G. W. F. Hegel

Edited by Paul Redding (University of Sydney)
Assistant editor: Paolo Diego Bubbio (University of Western Sydney, Hawkesbury)
About this topic
Summary

Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (1770–1831) is generally considered to be the most systematic philosopher within the movement of “German idealism” in the first decades of the Nineteenth Century. In his writings, and particularly in his popular lectures at the University of Berlin in the 1820s, Hegel attempted to elaborate a comprehensive and systematic philosophy from a “logical” starting point. He is perhaps most well-known for his social and political philosophy and for his teleological account of history, an account which was later taken over by Karl Marx and “inverted” into a materialist theory of an historical development culminating in communism. For most of the twentieth century, the “logical” and systematic side of Hegel's thought had been largely forgotten, but his political and social philosophy continued to attract interest and support. Since the 1970s, a degree of more general philosophical interest in Hegel’s systematic thought has also been revived, often treating Hegel’s philosophy in relation to the earlier “transcendental” idealism of Immanuel Kant.

Key works Hegel's first major publication was his Phenomenology of Spirit (Phänomenologie des Geistes) [Hegel 1977], published in 1807. Working through this work was meant to lift the reader from their naturally perspectival view of the world to the objective standpoint of philosophy or "science" (Wissenschaft). This work was followed by his Science of Logic (Wissenschaft der Logik) published in three volumes in 1812, 1813 and 1816 [Hegel 2010], and then, in 1817, his Encyclopaedia of the Philosophical Sciences, comprising a shortened "Logic" [Hegel 2010], a "Philosophy of Nature" [Hegel 1970] and a "Philosophy of Spirit" [Hegel 1970]. While occupying the chair of philosophy at the University of Berlin, Hegel gave multiple lecture series on the Philosophy of History [Hegel 2011], the History of Philosophy [Brown 2009, Brown 2006, Brown 2009], Aesthetics [Hegel 1998, Hegel 1998], and Philosophy of Religion [Hegel 2006].
Introductions Online encyclopedia articles: David A. Duquette, "Hegel's Social and Political Thought" [Duquette 2001]; Paul Redding, "G. W. F. Hegel" [Redding 2008]. Book-length introductory works: Frederick Beiser, Hegel [Beiser 2002]; Stephen Houlgate, An Introduction to Hegel: Freedom, Truth and History [Houlgate 2005]; Peter Singer, Hegel: A Very Short Introduction [Singer 2001]. Terry Pinkard, Hegel: A Biography [Pinkard 2000] provides a comprehensive introduction to all spheres of Hegel's philosophy presented in the context of his biography.
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Hegel, Misc (325)

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  1. Comments on Knowledge and Ideology: The Epistemology of Social and Political Critique. [REVIEW]Miles Hentrup - 2020 - Florida Philosophical Review 19:67-72.
    Michael Morris' Knowledge and Ideology is an original and valuable contribution to the philosophical debate concerning the meaning and validity of the concept of ideology critique. While the concept of ideology has occupied a pivotal role within the tradition of critical social theory, as Terry Eagleton had already pointed out in his 1994 study, the term nevertheless has "a whole range of useful meanings, not all of which are compatible with one another." Morris takes Eagleton's analysis as his point of (...)
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  2. Slavoj Žižek, "Sex and the Failed Absolute". [REVIEW]Jakub Mácha - 2020 - Philosophy in Review 40 (2):88-90.
  3. Aphorisms on the Absolute.Kenneth R. Westphal - forthcoming - The Owl of Minerva.
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  4. Spirit's Embeddedness in Nature.Heikki Ikäheimo - forthcoming - Hegel Bulletin.
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  5. Natural Impurities in Spirit - Hegel Between Kant and Hobbes.Heikki Ikäheimo - 2011 - Parrhesia: A Journal of Critical Philosophy 1 (11):84-88.
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  6. Reading German Idealism.Gregory Moss - 2016 - The Owl of Minerva (1/2).
    Rockmore’s book German Idealism as Constructivism is an ambitious attempt to show that German Idealism is a tradition characterized by the project of perfecting constructivism. On the one hand, Rockmore offers good evidence that this is the case, and it seems indisputable that the German Idealists are preoccupied with this issue. In addition, the text offers deep insights and is particularly strong as concerns the relation of the various Idealists to natural science and the history of science. On the other (...)
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  7. The Beginning of Hegel's Phenomenology of Spirit.Kenneth R. Westphal - 2015 - The Owl of Minerva (1/2).
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  8. Lydia L. Moland, Hegel on Political Identity: Patriotism, Nationality, Cosmopolitanism.Michael Baur - 2013 - The Owl of Minerva 45 (1):112-115.
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  9. Hegel’s Phenomenology, Part I.Oliva Blanchette - 1976 - The Owl of Minerva 8 (2):3-6.
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  10. Das Anfangsproblem bei Karl Leonhard Reinhold.Rolf Ahlers - 2000 - The Owl of Minerva 31 (2):218-221.
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  11. Knowledge Vs. Inquiry.James Blachowicz - 1999 - The Owl of Minerva 31 (1):45-52.
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  12. Das Korper-Seele-Problem.Murray Greene - 1995 - The Owl of Minerva 27 (1):67-77.
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  13. Hegel in Japan.Norbert Waszek - 1991 - The Owl of Minerva 22 (2):252-254.
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  14. In Memoriam, Gustav Earl Mueller (May 12, 1898–July 10, 1987.Ingrid H. Shafer - 1987 - The Owl of Minerva 19 (1):125-126.
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  15. Hegel’s Phenomenology, Part II.Ardis B. Collins - 1985 - The Owl of Minerva 16 (2):215-221.
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  16. Schelling, seine Bedeutung für eine Philosophie der Natur und der Geschichte.Michael G. Vater - 1984 - The Owl of Minerva 15 (2):231-235.
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  17. G.W.F. Hegel.Quentin Lauer - 1982 - The Owl of Minerva 13 (4):7-9.
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  18. Book Review of "Hegel in the Arab World: Modernity, Colonialism, and Freedom" by Lorella Ventura. [REVIEW]Zeyad El Nabolsy - 2019 - Marx and Philosophy Review of Books.
    The choice of tracking Hegel’s reception in the Arab world in order to explore the connections between modernity and colonialism is an excellent one, since it was Hegel himself who inaugurated the explicit philosophical discourse of modernity (Habermas 1990: 4-5). Ventura’s book is divided into three parts of roughly equal length of around fifty pages each. The first part provides an overview of Hegel’s philosophy of history, and of the place of Arab peoples and Islam in his philosophy of history. (...)
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  19. Antropologia pragmatista. Padova Lectures.Michael Quante & Armando Manchisi (eds.) - 2020 - Padova PD, Italia: Padova University Press.
    What does it mean to be a person? And in what way is this connected to our finitude, i.e. to the properly human aspect of our existence? By analyzing some of the core features of our form of life (personal identity, self-consciousness, freedom, autonomy, responsibility), Michael Quante answers these questions arguing that it is possible to be a person and lead an authentically human life only within social relationships of recognition: only in these relationships, it is possible to know oneself (...)
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  20. «Il lato attivo dell'esistenza umana». La riflessione etica di Michael Quante tra filosofia classica tedesca e pragmatismo.Armando Manchisi - 2020 - In Antropologia pragmatista. Padova Lectures. Padova PD, Italia: pp. 17-35.
    The essay introduces Michael Quante's pragmatistic anthropology, focusing on three main ethical issues, namely: (1) the problem of realism, (2) the problem of particularism, and (3) the question about personal identity and its social conditions. By also emphasizing Quante's historical-philosophical debts, the essay thus aims to present the project of the pragmatistic anthropology as a worthwhile alternative to some of the fundamental assumptions of modern ethics. The essay is the Editor's Introduction to the volume: Michael Quante, "Antropologia pragmatista. Padova Lectures" (...)
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  21. Lukács 1933-1942. L'irrazionalismo nell'età del fascismo.Matteo Gargani - 2020 - Rivista di Storia Della Filosofia 75 (1):81-106.
    "Lukács 1933-1942. Irrationalism in the Age of Fascism". This essay reconstructs the philosophical and historiographical premises to Georg Lukács’ research on irrationalism conducted during the period of Nazi rule in Germany. To this end, the Author focuses chiefly on two posthumous works: How Did Fascist Philosophy Arise in Germany? (1933) and How Did Germany Become the Centre of reactionary Ideology? (1941-1942). After a brief historical contextualization, the Author illustrates the main purpose of these texts: to free German philosophy and culture (...)
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  22. Circularity in Searle’s Social Ontology: With a Hegelian Reply.José Luis Fernández - 2020 - International Journal of Society, Culture and Language 8 (1):16-24.
    John Searle’s theory of social ontology posits that there are indispensable normative components in the linguistic apparatuses termed status functions, collective intentionality, and collective recognition, all of which, he argues, make the social world. In this paper, I argue that these building blocks of Searle’s social ontology are caught in a petitio of constitutive circularity. Moreover, I note how Searle fails to observe language in reciprocal relation to the institutions which not only are shaped by it but also shape language’s (...)
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  23. Spirit and Utopia: (German) Idealism as Political Theology.Kirill Chepurin - 2015 - Crisis and Critique 2 (1):326-348.
    Can we understand (German) idealism as emancipatory today, after the new realist critique? In this paper, I argue that we can do so by identifying a political theology of revolution and utopia at the theoretical heart of German Idealism. First, idealism implies a certain revolutionary event at its foundation. Kant’s Copernicanism is ingrained, methodologically and ontologically, into the idealist system itself. Secondly, this revolutionary origin remains a “non-place” for the idealist system, which thereby receives a utopian character. I define the (...)
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  24. Situating Hegel: From Transcendental Philosophy to a Phenomenology of Spirit.Michael Baur - forthcoming - In Kenneth Westphal & Marian Bykova (eds.), The Palgrave Hegel Hanbook. New York, NY:
    Michael Baur, "Situating Hegel: From Transcendental Philosophy to a Phenomenology of Spirit," in the Palgrave Hegel Handbook, edited by Marian Bykova and Kenneth Westphal (New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan, 2020).
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  25. Wittgenstein and Hegel: Reevaluation of Difference.Jakub Mácha & Alexander Berg (eds.) - 2019 - De Gruyter.
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  26. Hegel's Logic as Presuppositionless Science.Miles Hentrup - 2019 - Idealistic Studies 49 (2):145-165.
    In this article, I offer a critical interpretation of Hegel’s claims regarding the presuppositionless status of the Logic. Commentators have been divided as to whether the Logic actually achieves the status of presuppositionless science, disagreeing as to whether the Logic succeeds in making an unmediated beginning. I argue, however, that this understanding of presuppositionless science is misguided, as it reflects a spurious conception of immediacy that Hegel criticizes as false. Contextualizing Hegel’s remarks in light of his broader approach to the (...)
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  27. A Turning Point in Oxford Idealism.Philip T. Grier - 2019 - The Owl of Minerva 50 (1):1-45.
    As a young Victoria Scholar from South Africa studying at Oxford from 1931–33, Errol Harris encountered most of the prominent representatives of “Oxford Idealism” there. He discovered that, predominantly under the influence of Bradley, they were uniformly convinced that Hegel’s Naturphilosophie was a superfluous “addition” to his system, accomplishing nothing not already provided by the Science of Logic, and that, moreover, to treat Nature as a reality would introduce a fundamental contradiction into Hegel’s thought. In this general attitude they were (...)
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  28. The Species Problem in Hegel's Philosophy of Nature.Martin Krahn - 2019 - The Owl of Minerva 50 (1):47-68.
    In this article, I argue that species are mutable in Hegel’s philosophy of biology. While scholars have argued for the compatibility of Hegel’s philosophy and Darwin’s theory of evolution, none have dealt with the ontological status of species in their respective accounts. In order to make the case that for Hegel species are mutable, I first deal with a textual problem that in the 1827 edition of the Encyclopedia, the species concept appears after the sexual relationship, whereas in the 1830 (...)
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  29. Thom Brooks and Sebastian Stein, Eds. Hegel’s Political Philosophy: On the Normative Significance of Method and System.Filip Niklas - 2019 - The Owl of Minerva 50 (1):106-116.
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  30. Hegel's Analysis of Egyptian Art and Architecture as a Form of Philosophical Anthropology.Jon Stewart - 2019 - The Owl of Minerva 50 (1):69-90.
    In his different analyses of ancient Egypt, Hegel underscores the marked absence of writings by the Egyptians. Unlike the Chinese with the I Ching or the Shoo king, the Indians with the Ramayana and the Mahabharata, the Persians with the Avesta, the Jews with the Old Testament, and the Greeks with the poems of Homer and Hesiod, the Egyptians, despite their developed system of hieroglyphic writing, left behind no great canonical text. Instead, he claims, they left their mark by means (...)
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  31. Molly Farneth. Hegel’s Social Ethics: Religion, Conflict, and Rituals of Reconciliation.Eric von der Luft - 2019 - The Owl of Minerva 50 (1):101-105.
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  32. Paolo Diego Bubbio. God and the Self in Hegel: Beyond Subjectivism.Philip T. Grier - 2019 - The Owl of Minerva 50 (1):91-100.
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  33. The Species Problem in Hegel's Philosophy of Nature in Advance.Martin Krahn - forthcoming - The Owl of Minerva.
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  34. Jacques Derrida in Agamben's Philosophy.Virgil W. Brower - 2017 - In Adam Kotsko & Carl Salzani (eds.), Agamben's Philosophical Lineage. Edinburgh, UK: pp. 252-261.
  35. A Turning Point in Oxford Idealism in Advance.Philip T. Grier - forthcoming - The Owl of Minerva.
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  36. A Turning Point in Oxford Idealism.Philip T. Grier - forthcoming - The Owl of Minerva.
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  37. Idealism - New Dictionary of the History of Ideas Entry.Michael Baur - 2005 - In Maryanne Cline Horowitz (ed.), New Dictionary of the History of Ideas. Detroit, MI, USA: pp. 1078-1082.
  38. Hegel.Christopher Yeomans - 2017 - In Kevin Timpe (ed.), Routledge Companion to Free Will. New York, NY, USA: Routledge. pp. 356-363.
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  39. Tom Rockmore: Hegel, Idealism, and Analytic Philosophy. [REVIEW]Christopher Yeomans - 2007 - Review of Metaphysics 60:686-687.
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  40. Hegel Et L'hégélianisme. Par René Serreau. Coll. “Que Sais-Je?”, 1029. Paris, Presses Universitaires de France, 1962. 128 Pages. [REVIEW]Louis Valcke - 1965 - Dialogue 3 (4):451-451.
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  41. Hegel's Phenomenology: Dialogues on the Life of Mind. By J. Loewenberg, La Salle, Illinois, Open Court Publishing Co. 1965, Pp. Xv, 377. $12.50. [REVIEW]J. A. Doull - 1966 - Dialogue 5 (1):96-98.
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  42. Structures et mouvement dialectique dans la Phénoménologie de l'Esprit de Hegel. Par Pierre-Jean Labarrière. Aubier-Montaigne , Paris, 1968. 316 pages. [REVIEW]Yvon Gauthier - 1970 - Dialogue 8 (4):738-740.
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  43. Introduction to the Reading of Hegel: Lectures on the Phenomenology of Spirit. By Alexandre Kojève Edited by Allan Bloom. Translated From the French by James H. Nichols, Jr. New York and London: Basic Books, 1969. Pp. Xiv, 287. $8.50. [REVIEW]Michael Fox - 1972 - Dialogue 11 (3):444-447.
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  44. Hegel et le siècle des Lumières. Publié sous la direction de Jacques D'Hondt. Paris, Presses universitaires de France, 1974, 183 pages. [REVIEW]Théodore F. Geraets - 1975 - Dialogue 14 (4):706-707.
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  45. Hegel's Philosophy of History. By Burleigh Taylor Wilkins.Ithaca: Cornell University Press. 1974. Pp. 196. $7.50.Michael Fox - 1977 - Dialogue 16 (2):346-348.
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  46. Hegel's Philosophy of Subjective Spirit. By M. J. Petry. Dordrecht and Boston: D. Reidel, 1978. 3 Volumes, Clvii + 174, 677, 502 Pp. [REVIEW]H. S. Harris - 1979 - Dialogue 18 (4):600-606.
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  47. Hegel in His TimeJacques D'Hondt Translated by John Burbidge, with Nelson Roland and Judith Levasseur Peterborough, on, and Lewiston, NY: Broadview Press, 1988. Xiv + 224 P. [REVIEW]H. S. Harris - 1990 - Dialogue 29 (4):602-603.
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  48. Freedom and the End of Reason: On the Moral Foundations of Kant's Critical Philosophy, Richard L. Velkley, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1989.Onora O'Neill - 1990 - Hegel Bulletin 11 (1-2):84-88.
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  49. Hegel's Analysis of Egyptian Art and Architecture as a Form of Philosophical Anthropology in Advance.Jon Stewart - forthcoming - The Owl of Minerva.
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  50. The Role of Skepticism in the Emergence of German Idealism.Michael Baur - 1999 - In Michael Baur & Daniel Dahlstrom (eds.), The Emergence of German Idealism. Washington, DC, USA: pp. 63-91.
    According to Immanuel Kant’s well-known account of his own intellectual development, it was the skeptic David Hume who roused him from his dogmatic slumber. According to some popular accounts of post-Kantian philosophy, it was the soporific speculation of the idealists that quickly returned German philosophy to the Procrustean bed of unverifiable metaphysics, where it dogmatically slept for half of the nineteenth century. This popular picture of post-Kantian German philosophy receives some apparent support from the relevant evidence. After all, Kant had (...)
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