallel form (...)
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  5.  27
    Compliance Disengagement in Research: Development and Validation of a New Measure.James M. DuBois, John T. Chibnall & John Gibbs - 2016 - Science and Engineering Ethics 22 (4):965-988.
    In the world of research, compliance with research regulations is not the same as ethics, but it is closely related. One could say that compliance is how most societies with advanced research programs operationalize many ethical obligations. This paper reports on the development of the How I Think about Research questionnaire, which is an adaptation of the How I Think questionnaire that examines the use of cognitive distortions to justify antisocial behaviors. Such an adaptation was justified based on a review (...)
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  6.  46
    Environmental Factors Contributing to Wrongdoing in Medicine: A Criterion-Based Review of Studies and Cases.James M. DuBois, Emily E. Anderson, Kelly Carroll, Tyler Gibb, Elena Kraus, Timothy Rubbelke & Meghan Vasher - 2012 - Ethics and Behavior 22 (3):163 - 188.
    In this article we describe our approach to understanding wrongdoing in medical research and practice, which involves the statistical analysis of coded data from a large set of published cases. We focus on understanding the environmental factors that predict the kind and the severity of wrongdoing in medicine. Through review of empirical and theoretical literature, consultation with experts, the application of criminological theory, and ongoing analysis of our first 60 cases, we hypothesize that 10 contextual features of the medical environment (...)
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  7.  62
    IRB Decision-Making with Imperfect Knowledge: A Framework for Evidence-Based Research Ethics Review.Emily E. Anderson & James M. DuBois - 2012 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 40 (4):951-969.
    Institutional Review Board decisions hinge on the availability and interpretation of information. This is demonstrated by the following well-known historical example. In 2001, 24-year-old Ellen Roche died from respiratory distress and organ failure as a result of her participation in a study at Johns Hopkins Asthma and Allergy Center. The non-therapeutic physiological study, “Mechanisms of Deep Inspiration-Induced Airway Relaxation,” was designed to examine airway hyperresponsiveness in healthy individuals in order to better understand the pathophysiology of asthma. Participants inhaled hexamethonium, a (...)
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  8.  32
    Is Compliance a Professional Virtue of Researchers? Reflections on Promoting the Responsible Conduct of Research.James M. DuBois - 2004 - Ethics and Behavior 14 (4):383 – 395.
    Evidence exists that behavioral and social science researchers have been frustrated with regulations and institutional review boards (IRBs) from the 1970s through today. Making matters worse, many human participants protection instruction programs - now mandated by IRBs - offer inadequate reasons why researchers should comply with regulations and IRBs. Promoting compliance either for its own sake or to avoid penalties is contrary to the developmental aims of moral education and may be ineffective in fostering the responsible conduct of research. This (...)
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  9.  62
    Is Anesthesia Intrinsically Wrong? On Moral Absolutes and Natural Law Methodology: Articles.James M. Dubois - 2008 - Christian Bioethics 14 (2):206-216.
    This article engages two fundamentally different kinds of so-called natural law arguments in favor of specific moral absolutes: Elizabeth Anscombe's claim that certain actions are known to be intrinsically wrong through intuition, and John Finnis's claim that such actions are known to be wrong because they involve acting directly against a basic human good. Both authors maintain, for example, that murder and contraceptive sexual acts are known to be wrong, always and everywhere, through their respective epistemological lens. This article uses (...)
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  10.  19
    Development and Preliminary Validation of a New Measure of Values in Scientific Work.Tammy English, Alison L. Antes, Kari A. Baldwin & James M. DuBois - 2018 - Science and Engineering Ethics 24 (2):393-418.
    In this paper we describe the development and initial psychometric evaluation of a new measure, the values in scientific work. This scale assesses the level of importance that investigators attach to different VSW. It taps a broad range of intrinsic, extrinsic, and social values that motivate the work of scientists, including values specific to scientific work and more classic work values in the context of science. Notably, the values represented in this scale are relevant to scientists regardless of their career (...)
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  11.  22
    Dead Tired of Repetitious Debates About Death Criteria.James M. DuBois - 2011 - American Journal of Bioethics 11 (8):45-47.
  12. On the Theory and Therapy of Mental Disorders an Introduction to Logotherapy and Existential Analysis.Viktor Emil Frankl & James M. Dubois - 2004
  13.  9
    Physician Decision Making and the Web of Influence.James M. DuBois - 2017 - American Journal of Bioethics 17 (6):24-26.
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  14.  18
    What Counts as Empirical Research in Bioethics and Where Do We Find the Stuff?James M. DuBois - 2009 - American Journal of Bioethics 9 (6-7):70-72.
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  15.  20
    Non-Heart-Beating Organ Donation: A Defense of the Required Determination of Death.James M. DuBois - 1999 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 27 (2):126-136.
    The family of a patient who is unconscious and respirator-dependent has made a decision to discontinue medical treatment. The patient had signed a donor card. The family wants to respect this decision, and agrees to non-heart-beating organ donation. Consequently, as the patient is weaned from the ventilator, he is prepped for organ explantation. Two minutes after the patient goes into cardiac arrest, he is declared dead and the transplant team arrives to begin organ procurement. At the time retrieval begins, it (...)
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  16.  14
    Non-Heart-Beating Organ Donation: A Defense of the Required Determination of Death.James M. DuBois - 1999 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 27 (2):126-136.
    The family of a patient who is unconscious and respirator-dependent has made a decision to discontinue medical treatment. The patient had signed a donor card. The family wants to respect this decision, and agrees to non-heart-beating organ donation. Consequently, as the patient is weaned from the ventilator, he is prepped for organ explantation. Two minutes after the patient goes into cardiac arrest, he is declared dead and the transplant team arrives to begin organ procurement. At the time retrieval begins, it (...)
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  17.  8
    Increasing Rates of Organ Donation: Exploring the Institute of Medicine's Boldest Recommendation.James M. DuBois - 2009 - Journal of Clinical Ethics 20 (1):13.
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  18.  10
    Introduction: Conflicting Interest in Medicine: Stories by Physicians on How Financing Affects Their Work.James M. DuBois - 2011 - Narrative Inquiry in Bioethics 1 (2):65-66.
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  19.  28
    Colloquy.Gerald P. Koocher, Thomas G. Plante, James M. DuBois, Simon Shimshon Rubin, Armin Paul Thies & Mary Marple Thies - 2004 - Ethics and Behavior 14 (1):65-87.
    This article examines the clergy sexual abuse crisis in the Roman Catholic Church from an ethical point of view. The article uses the RRICC values model of ethical decision making to review the behavior of Catholic bishops and other religious superiors as they have tried to manage clergy sex offenders and their victims. Hopefully, the recent press attention and resulting policy changes on these matters from the U.S. Council of Catholic Bishops will increase the chances that future decisions will be (...)
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  20.  26
    Universal Ethical Principles in a Diverse Universe: A Commentary on Monshi and Zieglmayer's Case Study.James M. DuBois - 2004 - Ethics and Behavior 14 (4):313 – 319.
    Monshi and Zieglmayer's case study presents Sri Lankan participants as having views on the privacy of health information that differ radically from those commonly found in Western nations. This article explores 2 questions that their case study raises for the ethical review of research in international settings: First, are allegedly universal ethical principles - of the sort promulgated in the Belmont Report (National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research, 1978) - useful in international settings?, (...)
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  21.  22
    Colloquy: Introduction.Gerald P. Koocher, Thomas G. Plante, James M. DuBois, Simon Shimshon Rubin, Armin Paul Thies & Mary Marple Thies - 2004 - Ethics and Behavior 14 (1):65 – 87.
    This article examines the clergy sexual abuse crisis in the Roman Catholic Church from an ethical point of view. The article uses the RRICC values model of ethical decision making (i.e., responsibility, respect, integrity, competence, concern) to review the behavior of Catholic bishops and other religious superiors as they have tried to manage clergy sex offenders and their victims. Hopefully, the recent press attention and resulting policy changes on these matters from the U.S. Council of Catholic Bishops will increase the (...)
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  22.  7
    Intention, Action, and the Dead Donor Rule: Commentary on Spike.James M. DuBois - 2000 - Journal of Clinical Ethics 11 (1):78.
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  23.  10
    What Explains Associations of Researchers’ Nation of Origin and Scores on a Measure of Professional Decision-Making? Exploring Key Variables and Interpretation of Scores.Alison L. Antes, Tammy English, Kari A. Baldwin & James M. DuBois - 2019 - Science and Engineering Ethics 25 (5):1499-1530.
    Researchers encounter challenges that require making complex professional decisions. Strategies such as seeking help and anticipating consequences support decision-making in these situations. Existing evidence on a measure of professional decision-making in research that assesses the use of decision-making strategies revealed that NIH-funded researchers born outside of the U.S. tended to score below their U.S. counterparts. To examine potential explanations for this association, this study recruited 101 researchers born in the United States and 102 born internationally to complete the PDR and (...)
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  24.  20
    Self-Regulation of Science: What Can We Still Learn From Asilomar?Carole R. Baskin, Robert A. Gatter, Mark J. Campbell, James M. Dubois & Allison C. Waits - 2016 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 59 (3):364-381.
    Ethical decision-making in public health rarely involves simply avoiding a bad choice in favor of a good choice. Instead, it requires policymakers to strike a balance among conflicting goals that are all good—goals such as the health of populations and individuals, knowledge gained through scientific research, autonomy, social justice, and the efficient use of limited resources. This balance can be elusive, and perfect examples are the legal instruments governing dual-use research, a term describing scientific endeavors meant to produce beneficial knowledge (...)
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  25.  32
    Proceedings of the 4th World Conference on Research Integrity: Brazil, Rio de Janeiro. 31 May - 3 June 2015.Lex Bouter, Melissa S. Anderson, Ana Marusic, Sabine Kleinert, Susan Zimmerman, Paulo S. L. Beirão, Laura Beranzoli, Giuseppe Di Capua, Silvia Peppoloni, Maria Betânia de Freitas Marques, Adriana Sousa, Claudia Rech, Torunn Ellefsen, Adele Flakke Johannessen, Jacob Holen, Raymond Tait, Jillon Van der Wall, John Chibnall, James M. DuBois, Farida Lada, Jigisha Patel, Stephanie Harriman, Leila Posenato Garcia, Adriana Nascimento Sousa, Cláudia Maria Correia Borges Rech, Oliveira Patrocínio, Raphaela Dias Fernandes, Laressa Lima Amâncio, Anja Gillis, David Gallacher, David Malwitz, Tom Lavrijssen, Mariusz Lubomirski, Malini Dasgupta, Katie Speanburg, Elizabeth C. Moylan, Maria K. Kowalczuk, Nikolas Offenhauser, Markus Feufel, Niklas Keller, Volker Bähr, Diego Oliveira Guedes, Douglas Leonardo Gomes Filho, Vincent Larivière, Rodrigo Costas, Daniele Fanelli, Mark William Neff, Aline Carolina de Oliveira Machado Prata, Limbanazo Matandika, Sonia Maria Ramos de Vasconcelos & Karina de A. Rocha - 2016 - Research Integrity and Peer Review 1 (Suppl 1).
    Table of contentsI1 Proceedings of the 4th World Conference on Research IntegrityConcurrent Sessions:1. Countries' systems and policies to foster research integrityCS01.1 Second time around: Implementing and embedding a review of responsible conduct of research policy and practice in an Australian research-intensive universitySusan Patricia O'BrienCS01.2 Measures to promote research integrity in a university: the case of an Asian universityDanny Chan, Frederick Leung2. Examples of research integrity education programmes in different countriesCS02.1 Development of a state-run “cyber education program of research ethics” in (...)
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  26.  9
    Highlights of Qualitative Research Articles in Bioethics: Academic Year 2013–2014.Ariel Cairns & James M. DuBois - 2014 - Narrative Inquiry in Bioethics 4 (3):279-286.
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  27. An Introduction to Adolf Reinach's 'The Supreme Rules of Rational Inference According to Kant'.James M. DuBois - 1995 - Aletheia 6:94.
     
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  28. Adolf Reinach: Metaethics and the Philosophy of Law.James M. DuBois - 2002 - Springer Verlag.
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  29.  11
    Book Review. [REVIEW]James M. DuBois - 2005 - Ethics and Behavior 15 (4):361 – 365.
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  30.  23
    Does the Public Support Organ Donation Using Higher Brain-Death Criteria?James M. DuBois & Tracy Schmidt - 2002 - Journal of Clinical Ethics 14 (1-2):26-36.
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  31.  32
    Editor's Introduction - the Varieties of Clinical Consulting Experience.James M. Dubois - 2003 - HEC Forum 15 (4):303-309.
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  32. Ethics in Behavioral and Social Science Research.James M. DuBois - 2006 - In Ana Smith Iltis (ed.), Research Ethics. Routledge.
     
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  33.  21
    Editors' Note.James M. DuBois, Ana S. Iltis & Susan G. DuBois - 2012 - Narrative Inquiry in Bioethics 2 (2):v-vi.
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  34.  2
    Editors' Note.James M. DuBois, Ana S. Iltis & Heidi A. Walsh - 2017 - Narrative Inquiry in Bioethics 7 (2):v-v.
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  35.  5
    Editors’ Note.James M. DuBois, Ana S. Iltis & Heidi A. Walsh - 2017 - Narrative Inquiry in Bioethics 7 (3):v-v.
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  36.  6
    Editors' Note.James M. DuBois, Ana S. Iltis & Heidi A. Walsh - 2018 - Narrative Inquiry in Bioethics 8 (1):v-v.
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  37.  6
    Editors’ Note.James M. Dubois, Ana S. Iltis & Heidi A. Walsh - 2018 - Narrative Inquiry in Bioethics 8 (2):v-vi.
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  38.  6
    Editors' Note.James M. DuBois, Ana S. Iltis & Heidi A. Walsh - 2018 - Narrative Inquiry in Bioethics 8 (3):v-vi.
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  39.  9
    Editors’ Note.James M. DuBois, Ana S. Iltis & Heidi A. Walsh - 2019 - Narrative Inquiry in Bioethics 9 (1):v-vi.
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  40.  4
    Editors’ Note.James M. DuBois, Ana S. Iltis & Heidi A. Walsh - 2019 - Narrative Inquiry in Bioethics 9 (2):v-vi.
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  41.  3
    Editors' Note.James M. DuBois, Ana S. Iltis & Heidi A. Walsh - 2020 - Narrative Inquiry in Bioethics 10 (1):v-vii.
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  42.  3
    Editors' Note.James M. DuBois, Ana S. Iltis & Heidi A. Walsh - 2020 - Narrative Inquiry in Bioethics 10 (2):v-vi.
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  43.  5
    Editors' Note.James M. DuBois & Ana S. Iltis - 2011 - Narrative Inquiry in Bioethics 1 (3):v-v.
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  44.  3
    Editors’ Note.James M. DuBois & Ana S. Iltis - 2011 - Narrative Inquiry in Bioethics 1 (2):v-v.
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  45.  11
    Editors’ Note.James M. DuBois & Ana S. Iltas - 2012 - Narrative Inquiry in Bioethics 2 (1):v-vi.
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  46.  4
    Editors’ Note.James M. DuBois & Ana S. Ilitis - 2013 - Narrative Inquiry in Bioethics 3 (1):v-vi.
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  47.  4
    Editors’ Note.James M. DuBois, Ana S. Ilitis & Susan G. DuBois - 2013 - Narrative Inquiry in Bioethics 3 (2).
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  48.  3
    Editors’ Note.James M. DuBois, Ana S. Ilitis & Susan G. DuBois - 2014 - Narrative Inquiry in Bioethics 4 (1).
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  49.  9
    Editors’ Note.James M. DuBois, Ana S. Ilitis & Susan G. DuBois - 2015 - Narrative Inquiry in Bioethics 5 (1):v-vi.
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  50.  10
    Genetic Testing: Understanding the Personal Stories.James M. DuBois - 2015 - Narrative Inquiry in Bioethics 5 (3):201-203.
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