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  1. A Strong Emergence Hypothesis of Conscious Integration and Neural Rewiring.Eric LaRock, Jeffrey Schwartz, Iliyan Ivanov & David Carreon - 2020 - International Philosophical Quarterly 60 (1):97-115.
    In this paper we discuss the two-system framework, examine its strengths, point out a fundamental weakness concerning the unity of conscious experience, and then propose a new hypothesis that avoids that weakness and other related concerns. According to our strong emergence hypothesis, what emerges are not merely mental properties in specialized, distributed neural areas, but also a new, irreducibly singular entity that functions in a recurrent manner to integrate its mental properties and to rewire its brain. We argue that the (...)
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  2. Anesthesia and Consciousess.Rocco J. Gennaro - 2018 - Journal of Cognition and Neuroethics 5 (1):49-69.
    For patients under anesthesia, it is extremely important to be able to ascertain from a scientific, third person point of view to what extent consciousness is correlated with specific areas of brain activity. Errors in accurately determining when a patient is having conscious states, such as conscious perceptions or pains, can have catastrophic results. Here, I argue that the effects of (at least some kinds of) anesthesia lend support to the notion that neither basic sensory areas nor the prefrontal cortex (...)
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  3. Is Cortex Necessary?Sean Allen-Hermanson - 2016 - Animal Sentience 1 (3).
    A key contention of Klein & Barron (2016) is that consciousness does not depend on cortical structures. A critical appraisal suggests they have overestimated the strength of their evidence.
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  4. What is Unconsciousness in a Fly or a Worm? A Review of General Anesthesia in Different Animal Models.Oressia Zalucki & Bruno van Swinderen - 2016 - Consciousness and Cognition 44:72-88.
  5. Acceptably Aware During General Anaesthesia: ‘Dysanaesthesia’ – The Uncoupling of Perception From Sensory Inputs.Jaideep J. Pandit - 2014 - Consciousness and Cognition 27:194-212.
  6. Jure Dohnal-Operation Without Anesthesia.Robert Bogešić - 2013 - Kairos: Evangelical Journal of Theology 7 (1):100-102.
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  7. Surgery Without Anesthesia.Jure Dohnal - 2013 - Kairos: Evangelical Journal of Theology 1:129-131.
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  8. Comparison of Haemodynamic Changes with Propofol and Sevoflurane Anaesthesia During Laparoscopic Surgery.Alka Shah & R. N. Adaroja - 2011 - Emergence: Complexity and Organization 4 (5):6.
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  9. Anaesthetists' and Surgeons' Attitudes Towards Informed Consent in the UK: An Observational Study.Aimun AB Jamjoom, Stuart M. White, Simon M. Walton, Jonathan G. Hardman & Iain K. Moppett - 2010 - BMC Medical Ethics 11 (1):2.
    The attitudes of patients' to consent have changed over the years, but there has been little systematic study of the attitudes of anaesthetists and surgeons in this process. We aimed to describe observations made on the attitudes of medical professionals working in the UK to issues surrounding informed consent.
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  10. Memory Formation During General Anesthesia.Chantal Kerssens & Michael Alkire - 2010 - In George Mashour (ed.), Consciousness, Awareness, and Anesthesia. Cambridge University Press. pp. 47.
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  11. The Philosophical Implications of Awareness During General Anesthesia, In Consciousness, Awareness, and Anesthesia (Edited by George Mashour).Eric LaRock - 2010 - Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Consciousness, Awareness, and Anesthesia is a multidisciplinary approach to both the scientific problem of consciousness and the clinical problem of awareness during general anesthesia.
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  12. Dreaming During Anesthesia.Kate Leslie - 2010 - In George Mashour (ed.), Consciousness, Awareness, and Anesthesia. Cambridge University Press. pp. 74--89.
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  13. Monitoring Anesthetic Depth.Gerhard Schneider - 2010 - In George Mashour (ed.), Consciousness, Awareness, and Anesthesia. Cambridge University Press. pp. 114.
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  14. Feedback Suppression in Anesthesia. Is It Reversible?Anthony G. Hudetz - 2009 - Consciousness and Cognition 18 (4):1079-1081.
    Information processing that subserves conscious cognitive functions is thought to involve recurrent signaling through feedforward and feedback loops among hierarchically arranged functional regions of the cerebral cortex. In the current issue of Consciousness and Cognition, Lee et al. report that loss of consciousness, as produced by a bolus injection of the general anesthetic propofol to human volunteers, was accompanied by a decrease in wide-band EEG feedback connectivity from frontal cortex to parietal cortex, confirming a prediction from previous experimental studies. Interestingly, (...)
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  15. The Directionality and Functional Organization of Frontoparietal Connectivity During Consciousness and Anesthesia in Humans.UnCheol Lee, Seunghwan Kim, Gyu-Jeong Noh, Byung-Moon Choi, Eunjin Hwang & George A. Mashour - 2009 - Consciousness and Cognition 18 (4):1069-1078.
    Frontoparietal connectivity has been suggested to be important in conscious processing and its interruption is thought to be one mechanism of general anesthesia. Data in animals demonstrate that feedforward processing of information may persist during the anesthetized state, while feedback processing is inhibited. We investigated the directionality and functional organization of frontoparietal connectivity in 10 human subjects anesthetized with propofol on two separate occasions. Multichannel electroencephalography and a computational method of assessing directed functional connectivity were employed. We demonstrate that directed (...)
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  16. Propofol Induction Reduces the Capacity for Neural Information Integration: Implications for the Mechanism of Consciousness and General Anesthesia.UnCheol Lee, George A. Mashour, Seunghwan Kim, Gyu-Jeong Noh & Byung-Moon Choi - 2009 - Consciousness and Cognition 18 (1):56-64.
    The cognitive unbinding paradigm suggests that the synthesis of neural information is attenuated by general anesthesia. Here, we analyzed the functional organization of brain activities in the conscious and anesthetized states, based on functional segregation and integration. Electroencephalography recordings were obtained from 14 subjects undergoing induction of general anesthesia with propofol. We quantified changes in mean information integration capacity in each band of the EEG. After induction with propofol, mean information integration capacity was reduced most prominently in the γ band (...)
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  17. Incidence of Awareness and Memory Priming in Paediatric Surgery with General Anaesthesia.Jackie Andrade, Catherine Deeprose & Ian Barker - 2008 - British Journal of Anaesthesia.
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  18. Contraception and Anesthesia: A Reply to James DuBois: Articles.Joseph Boyle - 2008 - Christian Bioethics 14 (2):217-225.
    This is a response to James Dubois’ “Is anesthesia intrinsically wrong?” I do not address many of the claims in this article but only DuBois’ use of the moral evaluation of the medical use of anesthesia as a counter example to two lines of reasoning developed to defend the traditional Catholic prohibition of contraception. Elizabeth Anscombe's dialectical defense of this teaching does not imply that such a defense must logically apply to the use of anesthesia. John Finnis’ defense of this (...)
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  19. Is Anesthesia Intrinsically Wrong? On Moral Absolutes and Natural Law Methodology: Articles.James M. Dubois - 2008 - Christian Bioethics 14 (2):206-216.
    This article engages two fundamentally different kinds of so-called natural law arguments in favor of specific moral absolutes: Elizabeth Anscombe's claim that certain actions are known to be intrinsically wrong through intuition, and John Finnis's claim that such actions are known to be wrong because they involve acting directly against a basic human good. Both authors maintain, for example, that murder and contraceptive sexual acts are known to be wrong, always and everywhere, through their respective epistemological lens. This article uses (...)
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  20. Toward a General Theory of Unconscious Processes in Psychoanalysis and Anesthesiology.George A. Mashour - 2008 - Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association 56 (1):203-222.
  21. Inverse Zombies, Anesthesia Awareness, and the Hard Problem of Unconsciousness.George A. Mashour & Eric LaRock - 2008 - Consciousness and Cognition 17 (4):1163-1168.
    Philosophical (p-) zombies are constructs that possess all of the behavioral features and responses of a sentient human being, yet are not conscious. P-zombies are intimately linked to the hard problem of consciousness and have been invoked as arguments against physicalist approaches. But what if we were to invert the characteristics of p-zombies? Such an inverse (i-) zombie would possess all of the behavioral features and responses of an insensate being yet would nonetheless be conscious. While p-zombies are logically possible (...)
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  22. Le suivi postopératoire : le chirurgien, l’anesthésiste et la clinique.Gérard Mémeteau - 2008 - Médecine et Droit 2008 (90):93-93.
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  23. Anesthesia: A Brief Reflection on Contemporary Aesthetics.Tripp York - 2008 - Seaburn Press.
    Amidst competing claims of beauty, truth and goodness, Trajan, a young man named after a once celebrated Roman Emperor, attempts to decipher why it is that Kant is wrong, love is capricious, and why you should never take advice from a puppet.
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  24. Subcortical Consciousness: Implications for Fetal Anesthesia and Analgesia.Roland R. Brusseau & George A. Mashour - 2007 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 30 (1):86-87.
    In this commentary we discuss the possibility of subcortical consciousness and its implications for fetal anesthesia and analgesia. We review the neural development of structural and functional elements that may participate in conscious representation, with a particular focus on the experience of pain. (Published Online May 1 2007).
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  25. Anaesthesia and Ethics.Antonio Grossi - 2007 - Chisholm Health Ethics Bulletin 13 (1):7.
    Grossi, Antonio This article discusses anaesthesia, the role of the anaesthetist and its ethical challenges. In the current political climate of task substitution and de-professionalisation, it is worth considering the role of the anaesthetist and the relevant ethical issues pertaining to this endeavour.
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  26. Consciousness and Anesthesia.John F. Kihlstrom & Randall C. Cork - 2007 - In Max Velmans & Susan Schneider (eds.), The Blackwell Companion to Consciousness. Blackwell. pp. 628--639.
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  27. Neural Pathways Associated with Loss of Consciousness Caused by Intracerebral Microinjection of GABA-Sub(A)-Active Anesthetics.I. Sukhotinsky, V. Zalkind, J. Lu, D. A. Hopkins, B. Saper & M. Devor - 2007 - European Journal of Neuroscience 25 (5):1417-1436.
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  28. General Anesthesia and the Neural Correlates of Consciousness.M. T. Alkire & Jeff G. Miller - 2006 - In Steven Laureys (ed.), Boundaries of Consciousness. Elsevier.
  29. A Starting Point for Consciousness Research: Reply to Thomas Schmidt.Jackie Andrade & Catherine Deeprose - 2006 - Consciousness and Cognition 15 (1):28-30.
    Anesthesia research has focused on showing learning in the absence of awareness for good practical reasons. Crucially, continued learning during otherwise clinically adequate anesthesia may affect patients’ well-being on recovery. Theoretically, preserved perceptual priming during anesthesia offers a useful starting point for consciousness research by determining the limits of memory function during minimal consciousness. The big question for consciousness research is not to demonstrate absolutely unconscious processing, but rather to map out the cognitive and neurobiological processes that enable conscious experience (...)
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  30. Is Priming During Anesthesia Unconscious?Catherine Deeprose & Jackie Andrade - 2006 - Consciousness and Cognition 15 (1):1-23.
    General anesthesia provides an alternative to typical laboratory paradigms for investigating implicit learning. We assess the evidence that a simple type of learning—priming—can occur without consciousness. Although priming has been shown to be a small but persistent phenomenon in surgical patients there is reason to question whether it occurs implicitly due to problems in detecting awareness using typical clinical signs. This paper reviews the published studies on priming during anesthesia that have included a measure of awareness or of anesthetic depth. (...)
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  31. Brain Imaging in Research on Anesthetic Mechanisms: Studies with Propofol.P. Fiset, G. Plourde & S. B. Backman - 2006 - In Steven Laureys (ed.), Boundaries of Consciousness. Elsevier.
  32. Awareness Under Anesthesia During Electroconvulsive Therapy Treatment.Prashant Gajwani, David Muzina, Kerning Gao & Joseph R. Calabrese - 2006 - Journal of ECT 22 (2):158-159.
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  33. The Entwined Mysteries of Anesthesia and Consciousness.Stuart R. Hameroff - 2006 - Anesthesiology 105 (2):400-412.
    feelings (brainstem, limbic system). The best scientific synchrony and consciousness.21,27 Anesthesiology, V 105, No 2, Aug 2006.
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  34. Consent for Anaesthesia in Cataract Surgery.S. Kashani - 2006 - Journal of Medical Ethics 32 (9):555-555.
    Cataract surgery has evolved rapidly over the last decade. Previously such cases required admission for prolonged postoperative convalescence. However, currently such procedures are carried out as day cases. An area where significant change has evolved is the role of anaesthesia in cataract surgery.Recently, a growing number of surgeons have been performing cataract surgery using topical drops to achieve anaesthesia. However, case selection and operator experience impose a limit on the use of topical anaesthesia.1 Other local techniques for delivering ….
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  35. Integrating the Science of Consciousness and Anesthesia.George A. Mashour - 2006 - Anesthesia and Analgesia 103:975-982.
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  36. Cognitive-Behavioural Treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Following Awareness Under Anaesthesia: A Case Study.Reginald D. V. Nixon, Richard A. Bryant & Michelle L. Moulds - 2006 - Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy 34 (1):113-118.
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  37. Learning Under Anesthesia: Checking the Light in the Fridge? Commentary on Deeprose and Andrade (2006).Thomas Schmidt - 2006 - Consciousness and Cognition 15 (1):24-27.
    Research on learning under anesthesia has focused on showing that learning is possible in the absence of awareness. However, a simple dissociation between learning and awareness is conclusive only under strong additional assumptions, and the actual state of consciousness of an anesthetized person is difficult to determine. Instead of trying to establish complete unconsciousness, one might employ gradual anesthesia to experimentally vary the level of consciousness in a controlled fashion, checking whether cognitive processes exist that can change in opposite direction (...)
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  38. The Boundaries of Consciousness: Neurobiology and Neuropathology.Steven Laureys - 2005 - Elsevier.
    The interest of this is threefold. First, patients with altered states of consciousness continue to represent a major clinical problem in terms of clinical assessment of consciousness and daily management.
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  39. Anesthetic Experience.Aaron Smuts - 2005 - Philosophy and Literature 29 (1):97-113.
    While working to build his aesthetic theory from the qualities of normal, healthy experience, John Dewey diagnoses a rarely recognized experiential ailment -- what might be called the anesthetic malady. This illness generally results when experience is deprived of meaning due to the poverty of the predominant forms of activity available in one's environment. In Dewey's theory of aesthetic experience lies an easily overlooked social/political approach that predates, by almost half a century, recent social theoretical concerns in phenomenology and everyday (...)
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  40. Cholinergic Mechanisms Mediating Anesthetic Induced Altered States of Consciousness.S. B. Backman, P. Fiset & G. Plourde - 2004 - Progress in Brain Research 145:197-206.
  41. Plugging a Tooth Before Anaesthetising the Patient? The Influence of People's Beliefs on Reasoning About the Temporal Order of Actions.Vicky Dierckx & Andr - 2004 - Thinking and Reasoning 10 (4):371 – 404.
    According to the mental models theory, reasoning performance is primarily influenced by the number of models of a problem that can be constructed. This study investigates whether the content of the model may also influence performance. Linear reasoning problems were devised that either described a believable (script-consistent) or an unbelievable (script-inconsistent) order of actions. The results of two experiments showed that conclusions were inferred more slowly and less accurately on the basis of an unbelievable model than on a believable one. (...)
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  42. Neuromonitoring for Awareness During Surgery.Claes Lennmarken & Rolf Sandin - 2004 - Lancet 363 (9423).
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  43. Consciousness Unbound: Toward a Paradigm of General Anesthesia.George A. Mashour - 2004 - Anesthesiology 100:428-433.
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  44. Bispectral Index Monitoring to Prevent Awareness During Anaesthesia: The B-Aware Randomised Controlled Trial.P. S. Myles, K. Leslie, J. McNeil, A. Forbes & M. T. V. Chan - 2004 - Lancet 363 (9423).
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  45. Consent for Anaesthesia.S. M. White - 2004 - Journal of Medical Ethics 30 (3):286-290.
    “Informed consent” is a legal instrument that allows individuals to define their own interests and to protect their bodily privacy. In current medical practice, patients who have consented to surgery are considered to have implied consent to anaesthesia, even though anaesthesia is associated with its own particular set of risks and consequences that are quite separate from those associated with surgery. In addition, anaesthetists often perform interventions that are the only medical treatment received by a patient. Anaesthetists, therefore, should always (...)
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  46. General Anesthetics.Pamela Flood - 2002 - In Elaine Perry, Heather Ashton & Allan Young (eds.), Neurochemistry of Consciousness: Neurotransmitters in Mind. John Benjamins. pp. 149-162.
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  47. Invariant Reversible QEEG Effects of Anesthetics - Volume 10, Number 2 (2001), Pages 165-183.E. R. John, L. S. Prichep, W. Kox, P. Valdes-Sosa, J. Bosch-Bayard, E. Aubert, M. Tom, F. diMichele & L. D. Gugino - 2002 - Consciousness and Cognition 11 (1):138-138.
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  48. Invariant Reversible QEEG Effects of Anesthetics: Volume 10, Number 2 , Pages 165–183.E. John, L. Prichep, W. Kox, P. Valdes-Sosa & J. Bosch-Bay - 2002 - Consciousness and Cognition 11 (1):138-138.
  49. Neurochemistry of Consciousness: Neurotransmitters in Mind.Elaine Perry, Heather Ashton & Andrew W. Young (eds.) - 2002 - John Benjamins.
  50. Local Anaesthesia, the Increase of the Evil Through Emotional Impoverishment.Knut Berner - 2001 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 4 (2):161-169.
    Evil should be characterised as a specific constellation, which results from destructive connections between individual activities and systemic influences. The article shows some important aspects of the structure of evil and prefers the terms of wickedness and obscene coincidences to describe its own character. Therefore, also the division between rationality and affectivity appears as inadequate, because evil has on the one side an intrinsic attractiveness for individuals and is on the other side in modern societies more and more a product (...)
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