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Paul Humphreys
University of Virginia
  1. Extending Ourselves: Computational Science, Empiricism, and Scientific Method.Paul Humphreys - 2004 - Oxford University Press.
    Computational methods have become the dominant technique in many areas of science. This book contains the first systematic philosophical account of these new methods and their consequences for scientific method. This book will be of interest to philosophers of science and to anyone interested in the role played by computers in modern science.
     
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  2. How Properties Emerge.Paul Humphreys - 1997 - Philosophy of Science 64 (1):1-17.
    A framework for representing a specific kind of emergent property instance is given. A solution to a generalized version of the exclusion argument is then provided and it is shown that upwards and downwards causation is unproblematical for that kind of emergence. One real example of this kind of emergence is briefly described and the suggestion made that emergence may be more common than current opinions allow.
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  3. The Philosophical Novelty of Computer Simulation Methods.Paul Humphreys - 2009 - Synthese 169 (3):615 - 626.
    Reasons are given to justify the claim that computer simulations and computational science constitute a distinctively new set of scientific methods and that these methods introduce new issues in the philosophy of science. These issues are both epistemological and methodological in kind.
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  4. Emergence, Not Supervenience.Paul W. Humphreys - 1997 - Philosophy of Science Supplement 64 (4):337-45.
    I argue that supervenience is an inadequate device for representing relations between different levels of phenomena. I then provide six criteria that emergent phenomena seem to satisfy. Using examples drawn from macroscopic physics, I suggest that such emergent features may well be quite common in the physical realm.
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  5. Why Propensities Cannot Be Probabilities.Paul Humphreys - 1985 - Philosophical Review 94 (4):557-570.
  6. Synchronic and Diachronic Emergence.Paul Humphreys - 2008 - Minds and Machines 18 (4):431-442.
    I discuss here a number of different kinds of diachronic emergence, noting that they differ in important ways from synchronic conceptions. I argue that Bedau’s weak emergence has an essentially historical aspect, in that there can be two indistinguishable states, one of which is weakly emergent, the other of which is not. As a consequence, weak emergence is about tokens, not types, of states. I conclude by examining the question of whether the concept of weak emergence is too weak and (...)
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  7. Computational and Conceptual Emergence.Paul Humphreys - 2008 - Philosophy of Science 75 (5):584-594.
    A twofold taxonomy for emergence is presented into which a variety of contemporary accounts of emergence fit. The first taxonomy consists of inferential, conceptual, and ontological emergence; the second of diachronic and synchronic emergence. The adequacy of weak emergence, a computational form of inferential emergence, is then examined and its relationship to conceptual emergence and ontological emergence is detailed. †To contact the author, please write to: Corcoran Department of Philosophy, 120 Cocke Hall, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904‐4780; e‐mail: pwh2a@virginia.edu.
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  8.  69
    Some Considerations on Conditional Chances.Paul Humphreys - 2004 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 55 (4):667-680.
    Four interpretations of single-case conditional propensities are described and it is shown that for each a version of what has been called ‘Humphreys' Paradox’ remains, despite the clarifying work of Gillies, McCurdy and Miller. This entails that propensities cannot be a satisfactory interpretation of standard probability theory. Introduction The basic issue The formal paradox Values of conditional propensities Interpretations of propensities McCurdy's response Miller's response Other possibilities 8.1 Temporal evolution 8.2 Renormalization 8.3 Causal influence Propensities to generate frequencies Conclusion.
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  9.  71
    Computational Models.Paul Humphreys - 2002 - Proceedings of the Philosophy of Science Association 2002 (3):S1-S11.
    A different way of thinking about how the sciences are organized is suggested by the use of cross‐disciplinary computational methods as the organizing unit of science, here called computational templates. The structure of computational models is articulated using the concepts of construction assumptions and correction sets. The existence of these features indicates that certain conventionalist views are incorrect, in particular it suggests that computational models come with an interpretation that cannot be removed as well as a prior justification. A form (...)
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  10.  29
    The Chances of Explanation: Causal Explanation in the Social, Medical and Physical Sciences.Paul Humphreys & Jim Woodward - 1993 - Philosophy of Science 60 (4):659.
  11.  6
    Emergence, Not Supervenience.Paul Humphreys - 1997 - Philosophy of Science 64 (Supplement):S337-S345.
    I argue that supervenience is an inadequate device for representing relations between different levels of phenomena. I then provide six criteria that emergent phenomena seem to satisfy. Using examples drawn from macroscopic physics, I suggest that such emergent features may well be quite common in the physical realm.
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  12.  75
    Computational Science and Scientific Method.Paul Humphreys - 1995 - Minds and Machines 5 (4):499-512.
    The process of constructing mathematical models is examined and a case made that the construction process is an integral part of the justification for the model. The role of heuristics in testing and modifying models is described and some consequences for scientific methodology are drawn out. Three different ways of constructing the same model are detailed to demonstrate the claims made here.
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  13. Emergence: A Philosophical Account.Paul Humphreys - 2016 - Oxford University Press USA.
    Interest in emergence amongst philosophers and scientists has grown in recent years, yet the concept continues to be viewed with skepticism by many. In this book, Paul Humphreys argues that many of the problems arise from a long philosophical tradition that is overly committed to synchronic reduction and has been overly focused on problems in philosophy of mind. He develops a novel account of diachronic ontological emergence called transformational emergence, shows that it is free of the problems raised against synchronic (...)
     
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  14.  4
    Computational Models.Paul Humphreys - 2002 - Philosophy of Science 69 (S3):S1-S11.
    A different way of thinking about how the sciences are organized is suggested by the use of cross‐disciplinary computational methods as the organizing unit of science, here called computational templates. The structure of computational models is articulated using the concepts of construction assumptions and correction sets. The existence of these features indicates that certain conventionalist views are incorrect, in particular it suggests that computational models come with an interpretation that cannot be removed as well as a prior justification. A form (...)
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  15.  74
    Protecting Rainforest Realism.P. Kyle Stanford, Paul Humphreys, Katherine Hawley, James Ladyman & Don Ross - 2010 - Metascience 19 (2):161-185.
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  16.  56
    Aspects of Emergence.Paul W. Humphreys - 1996 - Philosophical Topics 24 (1):53-71.
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  17.  66
    Computer Simulations.Paul Humphreys - 1990 - PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1990:497 - 506.
    This article provides a survey of some of the reasons why computational approaches have become a permanent addition to the set of scientific methods. The reasons for this require us to represent the relation between theories and their applications in a different way than do the traditional logical accounts extant in the philosophical literature. A working definition of computer simulations is provided and some properties of simulations are explored by considering an example from quantum chemistry.
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  18.  32
    Data Analysis: Models or Techniques? [REVIEW]Paul Humphreys - 2013 - Foundations of Science 18 (3):579-581.
    In this commentary to Napoletani et al. (Found Sci 16:1–20, 2011), we argue that the approach the authors adopt suggests that neural nets are mathematical techniques rather than models of cognitive processing, that the general approach dates as far back as Ptolemy, and that applied mathematics is more than simply applying results from pure mathematics.
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  19. The Chances of Explanation.Paul Humphreys - 1994 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 45 (1):353-374.
     
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  20.  28
    Greater Unification Equals Greater Understanding?Paul Humphreys - 1993 - Analysis 53 (3):183 - 188.
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  21.  34
    Explanation as Condition Satisfaction.Paul Humphreys - 2014 - Philosophy of Science 81 (5):1103-1116.
    It is shown that three common conditions for scientific explanations are violated by a widely used class of domain-independent explanations. These explanations can accommodate both complex and noncomplex systems and do not require the use of detailed models of system-specific processes for their effectiveness, although they are compatible with such model-based explanations. The approach also shows how a clean separation can be maintained between mathematical representations and empirical content.
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  22.  68
    Network Epistemology.Paul Humphreys - 2009 - Episteme 6 (2):221-229.
    A comparison is made between some epistemological issues arising in computer networks and standard features of social epistemology. A definition of knowledge for computational devices is provided and the topics of nonconceptual content and testimony are discussed.
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  23.  62
    Are There Algorithms That Discover Causal Structure?David Freedman & Paul Humphreys - 1999 - Synthese 121 (1-2):29-54.
    There have been many efforts to infer causation from association byusing statistical models. Algorithms for automating this processare a more recent innovation. In Humphreys and Freedman[(1996) British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 47, 113–123] we showed that one such approach, by Spirtes et al., was fatally flawed. Here we put our arguments in a broader context and reply to Korb and Wallace [(1997) British Journal for thePhilosophy of Science 48, 543–553] and to Spirtes et al.[(1997) British Journal for the (...)
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  24.  36
    Speculative Ontology.Paul Humphreys - 2013 - In Don Ross, James Ladyman & Harold Kincaid (eds.), Scientific Metaphysics. Oxford University Press. pp. 51.
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  25.  32
    Abstract and Concrete. [REVIEW]Paul Humphreys - 1995 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 55 (1):157-161.
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  26.  25
    Self‐Assembling Systems.Paul Humphreys - 2006 - Philosophy of Science 73 (5):595-604.
    Starting with the view that methodological constraints depend upon the nature of the system investigated, a tripartite division between theoretical, semitheoretical, and empirical discoveries is made. Many nanosystems can only be investigated semitheoretically or empirically, and this aspect leads to some nanophenomena being weakly emergent. Self-assembling systems are used as an example, their existence suggesting that the class of systems that is not Kim-reducible may be quite large.
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  27.  50
    Some Thoughts on Wesley Salmon’s Contributions to the Philosophy of Probability.Paul Humphreys - 2004 - Philosophy of Science 71 (5):942-949.
    Wesley Salmon provided three classic criteria of adequacy for satisfactory interpretations of probability. A fourth criterion is suggested here. A distinction is drawn between frequency‐driven probability models and theory‐driven probability models and it is argued that single case accounts of chance are superior to frequency accounts at least for the latter. Finally it is suggested that theories of chance should be required only to be contingently true, a position which is a natural extension of Salmon's ontic account of probabilistic causality (...)
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  28.  38
    Computational Empiricism.Paul Humphreys - 1995 - Foundations of Science 1 (1):119-130.
    I argue here for a number of ways that modern computational science requires a change in the way we represent the relationship between theory and applications. It requires a switch away from logical reconstruction of theories in order to take surface mathematical syntax seriously. In addition, syntactically different versions of the same theory have important differences for applications, and this shows that the semantic account of theories is inappropriate for some purposes. I also argue against formalist approaches in the philosophy (...)
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  29.  11
    Knowledge Transfer Across Scientific Disciplines.Paul Humphreys - forthcoming - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A.
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  30.  59
    Causation in the Social Sciences: An Overview.Paul Humphreys - 1986 - Synthese 68 (1):1 - 12.
  31.  54
    Dynamical Emergence and Computation: An Introduction. [REVIEW]Philippe Huneman & Paul Humphreys - 2008 - Minds and Machines 18 (4):425-430.
  32.  13
    Network Epistemology.Paul Humphreys - 2009 - Episteme 6 (2):221-229.
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  33.  3
    Aspects of Emergence.Paul Humphreys - 1996 - Philosophical Topics 24 (1):53-70.
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  34.  94
    The Truth of False Idealizations in Modeling.Paul Humphreys - unknown
    Modeling involves the use of false idealizations, yet there is typically a belief or hope that modeling somehow manages to deliver true information about the world. The paper discusses one possible way of reconciling truth and falsehood in modeling. The key trick is to relocate truth claims by reinterpreting an apparently false idealizing assumption in order to make clear what possibly true assertion is intended when using it. These include interpretations in terms of negligibility, applicability, tractability, early-step, and more. Elaborations (...)
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  35.  11
    Review: Abstract and Concrete. [REVIEW]Paul Humphreys - 1995 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 55 (1):157 - 161.
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  36.  46
    Understanding in the Not-So-Special Sciences.Paul Humphreys - 1995 - Southern Journal of Philosophy 34 (S1):99-114.
  37.  41
    Aleatory Explanations.Paul Humphreys - 1981 - Synthese 48 (2):225 - 232.
  38.  24
    Causality and Explanation.Paul Humphreys - 2000 - Journal of Philosophy 97 (9):523-527.
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  39.  7
    Scientific Knowledge.Paul Humphreys - 2004 - In M. Sintonen, J. Wolenski & I. Niiniluoto (eds.), Handbook of Epistemology. Kluwer Academic Publishers. pp. 549--569.
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  40. Teorías de causación y explicación:¿ necesariamente verdaderas o dominio-específicas?Paul Humphreys - 2005 - Enrahonar 37:19-33.
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  41.  19
    Is 'Physical Randomness' Just Indeterminism in Disguise?Paul W. Humphreys - 1978 - In Peter D. Asquith & Ian Hacking (eds.), PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association. University of Chicago Press. pp. 98--113.
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  42.  33
    Invariance, Explanation, and Understanding.Paul Humphreys - 2006 - Metascience 15 (1):39-66.
  43.  43
    Randomness, Independence, and Hypotheses.Paul W. Humphreys - 1977 - Synthese 36 (4):415 - 426.
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  44.  54
    A Conjecture Concerning the Ranking of the Sciences.Paul Humphreys - 1990 - Topoi 9 (2):157-160.
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  45.  22
    Inference, Method, and Decision.Paul Humphreys - 1980 - International Studies in Philosophy 12 (1):90-91.
  46. Causation and Reduction.Paul Humphreys - 2009 - In Helen Beebee, Christopher Hitchcock & Peter Menzies (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Causation. Oxford University Press.
  47.  5
    Abstract and Concrete. [REVIEW]Paul Humphreys - 1995 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 55 (1):157.
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  48. Cutting the Causal Chain.Paul Humphreys - 1980 - Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 61 (3):305.
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  49.  22
    Computational Science and its Effects.Paul Humphreys - 2011 - In M. Carrier & A. Nordmann (eds.), Science in the Context of Application. Springer. pp. 131--142.
  50.  26
    Mathematical Modeling in the Social Sciences.Paul Humphreys - 2003 - In Stephen P. Turner & Paul Andrew Roth (eds.), The Blackwell Guide to the Philosophy of the Social Sciences. Blackwell. pp. 166--184.
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