The paper analyzes the development of medical ethics in the USSR, and its socio-psychological, scientific-technological, and organizational factors. Special attention is given to the interdependence of moral-ethical problems with organizational issues. Keywords: professional ethics, medical ethics, moral relations, perestroika , socialism, Marxism-Leninism, USSR, bioethics CiteULike Connotea Del.icio.us What's this?
The availability of free health care to all citizens has been regarded as a great achievement of the Soviet society. In recent decades, however, decreased funding of the state-run health care system has led to a deterioration in the quality and quantity of available medical equipment and services. More than 50 percent of the Russian population is dissatisfied with the health care system and the attitudes and moral standards of their health care providers. This article discusses the degree, nature, and (...) some of the causes of the public's dissatisfaction and concludes with a preliminary look toward the future of the Russian health care system. (shrink)
C'est un tableau stimulant de la vie des élites dans la ville de São Paulo pendant les années 1920 que nous présente Mônica Raisa Schpun dans cet ouvrage, résultat de son doctorat d'Histoire mené à l'université Paris 7, sous la direction de Michelle Perrot. Le travail est divisé en trois parties, avec, comme fils directeurs, l'histoire de São Paulo, ses transformations et les changements dans les rapports de genre. D'une écriture agile et attrayante, ce livre nous présente les particul..
The purpose of the study is to develop theoretical and organizational and methodological recommendations for improving state financial control. The article analyses the main performance indicators of the state financial control bodies, identifies the weaknesses of their activities, groups of problems and shortcomings of the current state financial control system. The scientific novelty consists in the development of a set of measures aimed at improving state financial control in the Russian Federation. As a result, the main directions for improving the (...) effectiveness of GfK bodies and the whole system were identified. (shrink)
Here we suggest a formal using of N.A. Vasil’ev’s logical ideas in categorical logic: the idea of “accidental” assertion is formalized with topoi and the idea of the notion of nonclassical negation, that is not based on incompatibility, is formalized in special cases of monoidal categories. For these cases, the variant of the law of “excluded n-th” suggested by Vasil’ev instead of the tertium non datur is obtained in some special cases of these categories. The paraconsistent law suggested by Vasil’ev (...) is also demonstrated with linear and tensor logics but in a form weaker than he supposed. As we have, in fact, many truth-values in linear logic and topos logic, the admissibility of the traditional notion of inference in the categorical interpretation of linear and intuitionistic proof theory is discussed. (shrink)
В статье определяется, что социолингвистическая коммуникация представляет собой взаимодействие субъектов, в основе которого лежат язык и текстовая деятельность. Существование и деятельность человека напрямую и непосредственно связаны с главной функцией языка –коммуникативной. Социолингвистическая реальность непосредственно связана с процессом коммуникации. Коммуникация занимает сегодня неотъемлемую часть нашей жизни и играет в ней немаловажную роль. В статье рассматривается социолингвистическая коммуникация каксоциальное явление, как основа взаимодействия субъектов образовательного пространства, как сложный процесс передачи информации при помощи определенных знаков и символов, соединяющий отдельные части социальных систем, а (...) также это механизм реализации власти. (shrink)
In the article is founded that sociolinguistic communication is an interaction of subjects in which basis are language and textual activity. Person`s existence and work are directly and absolutely connected with a main function of language – communicative. Sociolinguistic reality is directly connected with a process ofcommunication. Communication is today an essential part of our life and is very important. In the article sociolinguistic communication rates as a social phenomenon, as a basis of interaction of subjects of educational area, as (...) a complicated process of information transfer with help of certain signs and symbols connecting single parts of frames of society, also it`s a mechanism of power realization. (shrink)
V.V. Rozanov belongs to the older generation of the "new religious consciousness" in Russia. He was born in 1856 in Vetluga, Kostromskaia province, to the family of a collegiate assessor. Rozanov passed his early childhood in Kostroma, and his secondary-school years in Kostroma, Simbirsk, and Nizhnii Novgorod. In secondary school he was attracted by positivism and revolutionary and democratic writings, especially those of V.G. Belinskii. In 1878 he entered the History and Philological Department of Moscow University, completing it with a (...) diploma of teacher of history and geography. He then left to take teaching posts in the provinces. (shrink)
This study emphasises the cosmic dimensions of the Church understood as the Throne of God, analysing its understanding in this way by the great writers and thinkers of the ancient world, for example, Philo the Alexandrine, Saint Dionysius the Areopagite and Saint Irene of Lyon. The reconstitution of all the cosmological contexts and understanding of the Throne of God inspired by the texts of the ancient authors is opening a very interesting perspective over the existence of the Church as a (...) cosmic Throne of God and reassembling of all the heavenly and intelligible creations sustained and vivified by the primal light of God transmitted in this way towards the lower degrees of the heavenly angelic and churchly hierarchy. Thus, the real source of primacy in the Church is originated, as Saint Dionysius pointed out, in the primal light of God poured over the Church. The Church as the Throne of God helps to discover the real cosmic and heavenly perspective over the heavenly power and authority, the bishops of the Churches are called frankly by God from the beginning (Rv 3:21). (shrink)
In the article is examined a problem of system and complex approach to management of modern education. The authors emphasize that development of education technology is accompanied by formation of informational, telecommunicational and communicative systems. The development of informationaltechnologies entails the formation of in principle new educational system. This system can ensure millions of people accordance to new educational services. The use of modern computer, telecommunicational and communicative technologies in education intends re-engineering of educational activities, considerablechanges in all its systems. (...) The effectiveness of education is based on the modern technologies. It often depends on quality of use of these technologies for solution of one or another educational task. Innovations in technical system influence the development of educational process. (shrink)
Donald Capps (2009: 145) suggested the hypothesis that “the Nash equilibrium is descriptive of the normal brain, whereas the game theory formulated by John van Neumann, which Nash’s theory challenges, is descriptive of the schizophrenic brain”. The paper offers arguments in its favor. They are from psychiatry, game theory, set theory, philosophy and theology. The Nash equilibrium corresponds to wholeness, stable emergent properties as well as to representing actual infinity on a material, limited and finite organ as a human brain.
The paper questions the scientific rather than ideological problem of an eventual biological successor of the mankind. The concept of superhumans is usually linked to Nietzsche or to Heidegger’s criticism or even to the ideology of Nazism. However, the superhuman can be also viewed as that biological species who will originate from humans eventually in the course of evolution.While the society is reached a natural limitation of globalism, technics depends on the amount of utilized energy, and the mind is restricted (...) by its carrier, i.e. by the brain, it is language which seems to be the frontier of any future development of humans or superhumans. Language is a symbolization of the world and thus doubling in an ideal or virtual world fruitful for creativity and the modeling of the former. Consequently, the gap between the material and the ideal world is both produced by and productive for language. (shrink)
Can the so-ca\led first incompleteness theorem refer to itself? Many or maybe even all the paradoxes in mathematics are connected with some kind of self-reference. Gбdel built his proof on the ground of self-reference: а statement which claims its unprovabllity. So, he demonstrated that undecidaЬle propositions exist in any enough rich axiomatics (i.e. such one which contains Peano arithmetic in some sense). What about the decidabllity of the very first incompleteness theorem? We can display that it fulfills its conditions. That's (...) why it can Ье applied to itself, proving that it is an undecidaЬle statement. It seems to Ье а too strange kind of proposition: its validity implies its undecidabllity. If the validity of а statement implies its untruth, then it is either untruth (reductio ad absurdum) or an antinomy (if also its negation implies its validity). А theory that contains а contradiction implies any statement. Appearing of а proposition, whose validity implies its undecidabllity, is due to the statement that claims its unprovability. Obviously, it is а proposition of self-referential type. Ву Gбdel's words, it is correlative with Richard's or liar paradox, or even with any other semantic or mathematical one. What is the cost, if а proposition of that special kind is used in а proof? ln our opinion, the price is analogous to «applying» of а contradictory in а theory: any statement turns out to Ье undecidaЬ!e. Ifthe first incompleteness theorem is an undecidaЬ!e theorem, then it is impossiЬle to prove that the very completeness of Peano arithmetic is also an tmdecidaЬle statement (the second incompleteness theorem). Hilbert's program for ап arithmetical self-foundation of matheшatics is partly rehabllitated: only partly, because it is not decidaЬ!e and true, but undecidaЬle; that's wby both it and its negation шау Ье accepted as true, however not siшultaneously true. The first incompleteness theoreш gains the statute of axiom of а very special, semi-philosophical kind: it divides mathematics as whole into two parts: either Godel шathematics or Нilbert matheшatics. Нilbert's program of self-foundation ofmatheшatic is valid only as to the latter. (shrink)
My departed point is the assessment that plurality in broadest sense characterizing any post- (for example: post-modernity, post-metaphysical, etc.) context is first of all plurality of whole. We may speak about wholes, movement of whole, and lack of any universal whole. Part do not already belongs to whole implicitly granted and common of all other parts. Now we may speak of parts in another relation: non of parts as parts of some common of all parts whole, but parts of difference (...) wholes, and at the same time without any universal whole common of all the wholes. The paper is devoted concretely to the influence of such a comprehension of whole upon some basic notion of physics (especially quantum mechanics and information, relativity) and mathematics, namely probability, set, movement,time. Their changes exert influence upon the fundamental pbilosophical concepts of being and time, knowledge and being-in-the-world. The new conception of fractal, and its meaning in philosophy points out, too. Constancy and always existing of whole is equivalent to Newton time, energy conservation law, local realism and ''hidden parameters" of any correlations, a union of sets exists always if the two sets are granted. (shrink)
Many researchers determine the question “Why anything rather than nothing?” as the most ancient and fundamental philosophical problem. Furthermore, it is very close to the idea of Creation shared by religion, science, and philosophy, e.g. as the “Big Bang”, the doctrine of “first cause” or “causa sui”, the Creation in six days in the Bible, etc. Thus, the solution of quantum mechanics, being scientific in fact, can be interpreted also philosophically, and even religiously. However, only the philosophical interpretation is the (...) topic of the text. The essence of the answer of quantum mechanics is: 1. The creation is necessary in a rigorous mathematical sense. Thus, it does not need any choice, free will, subject, God, etc. to appear. The world exists in virtue of mathematical necessity, e.g. as any mathematical truth such as 2+2=4. 2. The being is less than nothing rather than more than nothing. So, the creation is not an increase of nothing, but the decrease of nothing: it is a deficiency in relation of nothing. Time and its “arrow” are the way of that diminishing or incompleteness to nothing. (shrink)
G. E. Moore’s critical analysis of right action in utilitarian ethics and his consequentialist concept of right action is a starting point for a theory of moral/right action in ethics of social consequences. The terms right and wrong have different meanings in these theories. The author explores different aspects of right and wrong actions in ethics of social consequences and compares them with Moore’s ideas. He positively evaluates Moore’s contributions to the development his theory of moral/right action.