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Linden J. Ball [27]Linden Ball [3]
  1.  24
    The Role of Answer Fluency and Perceptual Fluency as Metacognitive Cues for Initiating Analytic Thinking.Valerie A. Thompson, Jamie A. Prowse Turner, Gordon Pennycook, Linden J. Ball, Hannah Brack, Yael Ophir & Rakefet Ackerman - 2013 - Cognition 128 (2):237-251.
    Although widely studied in other domains, relatively little is known about the metacognitive processes that monitor and control behaviour during reasoning and decision-making. In this paper, we examined the conditions under which two fluency cues are used to monitor initial reasoning: answer fluency, or the speed with which the initial, intuitive answer is produced, and perceptual fluency, or the ease with which problems can be read. The first two experiments demonstrated that answer fluency reliably predicted Feeling of Rightness judgments to (...)
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  2.  33
    When Distraction Helps: Evidence That Concurrent Articulation and Irrelevant Speech Can Facilitate Insight Problem Solving.Linden J. Ball, John E. Marsh, Damien Litchfield, Rebecca L. Cook & Natalie Booth - 2015 - Thinking and Reasoning 21 (1):76-96.
    We report an experiment investigating the “special-process” theory of insight problem solving, which claims that insight arises from non-conscious, non-reportable processes that enable problem re-structuring. We predicted that reducing opportunities for speech-based processing during insight problem solving should permit special processes to function more effectively and gain conscious awareness, thereby facilitating insight. We distracted speech-based processing by using either articulatory suppression or irrelevant speech, with findings for these conditions supporting the predicted insight facilitation effect relative to silent working or thinking (...)
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  3. Belief–Logic Conflict Resolution in Syllogistic Reasoning: Inspection-Time Evidence for a Parallel-Process Model.Linden J. Ball & Edward J. N. Stupple - 2008 - Thinking and Reasoning 14 (2):168-181.
    An experiment is reported examining dual-process models of belief bias in syllogistic reasoning using a problem complexity manipulation and an inspection-time method to monitor processing latencies for premises and conclusions. Endorsement rates indicated increased belief bias on complex problems, a finding that runs counter to the “belief-first” selective scrutiny model, but which is consistent with other theories, including “reasoning-first” and “parallel-process” models. Inspection-time data revealed a number of effects that, again, arbitrated against the selective scrutiny model. The most striking inspection-time (...)
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  4.  38
    Matching Bias in Syllogistic Reasoning: Evidence for a Dual-Process Account From Response Times and Confidence Ratings.Edward J. N. Stupple, Linden J. Ball & Daniel Ellis - 2013 - Thinking and Reasoning 19 (1):54 - 77.
    (2013). Matching bias in syllogistic reasoning: Evidence for a dual-process account from response times and confidence ratings. Thinking & Reasoning: Vol. 19, No. 1, pp. 54-77. doi: 10.1080/13546783.2012.735622.
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  5.  35
    Think-Aloud Protocols and the Selection Task: Evidence for Relevance Effects and Rationalisation Processes.Erica Lucas & Linden Ball - 2005 - Thinking and Reasoning 11 (1):35 – 66.
    Two experiments are reported that employed think-aloud methods to test predictions concerning relevance effects and rationalisation processes derivable from Evans' (1996) heuristic-analytic theory of the selection task. Evans' account proposes that card selections are triggered by relevance-determining heuristics, with analytic processing serving merely to rationalise heuristically cued decisions. As such, selected cards should be associated with more references to both their facing and their hidden sides than rejected cards, which are not subjected to analytic rationalisation. Experiment 1 used a standard (...)
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  6.  53
    Insight and Creative Thinking Processes: Routine and Special.K. J. Gilhooly, Linden J. Ball & Laura Macchi - 2015 - Thinking and Reasoning 21 (1):1-4.
    In recent years there has been an upsurge of research aimed at removing the mystery from insight and creative problem solving. The present special issue reflects this expanding field. Overall the papers gathered here converge on a nuanced view of insight and creative thinking as arising from multiple processes that can yield surprising solutions through a mixture of “special” Type 1 processes and “routine” Type 2 processes.
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  7.  18
    Viewing Another Person's Eye Movements Improves Identification of Pulmonary Nodules in Chest X-Ray Inspection.Damien Litchfield, Linden J. Ball, Tim Donovan, David J. Manning & Trevor Crawford - 2010 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied 16 (3):251-262.
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  8.  8
    Normative Data for 84 UK English Rebus Puzzles.Emma Threadgold, John E. Marsh & Linden J. Ball - 2018 - Frontiers in Psychology 9.
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  9.  69
    Normative Benchmarks Are Useful for Studying Individual Differences in Reasoning.Edward Jn Stupple & Linden J. Ball - 2011 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 34 (5):270-271.
    We applaud many aspects of Elqayam & Evans' (E&E's) call for a descriptivist research programme in studying reasoning. Nevertheless, we contend that normative benchmarks are vital for understanding individual differences in performance. We argue that the presence of normative responses to particular problems by certain individuals should inspire researchers to look for converging evidence for analytic processing that may have a normative basis.
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  10.  15
    The Role of Answer Fluency and Perceptual Fluency in the Monitoring and Control of Reasoning: Reply To.Valerie A. Thompson, Rakefet Ackerman, Yael Sidi, Linden J. Ball, Gordon Pennycook & Jamie A. Prowse Turner - 2013 - Cognition 128 (2):256-258.
    In this reply, we provide an analysis of Alter et al. response to our earlier paper. In that paper, we reported difficulty in replicating Alter, Oppenheimer, Epley, and Eyre’s main finding, namely that a sense of disfluency produced by making stimuli difficult to perceive, increased accuracy on a variety of reasoning tasks. Alter, Oppenheimer, and Epley argue that we misunderstood the meaning of accuracy on these tasks, a claim that we reject. We argue and provide evidence that the tasks were (...)
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  11.  8
    Can False Memories Prime Problem Solutions?Mark L. Howe, Sarah R. Garner, Stephen A. Dewhurst & Linden J. Ball - 2010 - Cognition 117 (2):176-181.
  12.  35
    Problem-Solving Strategies and Expertise in Engineering Design.Linden J. Ball, Jonathan StB. T. Evans, Ian Dennis & Thomas C. Ormerod - 1997 - Thinking and Reasoning 3 (4):247-270.
    A study is reported which focused on the problem-solving strategies employed by expert electronics engineers pursuing a real-world task: integrated-circuit design. Verbal protocol data were analysed so as to reveal aspects of the organisation and sequencing of ongoing design activity. These analyses indicated that the designers were implementing a highly systematic solution-development strategy which deviated only a small degree from a normatively optimal top-down and breadth-first method. Although some of the observed deviation could be described as opportunistic in nature, much (...)
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  13.  69
    The Structure and Function of Spontaneous Analogising in Domain-Based Problem Solving.Christopher R. Bearman, Linden J. Ball & Thomas C. Ormerod - 2007 - Thinking and Reasoning 13 (3):273 – 294.
    Laboratory-based studies of problem solving suggest that transfer of solution principles from an analogue to a target arises only minimally without the presence of directive hints. Recently, however, real-world studies indicate that experts frequently and spontaneously use analogies in domain-based problem solving. There is also some evidence that in certain circumstances domain novices can draw analogies designed to illustrate arguments. It is less clear, however, whether domain novices can invoke analogies in the sophisticated manner of experts to enable them to (...)
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  14.  60
    Why Studies of Autism Spectrum Disorders Have Failed to Resolve the Theory Theory Versus Simulation Theory Debate.Meredith R. Wilkinson & Linden J. Ball - 2012 - Review of Philosophy and Psychology 3 (2):263-291.
    The Theory Theory (TT) versus Simulation Theory (ST) debate is primarily concerned with how we understand others’ mental states. Theory theorists claim we do this using rules that are akin to theoretical laws, whereas simulation theorists claim we use our own minds to imagine ourselves in another’s position. Theorists from both camps suggest a consideration of individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) can help resolve the TT/ST debate (e.g., Baron-Cohen 1995; Carruthers 1996a; Goldman 2006). We present a three-part argument that (...)
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  15.  39
    Exploring the Determinants of Dual Goal Facilitation in a Rule Discovery Task.Maggie Gale & Linden J. Ball - 2009 - Thinking and Reasoning 15 (3):294 – 315.
    Wason's standard 2-4-6 task requires discovery of a single rule and leads to around 20% solutions, whereas the dual goal (DG) version requires discovery of two rules and elevates solutions to over 60%. We report an experiment that aimed to discriminate between competing accounts of DG facilitation by manipulating the degree of complementarity between the to-be-discovered rules. Results indicated that perfect rule complementarity is not essential for task success, thereby undermining a key tenet of the goal complementarity account of DG (...)
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  16.  32
    Exploring the Determinants of Dual Goal Facilitation in a Rule Discovery Task.Linden J. Ball & Maggie Gale - 2009 - Thinking and Reasoning 15 (3):294-315.
    Wason's standard 2-4-6 task requires discovery of a single rule and leads to around 20% solutions, whereas the dual goal (DG) version requires discovery of two rules and elevates solutions to over 60%. We report an experiment that aimed to discriminate between competing accounts of DG facilitation by manipulating the degree of complementarity between the to-be-discovered rules. Results indicated that perfect rule complementarity is not essential for task success, thereby undermining a key tenet of the goal complementarity account of DG (...)
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  17.  12
    Disfluent Fonts Don’T Help People Solve Math Problems.Andrew Meyer, Shane Frederick, Terence C. Burnham, Juan D. Guevara Pinto, Ty W. Boyer, Linden J. Ball, Gordon Pennycook, Rakefet Ackerman, Valerie A. Thompson & Jonathon P. Schuldt - 2015 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 144 (2):e16-e30.
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  18.  18
    The Influence of Banner Advertisements on Attention and Memory: Human Faces with Averted Gaze Can Enhance Advertising Effectiveness.Pitch Sajjacholapunt & Linden J. Ball - 2014 - Frontiers in Psychology 5.
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  19.  29
    Sentence Memorability Reveals the Mental Representations Involved in Processing Spatial Descriptions.Alan F. Collins, Thomas C. Ormerod, Linden J. Ball & Piers Fleming - 2011 - Thinking and Reasoning 17 (1):30-56.
  20.  57
    Rationale and Guidelines for Empirical Adversarial Collaboration: A Thinking & Reasoning Initiative.Tim Rakow, Valerie Thompson, Linden Ball & Henry Markovits - 2015 - Thinking and Reasoning 21 (2):167-175.
  21.  55
    The Chronometrics of Confirmation Bias: Evidence for the Inhibition of Intuitive Judgements.Edward Jn Stupple & Linden J. Ball - 2011 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 34 (2):89-90.
    Mercier & Sperber (M&S) claim that the phenomenon of belief bias provides fundamental support for their argumentative theory and its basis in intuitive judgement. We propose that chronometric evidence necessitates a more nuanced account of belief bias that is not readily captured by argumentative theory.
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  22.  29
    Ubiquitous Technologies, Cultural Logics and Paternalism in Industrial Workplaces.Katharina E. Kinder, Linden J. Ball & Jerry S. Busby - 2007 - Poiesis and Praxis 5 (3-4):265-290.
    Ubiquitous computing is a new kind of computing where devices enhance everyday artefacts and open up previously inaccessible situations for data capture. ‘Technology paternalism’ has been suggested by Spiekermann and Pallas (Poiesis & Praxis: Int J Technol Assess Ethics Sci 4(1):6–18, 2006) as a concept to gauge the social and ethical impact of these new technologies. In this article we explore this concept in the specific setting of UK road maintenance and construction. Drawing on examples from our qualitative fieldwork we (...)
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  23.  29
    Analogy as Relational Priming: The Challenge of Self-Reflection.Andrea Cheshire, Linden J. Ball & Charlie N. Lewis - 2008 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 31 (4):381-382.
    Despite its strengths, Leech et al.'s model fails to address the important benefits that derive from self-explanation and task feedback in analogical reasoning development. These components encourage explicit, self-reflective processes that do not necessarily link to knowledge accretion. We wonder, therefore, what mechanisms can be included within a connectionist framework to model self-reflective involvement and its beneficial consequences.
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  24.  6
    Why Are Background Telephone Conversations Distracting?John E. Marsh, Robert Ljung, Helena Jahncke, Douglas MacCutcheon, Florian Pausch, Linden J. Ball & François Vachon - 2018 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied 24 (2):222-235.
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  25.  28
    Alternative Task Construals, Computational Escape Hatches, and Dual-System Theories of Reasoning.Linden J. Ball & Jeremy D. Quayle - 2000 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (5):667-668.
    Stanovich & West's dual-system represents a major development in an understanding of reasoning and rationality. Their notion of System 1 functioning as a computational escape hatch during the processing of complex tasks may deserve a more central role in explanations of reasoning performance. We describe examples of apparent escape-hatch processing from the reasoning and judgement literature.
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  26.  15
    Corrigendum to “The Role of Answer Fluency and Perceptual Fluency as Metacognitive Cues for Initiating Analytic Thinking” [COGNIT 128/2 237–251]. [REVIEW]Valerie A. Thompson, Jamie A. Prowse Turner, Gordon Pennycook, Linden J. Ball, Hannah Brack, Yael Ophir & Rakefet Ackerman - 2014 - Cognition 130 (1):140.
  27.  3
    The Effects of Stimulus Complexity and Conceptual Fluency on Aesthetic Judgments of Abstract Art: Evidence for a Default–Interventionist Account.Linden J. Ball, Emma Threadgold, John E. Marsh & Bo T. Christensen - 2018 - Metaphor and Symbol 33 (3):235-252.
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