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Subcategories:See also:History/traditions: Pain
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  1. Judith C. Ahronheim (1997). Pain in the Elderly. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 25 (4):307-309.
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  2. Sandra Albertson (1996). Narratives on Pain and Comfort: Readings Horn Endings and Beginnings. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 24 (4):294-295.
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  3. Colin Allen (2005). Deciphering Animal Pain. In Murat Aydede (ed.), Pain: New Essays on Its Nature and the Methodology of Its Study. Cambridge MA: Bradford Book/MIT Press.
    In this paper we1 assess the potential for research on nonhuman animals to address questions about the phenomenology of painful experiences. Nociception, the basic capacity for sensing noxious stimuli, is widespread in the animal kingdom. Even rel- atively primitive animals such as leeches and sea slugs possess nociceptors, neurons that are functionally specialized for sensing noxious stimuli (Walters 1996). Vertebrate spinal cords play a sophisticated role in processing and modulating nociceptive signals, providing direct control of some motor responses to noxious (...)
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  4. Colin Allen (2004). Animal Pain. Noûs 38 (4):617-43.
    Which nonhuman animals experience conscious pain?1 This question is central to the debate about animal welfare, as well as being of basic interest to scientists and philosophers of mind. Nociception—the capacity to sense noxious stimuli—is one of the most primitive sensory capacities. Neurons functionally specialized for nociception have been described in invertebrates such as the leech Hirudo medicinalis and the marine snail Aplysia californica (Walters 1996). Is all nociception accompanied by conscious pain, even in relatively primitive animals such as Aplysia, (...)
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  5. Grant Allen (1880). Pain and Death. Mind 5 (18):201-216.
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  6. Grant Allen (1880). III. —Pain and Death. Mind 5 (18):201-216.
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  7. Peter Alward (2004). Is Phenomenal Pain the Primary Intension of 'Pain'? Metaphysica 5 (1):15-28.
    two-dimensional modal framework introduced by Evans [2] and developed by Davies and Humberstone. [3] This framework provides Chalmers with a powerful tool for handling the most serious objection to conceivability arguments for dualism: the problem of..
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  8. Peter Alward (2004). Mad, Martian, but Not Mad Martian Pain. Sorites 15 (December):73-75.
    Functionalism cannot accommodate the possibility of mad pain—pain whose causes and effects diverge from those of the pain causal role. This is because what it is to be in pain according to functionalism is simply to be in a state that occupies the pain role. And the identity theory cannot accommodate the possibility of Martian pain—pain whose physical realization is foot-cavity inflation rather than C-fibre activation (or whatever physiological state occupies the pain-role in normal humans). After all, what it is (...)
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  9. Ron Amundson (2013). Pain, Chronic Pain, and Sickle Cell Chronic Pain. American Journal of Bioethics 13 (4):14 - 16.
    (2013). Pain, Chronic Pain, and Sickle Cell Chronic Pain. The American Journal of Bioethics: Vol. 13, No. 4, pp. 14-16. doi: 10.1080/15265161.2013.768859.
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  10. K. J. S. Anand (2007). Consciousness, Cortical Function, and Pain Perception in Nonverbal Humans. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 30 (1):82-83.
    Postulating the subcortical organization of human consciousness provides a critical link for the construal of pain in patients with impaired cortical function or cortical immaturity during early development. Practical implications of the centrencephalic proposal include the redefinition of pain, improved pain assessment in nonverbal humans, and benefits of adequate analgesia/anesthesia for these patients, which certainly justify the rigorous scientific efforts required. (Published Online May 1 2007).
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  11. Murat Aydede (2009). Is Feeling Pain the Perception of Something? Journal of Philosophy 106 (10):531-567.
    According to the increasingly popular perceptual/representational accounts of pain (and other bodily sensations such as itches, tickles, orgasms, etc.), feeling pain in a body region is perceiving a non-mental property or some objective condition of that region, typically equated with some sort of (actual or potential) tissue damage. In what follows I argue that given a natural understanding of what sensory perception requires and how it is integrated with (dedicated) conceptual systems, these accounts are mistaken. I will also examine the (...)
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  12. Murat Aydede (2009). Pain, Philosophical Aspects Of. In Tim Bayne, Axel Cleeremans & Patrick Wilken (eds.), Oxford Companion to Consciousness. 495-498.
    The ordinary conception of pain has two major threads that are in tension with each other. It is this tension that generates various puzzles in our philosophical understanding of pain. This is a short encyclopedia entry surveying some of the major philosophical puzzles about pain.
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  13. Murat Aydede, Pain. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
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  14. Murat Aydede (2008). Review of Nikola Grahek, Feeling Pain and Being in Pain. [REVIEW] Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 2008 (1).
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  15. Murat Aydede (2005). Introduction: A Critical and Quasi-Historical Essay on Theories of Pain. In , Pain: New Essays on its Nature and the Methodology of its Study. Cambridge Ma: Bradford Book/Mit Press.
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  16. Murat Aydede (ed.) (2005). Pain: New Essays on its Nature and the Methodology of its Study. MIT Press.
  17. Murat Aydede (2005). The Main Difficulty with Pain. In , Pain: New Essays on its Nature and the Methodology of its Study. Cambridge Ma: Bradford Book/Mit Press. 123-136.
    Consider the following two sentences:
    (1) I see a dark discoloration in the back of my hand.
    (2) I feel a jabbing pain in the back of my hand.
    They seem to have the same surface grammar, and thus prima facie invite the same kind of semantic treatment. Even though a reading of ‘see’ in (1) where the verb is not treated as a success verb is not out of the question, it is not the ordinary and natural (...)
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  18. Murat Aydede (2001). Naturalism, Introspection, and Direct Realism About Pain. Consciousness and Emotion 2 (1):29-73.
    This paper examines pain states (and other intransitive bodily sensations) from the perspective of the problems they pose for pure informational/representational approaches to naturalizing qualia. I start with a comprehensive critical and quasi-historical discussion of so-called Perceptual Theories of Pain (e.g., Armstrong, Pitcher), as these were the natural predecessors of the more modern direct realist views. I describe the theoretical backdrop (indirect realism, sense-data theories) against which the perceptual theories were developed. The conclusion drawn is that pure representationalism about pain (...)
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  19. Murat Aydede & Guven Guzeldere (2002). Some Foundational Problems in the Scientific Study of Pain. Philosophy of Science Supplement 69 (3):265-83.
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  20. Murat Aydede & D. Price (2005). The Experimental Use of Introspection in the Scientific Study of Pain and its Integration with Third-Person Methodologies: The Experiential-Phenomenological Approach. In , Pain: New Essays on its Nature and the Methodology of its Study. Mit Press. 243--273.
    Understanding the nature of pain depends, at least partly, on recognizing its subjectivity (thus, its first-person epistemology). This in turn requires using a first-person experiential method in addition to third-person experimental approaches to study it. This paper is an attempt to spell out what the former approach is and how it can be integrated with the latter. We start our discussion by examining some foundational issues raised by the use of introspection. We argue that such a first-person method in the (...)
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  21. Bernard J. Baars (2009). Is Feeling Pain Just Mindreading? Our Mind-Brain Constructs Realistic Knowledge of Ourselves. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 32 (2):139-140.
    Carruthers claims that (target article,). This may be true in many cases. But like other constructivist claims, it fails to explain occasions when constructed knowledge is accurate, like a well-supported scientific theory. People can know their surrounding world and to some extent themselves. Accurate self-knowledge is firmly established for both somatosensory and social pain.
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  22. Misha-Miroslav Backonja (1997). The Neural Basis of Chronic Pain, its Plasticity and Modulation. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 20 (3):435-437.
    Dysfunction or injury of pain-transmitting primary afferents' central pathways can result in pain. The organism as a whole responds to such injury and consequently many symptoms of neuropathic pain develop. The nervous system responds to painful events and injury with neuroplasticity. Both peripheral sensitization and central sensitization take place and are mediated by a number of biochemical factors, including genes and receptors. Correction of altered receptors activity is the logical way to intervene therapeutically. [berkley; blumberg et al.; coderre & katz; (...)
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  23. Kurt Baier (1964). The Place of a Pain. Philosophical Quarterly 14 (April):138-150.
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  24. Kurt Baier (1962). Pains. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 40 (May):1-23.
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  25. A. Bain (1876). The Gratification Derived From the Infliction of Pain. Mind 1 (3):429-431.
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  26. David Bain (2009). McDowell and the Presentation of Pains. Philosophical Topics 37 (1):1-24.
    It can seem natural to say that, when in pain, we undergo experiences which present to us certain experience-dependent particulars, namely pains. As part of his wider approach to mind and world, John McDowell has elaborated an interesting but neglected version of this account of pain. Here I set out McDowell’s account at length, and place it in context. I argue that his subjectivist conception of the objects of pain experience is incompatible with his requirement that such experience be presentational, (...)
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  27. David Bain (2003). Intentionalism and Pain. Philosophical Quarterly 53 (213):502-523.
    The pain case can appear to undermine the radically intentionalist view that the phenomenal character of any experience is entirely constituted by its representational content. That appearance is illusory, I argue. After categorising versions of pain intentionalism along two dimensions, I argue that an “objectivist” and “non-mentalist” version is the most promising, provided it can withstand two objections: concerning what we say when in pain, and the distinctiveness of the pain case. I rebut these objections, in a way that’s available (...)
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  28. M. Balls (1991). The Unheeded Cry: Animal Consciousness, Animal Pain and Science. Journal of Medical Ethics 17 (2):109-109.
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  29. Michael J. Bannon (1980). Neural Adaptation to Unnecessary Pain. Philosophy 55 (213):408 - 409.
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  30. Ralf Baron & Wilfrid Jänig (1997). Complex Regional Pain Syndromes: Taxonomy, Diagnostic Criteria, Mechanisms of Vascular Abnormalites, Edema, and Pain. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 20 (3):437-439.
    Complex regional pain syndromes (reflex sympathetic dystrophy, causalgia) are often characterized by pain and autonomic and motor abnormalities. Pathophysiological mechanisms are in the central and peripheral nervous system. Differences in skin temperature and may be used as diagnostic criteria. Sympathetic blocks relieve pain and other symptoms in a subgroup of patients (sympathetically maintained pain, SMP).[blumberg et al.].
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  31. H. Clark Barrett & E. Hagen, Perinatal Sadness Among Shuar Women: Support for an Evolutionary Theory of Psychic Pain.
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  32. Stephanie Beardman (2000). The Choice Between Current and Retrospective Evaluations of Pain. Philosophical Psychology 3 (1):97-110.
    Daniel Kahneman and his colleagues have made an interesting discovery about people's preferences. In several experiments, subjects underwent two separate ordeals of pain, identical except that one ended with an added amount of diminishing pain. When asked to evaluate these episodes after experiencing both, subjects generally preferred the longer episode--even though it had a greater objective quantity of pain. These data raise an ethical question about whether to respect such preferences when acting on another's behalf. John Broome thinks that it (...)
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  33. Christopher Belshaw (2000). Death, Pain and Time. Philosophical Studies 97 (3):317-341.
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  34. David Benatar & Michael Benatar (2001). A Pain in the Fetus: Toward Ending Confusion About Fetal Pain. Bioethics 15 (1):57–76.
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  35. Fabrizio Benedetti (1997). The Sensory and Affective Components of Pain. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 20 (3):439-440.
    Both the sensory and the motivational-affective component of pain must be taken into account in studies on sex differences as well as on neuropathic, postoperative, sympathetic, and visceral pain. In all these cases, therapeutic strategies should be aimed at controlling the peripheral, central, and psychological mechanisms underlying the global pain experience. Similarly, it should be recalled that some neuropeptides act on both sensory and affective pain mechanisms. [berkley; mcmahon; dickenson; coderre & katz; wiesenfeld-hallin et al.; blumberg et al.].
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  36. Karen J. Berkley (1997). Female Vulnerability to Pain and the Strength to Deal with It. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 20 (3):473-479.
    Sex is one of biology's, that is, life's most potent experimental variables. So, are there sex differences in pain? And are these sex differences applicable clinically? The answer to both questions is decidedly yes, of course. But we still have a long way to go. We have much to learn from the study of females, making use of the lifelong changes in their reproductive conditions as experimental variables. We also have much to learn from animals, especially if we apply what (...)
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  37. Karen J. Berkley (1997). Sex Differences in Pain. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 20 (3):371-380.
    Are there sex differences in pain? For experimentally delivered somatic stimuli, females have lower thresholds, greater ability to discriminate, higher pain ratings, and less tolerance of noxious stimuli than males. These differences, however, are small, exist only for certain forms of stimulation and are affected by many situational variables such as presence of disease, experimental setting, and even nutritive status. For endogenous pains, women report more multiple pains in more body regions than men. With no obvious underlying rationale, some painful (...)
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  38. Russell A. Berman (2008). Preface to the Telos Press Edition of Ernst Junger's "on Pain". In Ernst Jünger (ed.), On Pain. Telos Press Pub..
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  39. L. Stafford Betty (1992). Making Sense of Animal Pain. Faith and Philosophy 9 (1):65-82.
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  40. Niels Birbaumer & Herta Flor (1997). A Leg to Stand On: Learning Creates Pain. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 20 (3):441-442.
    The persistence of both inflammatory and neuropathic pain can only be explained when learning processes are taken into account in addition to sensitizing mechanisms. Learning processes such as classical and operant conditioning create memories for pain that are based on altered synaptic connections in supraspinal structures and persist without peripheral input. [coderre & katz; dickenson; wiesenfeld-hallin et al.].
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  41. John Mark Bishop (2009). Why Computers Can't Feel Pain. Minds and Machines 19 (4):507-516.
    The most cursory examination of the history of artificial intelligence highlights numerous egregious claims of its researchers, especially in relation to a populist form of ‘strong’ computationalism which holds that any suitably programmed computer instantiates genuine conscious mental states purely in virtue of carrying out a specific series of computations. The argument presented herein is a simple development of that originally presented in Putnam’s (Representation & Reality, Bradford Books, Cambridge in 1988 ) monograph, “Representation & Reality”, which if correct, has (...)
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  42. Ned Block (ed.) (1978). Readings in the Philosophy of Psychology. , Vol.
  43. Helmut Blumberg, Ulrike Hoffman, Mohsen Mohadjer & Rudolf Scheremet (1997). Sympathetic Contribution to Pain – Need for Clarification. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 20 (3):487-489.
    Certain patients with a possible contribution of the sympathetic system to pain may not fit the definition of complex regional pain syndromes (CRPS), which raises the question of terminology for those patients. To further clarify the relationship between the sympathetic system and pain, apart from the need for placebo studies, there remains an urgent need for a satisfactory definition of the criteria for a complete sympathetic block. It also remains uncertain whether a change in the discharge pattern of sympathetic fibres (...)
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  44. Helmut Blumberg, Ulrike Hoffmann, Mohsen Mohadjer & Rudolf Scheremet (1997). Sympathetic Nervous System and Pain: A Clinical Reappraisal. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 20 (3):426-434.
    The target article discusses various aspects of the relationship between the sympathetic system and pain. To this end, the patients under study are divided into three groups. In the first group, called (RSD), the syndrome can be characterized by a triad of autonomic, motor, and sensory symptoms, which occur in a distally generalized distribution. The pain is typically felt deeply and diffusely, has an orthostatic component, and is suppressed by the ischemia test. Under those circumstances, the pain is likely to (...)
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  45. P. Bob (2008). Pain, Dissociation and Subliminal Self-Representations. Consciousness and Cognition 17 (1):355-369.
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  46. Jane N. Bolin (2006). Pernicious Encroachment Into End-of-Life Decision Making: Federal Intervention in Palliative Pain Treatment. American Journal of Bioethics 6 (5):34 – 36.
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  47. Mélanie Boly, Marie-Elisabeth Faymonville, Brent A. Vogt, Pierre Maquet & Steven Laureys (2007). Hypnotic Regulation of Consciousness and the Pain Neuromatrix. In Graham A. Jamieson (ed.), Hypnosis and Conscious States: The Cognitive Neuroscience Perspective. Oxford University Press. 15-27.
  48. Vence L. Bonham (2001). Race, Ethnicity, and Pain Treatment: Striving to Understand the Causes and Solutions to the Disparities in Pain Treatment. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 28 (s4):52-68.
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  49. Catharine C. Braddock (1920). The Utility of Pain. International Journal of Ethics 30 (2):213-219.
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  50. Lucy Bradley-Springer (1995). Being in Pain: A Nurse's Experience. Journal of Phenomenological Psychology 26 (2):58-70.
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