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Julia Jorati
University of Massachusetts, Amherst
  1.  18
    Leibniz on Causation and Agency.Julia Jorati - 2017 - Cambridge University Press.
    This book presents a comprehensive examination of Gottfried Leibniz's views on the nature of agents and their actions. Julia Jorati offers a fresh look at controversial topics including Leibniz's doctrines of teleology, the causation of spontaneous changes within substances, divine concurrence, freedom, and contingency, and also discusses widely neglected issues such as his theories of moral responsibility, control, attributability, and compulsion. Rather than focusing exclusively on human agency, she explores the activities of non-rational substances and the differences between distinctive types (...)
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  2.  25
    Leibniz on Slavery and the Ownership of Human Beings.Julia Jorati - 2019 - Journal of Modern Philosophy 1 (10):1–18.
    Leibniz puts forward an intriguing argument against the moral permissibility of chattel slavery in a text from 1703. This argument has three independent layers or sub-arguments. The first is that slavery violates natural rights. The second is that moral laws such as the principles of equity and piety oppose slavery, or at least severely limit the permissible actions toward slaves. The third and final layer is that slavery can at most be justified if the slave is permanently incapable of conducting (...)
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  3.  72
    Monadic Teleology Without Goodness and Without God.Julia Jorati - 2013 - The Leibniz Review 23:43-72.
    Most interpreters think that for Leibniz, teleology is goodness-directedness. Explaining a monadic action teleologically, according to them, simply means explaining it in terms of the goodness of the state at which the agent aims. On some interpretations, the goodness at issue is always apparent goodness: an action is end-directed iff it aims at what appears good to the agent. On other interpretations, the goodness at issue is only sometimes apparent goodness and at other times merely objective goodness: some actions do (...)
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  4.  72
    Three Types of Spontaneity and Teleology in Leibniz.Julia Jorati - 2015 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 53 (4):669-698.
    it is one of the central commitments of Leibniz’s mature metaphysics that all substances or monads possess perfect spontaneity, that is, that all states of a given monad originate within it.1 Created monads do not truly interact with each other, for Leibniz. Instead, each one produces all of its states single-handedly, requiring only God’s ordinary concurrence. Several commentators have pointed out that implicit in Leibniz’s view is a distinction between different types of spontaneity: a general type of spontaneity that all (...)
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  5.  41
    Teleology in Early Modern Philosophy and Science.Julia Jorati - 2019 - Encyclopedia of Early Modern Philosophy and the Sciences.
    The vast majority of canonical early modern authors reject Aristotelian physics and metaphysics. Instead, many of them are mechanists, that is, they explain all natural change in the material world simply through the motions and collisions of inertial matter in motion. This typically means that they deny that there is immanent teleology in the natural world; sometimes, it even means eliminating purposiveness from natural philosophy altogether. Thus, some writers attempt to provide explanations of natural phenomena that do not rely on (...)
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  6.  55
    Leibniz on Causation – Part 1.Julia Jorati - 2015 - Philosophy Compass 10 (6):389-397.
    Leibniz holds that created substances do not causally interact with each other but that there is causal activity within each such creature. Every created substance constantly changes internally, and each of these changes is caused by the substance itself or by its prior states. Leibniz describes this kind of intra-substance causation both in terms of final causation and in terms of efficient causation. How exactly this works, however, is highly controversial. I will identify what I take to be the major (...)
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  7.  16
    Newton and Leibniz.Julia Jorati - 2020 - Encyclopedia of Early Modern Philosophy and the Sciences.
    It is easy to get the impression that Newton and Leibniz do not see eye to eye on anything. Yet, as is so often the case, a closer look reveals that matters are much more complicated. Despite their disagreements, the two are frequently on the same side of central scientific and philosophical debates. This entry discusses some of the main agreements and disagreements between Newton and Leibniz, starting with their methodologies and then turning to their views on space, motion, and (...)
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  8.  28
    Monads, Composition, and Force: Ariadnean Threads Through Leibniz’s Labyrinth, by Richard Arthur. [REVIEW]Julia Jorati - 2020 - Mind 129 (514):664-673.
    Monads, Composition, and Force: Ariadnean Threads through Leibniz’s Labyrinth, by ArthurRichard. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2018. Pp. ix + 329.
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  9.  77
    Du Châtelet on Freedom, Self-Motion, and Moral Necessity.Julia Jorati - 2019 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 57 (2):255-280.
    This paper explores the theory of freedom that Emilie du Châtelet advances in her essay “On Freedom.” Using contemporary terminology, we can characterize this theory as a version of agent-causal compatibilism. More specifically, the theory has the following elements: (a) freedom consists in the power to act in accordance with one’s choices, (b) freedom requires the ability to suspend desires and master passions, (c) freedom requires a power of self-motion in the agent, and (d) freedom is compatible with moral necessity (...)
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  10.  46
    Leibniz on Causation – Part 2.Julia Jorati - 2015 - Philosophy Compass 10 (6):398-405.
    Leibniz is almost unique among early modern philosophers in giving final causation a central place in his metaphysical system. All changes in created substances, according to Leibniz, have final causes, that is, occur for the sake of some end. There is, however, no consensus among commentators about the details of Leibniz's views on final causation. The least perfect types of changes that created substances undergo are especially puzzling because those changes seem radically different from paradigmatic instances of final causation. Building (...)
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  11.  63
    The Contingency of Leibniz's Principle of the Identity of Indiscernibles.Julia Jorati - 2017 - Ergo: An Open Access Journal of Philosophy 4:899–929.
    Leibniz’s famous Principle of the Identity of Indiscernibles (PII) states that no two things are exactly alike. The PII is commonly thought to be metaphysically necessary for Leibniz: the coexistence of two indiscernibles is metaphysically impossible. This paper argues, against the standard interpretation, that Leibniz’s PII is metaphysically contingent. In other words, while the coexistence of indiscernibles would not imply a contradiction, the PII is true in the actual world because the Principle of Sufficient Reason rules out violations of the (...)
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  12.  32
    Leibniz's Ontology of Force.Julia Jorati - 2019 - Oxford Studies in Early Modern Philosophy 8:189–224.
    Leibniz portrays the most fundamental entities in his mature ontology in at least three different ways. In some places, he describes them as mind-like, immaterial substances that perceive and strive. Elsewhere, he presents them as hylomorphic compounds. In yet other passages, he characterizes them in terms of primitive and derivative forces. Interpreters often assume that the first description is the most accurate. In contrast, I will argue that the third characterization is more accurate than the other two. If that is (...)
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  13.  35
    Stephen Voss (Ed.), The Leibniz-Arnauld Correspondence: With Selections From the Correspondence with Ernst, Landgrave of Hessen-Rheinfels by G. W. Leibniz. [REVIEW]Julia Jorati - 2018 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 56 (4):757-758.
    In February 1686, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz sent a letter to Antoine Arnauld, via their mutual friend Ernst, the Landgrave of Hessen-Rheinfels. This letter contained a short summary of Leibniz's most recent philosophical work, the Discourse on Metaphysics, and asked Arnauld for his reaction to it. Arnauld's response was extremely harsh: he called Leibniz's views shocking and useless and advised him to stop engaging in metaphysical speculations. Yet, Leibniz did not let this discourage him. In the exchange that followed, Leibniz was (...)
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  14.  20
    Gottfried Leibniz [on Free Will].Julia Jorati - 2017 - In Kevin Timpe, Meghan Griffith & Neil Levy (eds.), The Routledge Companion to Free Will. New York, USA: Routledge. pp. 293–302.
    Leibniz was obsessed with freedom. He turns to this topic again and again throughout his long career. And what he has to say about freedom is much more resourceful and inventive than typically acknowledged. While building on medieval theories—for instance by describing freedom in terms of the relation between the agent’s will and intellect—he also adds radically new elements and even anticipates some views that are popular today. The combination of theses about free will that Leibniz endorses in his mature (...)
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  15.  9
    Embodied Cognition Without Causal Interaction in Leibniz.Julia Jorati - 2020 - In Dominik Perler & Sebastian Bender (eds.), Causation and Cognition in Early Modern Philosophy. New York, USA: Routledge. pp. 252–273.
    My aim in this chapter is to explain how and why all human cognition depends on the body for Leibniz. I will show that there are three types of dependence: (a) the body is needed in order to supply materials, or content, for thinking; (b) the body is needed in order to give us the opportunity for the discovery of innate ideas; and (c) the body is needed in order to provide sensory notions as vehicles of thought. The third type (...)
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  16.  51
    Leibniz's Twofold Gap Between Moral Knowledge and Motivation.Julia Jorati - 2014 - British Journal for the History of Philosophy 22 (4):748-766.
    Moral rationalists and sentimentalists traditionally disagree on at least two counts, namely regarding the source of moral knowledge or moral judgements and regarding the source of moral motivation. I will argue that even though Leibniz's moral epistemology is very much in line with that of mainstream moral rationalists, his account of moral motivation is better characterized as sentimentalist. Just like Hume, Leibniz denies that there is a necessary connection between knowing that something is right and the motivation to act accordingly. (...)
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  17.  34
    Gottfried Leibniz: Philosophy of Mind.Julia Jorati - 2014 - Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (1646-1716) was a true polymath: he made substantial contributions to a host of different fields. Within the philosophy of mind, his chief innovations include his rejection of the Cartesian doctrines that all mental states are conscious and that non-human animals lack souls as well as sensation.
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  18. Leibniz on Appetitions and Desires.Julia Jorati - 2018 - In Rebecca Copenhaver (ed.), History of the Philosophy of Mind, Vol. 4: Philosophy of Mind in the Early Modern and Modern Ages. New York, USA: Routledge. pp. 245–265.
    Leibniz sometimes tells us that there are only two fundamental types of mental states: perceptions and appetitions, that is, mental representations and desire-like states. While this may sound like an overly sparse ontology of mental states, the philosophy of mind that Leibniz builds from these elements is surprisingly nuanced and powerful. What makes this possible is that he distinguishes different sub-types of these mental states. Leibniz famously differentiates between unconscious and conscious perceptions, which gives him an advantage over philosophers like (...)
     
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  19.  12
    Reply to Donald Rutherford.Julia Jorati - 2017 - The Leibniz Review 27:199-208.
    This is a response to Donald Rutherford's review of Jorati, Leibniz on Causation and Agency. The review is published in Leibniz Review 27 (2017), 183-197.
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  20.  2
    The Xth International Leibniz Congress.Ursula Goldenbaum, Donald Rutherford & Julia Jorati - 2016 - The Leibniz Review 26:229-234.
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  21.  12
    Adrian Nita, Leibniz's Metaphysics and Adoption of Substantial Forms: Between Continuity and Transformation. [REVIEW]Julia Jorati - 2015 - Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 10 (12).
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  22.  9
    Divine Faculties and the Puzzle of Incompossibility.Julia Jorati - 2016 - In Gregory Brown & Yual Chiek (eds.), Leibniz on Compossibility and Possible Worlds. Dordrecht: Springer. pp. 175–199.
    Leibniz maintains that even though God’s intellect contains all possibles, some of these possibles are not compossible. This incompossibility of some possibles is supposed to explain which collections of possibles are possible worlds and why God does not actualize the collection of all possibles. In order to fully understand how this works, we need to establish what precisely Leibniz takes to be the source of incompossibility, that is, which divine attribute or faculty gives rise to the incompossibility of certain possibles. (...)
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  23.  10
    Review of Michael V. Griffin, Leibniz, God and Necessity. [REVIEW]Julia Jorati - 2014 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 52 (1):172-173.
  24. The Correspondence with Arnauld.Julia Jorati - forthcoming - In Paul Lodge & Lloyd Strickland (eds.), Leibniz’s Key Philosophical Writings. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
    Leibniz’s correspondence with Antoine Arnauld is one of the clearest and most comprehensive expressions of Leibniz’s philosophy in the so-called middle period. This chapter will explore the philosophical content of this correspondence. It will concentrate on four of the most central topics: (a) complete concepts and contingency, (b) substance and body, (c) causation, and (d) the special status of rational souls in God’s plan.
     
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  25. Why Monads Need Appetites.Julia Jorati - 2016 - In Wenchao Li (ed.), ‘Für unser Glück oder das Glück anderer’: Vorträge des X. Internationalen Leibniz-Kongresses Hannover, 18.–23. Juli 2016, Vol. 5. Hildesheim, Germany: Olms. pp. 121–129.
    The mature Leibniz often describes monads as having two types of modifications: perceptions and appetites. But why would monads need appetites? When reading secondary literature about Leibniz, it can easily look as if appetites are superfluous: some scholars describe the inner workings of monads without saying much, if anything, about appetites. Instead, they focus on perceptions and explain the transition to new perceptions by reference to prior perceptions together with the underlying primitive force or law of the series. These interpretations (...)
     
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