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Summary What is hope, from a philosophical point of view?  Can hope be characterized in terms of belief (or degrees of belief) plus some sort of desire or affect? If this kind of “belief-plus” analysis insufficient to characterize hope, what other conditions are required? Are there different kinds of hope – some that are susceptible to belief-plus analysis, and others that aren’t? For instance, could we regard the “idle hope” that I win the lottery as constituted by the belief that it’s possible plus the desire that it happen, but then develop more robust conceptions of the kinds of hope that actively engage deliberation and moral psychology (e.g. the hope that I recover from this terminal diagnosis, despite the long odds)? How does a particular view of hope (or one of its kinds) relate to traditional accounts of hope as a human virtue? Is hope a virtue? If some kind of hope is a virtue, is it a moral virtue, or an intellectual one, or some sort of hybrid?
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  1. John C. Adams (2010). Hope, Truth, and Rhetoric : Prophecy and Pragmatism in Service of Feminism's Cause. In Marianne Janack (ed.), Feminist Interpretations of Richard Rorty. Pennsylvania State University Press.
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  2. Ronald C. Arnett (2012). Communication Ethics in Dark Times: Hannah Arendt's Rhetoric of Warning and Hope. Southern Illinois University Press.
  3. Ronald Aronson (2007). Hope and Action. The Philosophers' Magazine 38 (38):40-42.
    One of the paradoxes of the Culture War is that opposites conspire with each other against the rest of us. We are offered an impoverished, narrow conception of reason and knowledge, proposing a stark choice to the rest of us: approach life’s important questions through science, or turn to religion. This was a false choice two hundred years ago, and it remains so today.
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  4. Ronald Aronson (2007). Hope and Action. The Philosophers' Magazine 38 (38):40-42.
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  5. Robin Attfield (1995). Population Growth and Hope for Humanity. Social Philosophy Today 11:21-33.
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  6. Augustine, Handbook on Faith Hope and Love (Outler Translation).
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  7. Sidney Axinn (2000). Kant on Possible Hope. The Proceedings of the Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 7:79-87.
    According to Kant, there are limits to possible hope. For example, hope for a contradiction is obviously not a logically possible hope. However, Kant goes much further and restricts possible hope to what can be possibly experienced. The line between what can and cannot be constructed as an image in space and time limits what can be thought rather than what can be merely mentioned. The apparently modern distinction between use and mention (generally attributed to Frege) is used by Kant (...)
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  8. Michael Bacon (2011). Richard Rorty : Liberalism, Irony, and Social Hope. In Catherine H. Zuckert (ed.), Political Philosophy in the Twentieth Century: Authors and Arguments. Cambridge University Press.
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  9. Peter R. Baelz (1974). The Forgotten Dream: Experience, Hope and God. Mowbrays.
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  10. Marie Baird (1997). Death Camp Survival and the Possibility of Hope. Philosophy and Theology 10 (2):385-419.
    This paper will argue that many survivors’ ability to take up their existence hopefully is rooted in the deeply visceral and unintegrable memory of “living the existence of a walking corpse” (Niederland 1968b, 12) that constitutes the ontic basis for their most fundamental presence to self, others, and God. I will show, secondly, that Karl Rahner’s theological formulation of witness as “an act of self transcendence in which the subject reaches up to the unsurpassable and sovereign Mystery which we call (...)
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  11. Manuel Ballester Hernandez (ed.) (2005). Ante Un Mundo Roto: Lecturas Sobre la Esperanza. Universidad Católica San Antonio.
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  12. Catharine D. Bell (2009). John Dewey and the Philosophy and Practice of Hope. Education and Culture 25 (1):pp. 66-70.
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  13. Andrew E. Benjamin (1997). Present Hope: Philosophy, Architecture, Judaism. Routledge.
    Present Hope is a compelling exploration of how we think philosophically about the present. Andrew Benjamin considers examples in philosophy, architecture and poetry to illustrate crucial themes of loss, memory, tragedy, hope and modernity. The book uses the work of Walter Benjamin and Martin Heidegger to illustrate the ways the notion of hope was weaved into their philosophies. Andrew Benjamin maintains that hope is a vital part of the present, rather than an expression only of the future. Present Hope shows (...)
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  14. Ernst Benz (1966). Evolution and Christian Hope. Garden City, N.Y.,Doubleday.
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  15. Bettina Bergo (2008). A Site From Which to Hope? Levinas Studies 3:117-142.
    We have now had some two decades of Levinas commentary. What remains to be said? Certainly one thing we have learned since Otherwise than Being is that Levinas’s philosophy and his talmudic and confessional writings nourish each other so profoundly that to approach Levinas without understanding the historyof Jewish philosophy — in its confrontations with neo-Platonism, Aristotle, Kant — is to risk misunderstanding Levinas. Insights into the interrelationships between Jewish thought and Levinas’s other humanism have been provided by thinkers like (...)
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  16. Isaiah Berlin (1963). The Presidential Address: "From Hope and Fear Set Free". Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 64:1 - 30.
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  17. Donald L. Berry (2004). Hope for Our Time. International Studies in Philosophy 36 (1):293-294.
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  18. Martin A. Bertman (1970). Gabriel Marcel On Hope. Philosophy Today 14 (2):101-105.
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  19. Jennifer Beste (2005). Instilling Hope and Respecting Patient Autonomy: Reconciling Apparently Conflicting Duties. Bioethics 19 (3):215–231.
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  20. Otto Bird (1941). The Christian Basis for Marxist Hope. Proceedings of the American Catholic Philosophical Association 17:120-129.
  21. Ernst Bloch (1986). The Principle of Hope. Mit Press.
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  22. Stephen Bloch-Schulman (2010). When the "Best Hope" is Not so Hopeful, What Then?: Democratic Thinking, Democratic Pedagogies, and Higher Education. Journal of Speculative Philosophy 24 (4):399-415.
    In 2008, Peter Felten, the founding director of Elon's Center for the Advancement of Teaching and Learning, asked me to coordinate an inaugural two-year teaching and learning seminar for faculty, to focus on some element of engaged learning (Elon University's pedagogical focus). We titled the project the Elon Research Seminar on Engaged Undergraduate Learning. As a philosopher who works at the intersections of political philosophy and the scholarship of teaching and learning and as one interested in the relationships among democracy, (...)
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  23. Jeffrey Bloechl, David L. Smith & Daniel J. Martino (eds.) (2004). The Phenomenology of Hope: The Twenty-First Annual Symposium of the Simon Silverman Phenomenology Center: Lectures. Simon Silverman Phenomenology Center, Duquesne University-Gumberg Library.
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  24. T. V. Borysova (2005). Metafizychni Rozdumy Pro Nadii͡u. Dnipropetrovska Derz͡h. Finansova Akademii͡a.
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  25. Patrick L. Bourgeois (2006). Marcel and Ricoeur: Mystery and Hope at the Boundary of Reason in the Postmodern Situation. American Catholic Philosophical Quarterly 80 (3):421-433.
    This article on mystery and hope at the boundary of reason in the postmodern situation responds to the challenge of postmodern thinking to philosophyby a recourse to the works of Gabriel Marcel and his best disciple, Paul Ricoeur. It develops along the lines of their interpretation of hope as a central phenomenon in human experience and existence, thus shedding light on the philosophical enterprise for the future. It is our purpose to dwell briefly on this postmodern challenge and then, incorporating (...)
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  26. Luc Bovens (1999). The Value of Hope. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 59 (3):667-681.
    Hope obeys Aristotle's doctrine of the mean: one should neither hope too much, nor too little. But what determines what constitutes too much and what constitutes too little for a particular person at a particular time? The sceptic presents an argument to the effect that it is never rational to hope. An attempt to answer the sceptic leads us in different directions. Decision-theoretic and preference-theoretic arguments support the instrumental value of hope. An investigation into the nature of hope permits us (...)
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  27. Keith Breen (2002). Alasdair MacIntyre and the Hope for a Politics of Virtuous Acknowledged Dependence. Contemporary Political Theory 1 (2):181.
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  28. Robert Briscoe (2001). Faith, Social Hope, and Clarity. [REVIEW] Boston Book Review.
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  29. Craig Browne (2005). Hope, Critique, and Utopia. Critical Horizons 6 (1):63-86.
    This paper assesses the extent to which the category of hope assists in preserving and redefining the vestiges of utopian thought in critical social theory. Hope has never had a systematic position among the categories of critical social theory, although it has sometimes acquired considerable prominence. It will be argued that the current philosophical and everyday interest in social hope can be traced to the limited capacity of liberal conceptions of freedom to articulate a vision of social transformation apposite to (...)
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  30. Ian Buchanan (1998). Metacommentary on Utopia, or Jameson's Dialectic of Hope. Utopian Studies 9 (2):18 - 30.
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  31. Peter Burns (1995). Stubborn Hope. Radical Philosophy Review of Books 1995 (11-12):69-75.
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  32. Brian E. Butler (2012). Reading Obama: Dreams, Hope, and the American Political Tradition. [REVIEW] Education and Culture 28 (1):87-90.
  33. Roger Caldwell (2011). The Uses of Pessimism and the Dangers of False Hope. Philosophy Now 82:40-41.
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  34. Carnegie Samuel Calian (1969). Berdyaev's Philosophy of Hope. Leiden, E. J. Brill.
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  35. Steven A. Carr (1990). Celebrate Life: Hope for a Culture Preoccupied with Death. Wolgemuth & Hyatt.
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  36. Peter Carruthers (1988). More Faith Than Hope: Russellian Thoughts Attacked. Analysis 48 (2):91 - 96.
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  37. Catherine Chalier & Peter Hanly (2010). The Keenness of Hope. Levinas Studies 5:117-131.
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  38. Andrew Chignell (2013). Prolegomena to Any Future Non-Doxastic Religion. Religious Studies 48 (2):195-207.
    A discussion of the relationship between religion and belief, in the context of an engagement with J.L. Schellenberg's recent "Prolegomena." I suggest that there may be an authentic way of being "religious" without having full-blown religious belief. -/- .
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  39. Andrew Chignell (2013). Rational Hope, Moral Order, and the Revolution of the Will. In Eric Watkins (ed.), Divine Order, Human Order, and the Order of Nature.
    In this paper I sketch out one of the most important conditions on rational hope, and argue that Kant embraced a version of it. I go on to suggest that we can use this analysis to solve a longstanding 'conundrum' in Kant's ethics and religion regarding the nature of the individual moral revolution. -/- .
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  40. Noam Chomsky, Crisis and Hope: Theirs and Ours.
    One way to enter this morass is offered by the June 11 issue of the New York Review of Books. The frontcover headline reads "How to Deal With the Crisis"; the issue features a symposium of specialists on how to do so. It is very much worth reading, but with attention to the definite article. For the West the phrase "the crisis" has a clear enough meaning: the financial crisis that hit the rich countries with great impact, and is therefore (...)
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  41. Gerald Cipriani (2007). Hope and Despair in Postmodernity. The Proceedings of the Twenty-First World Congress of Philosophy 7:15-19.
    Far from having overcome the human, all too human essence of knowledge the West has replaced its modern objectifying subjectivity by what may be called a postmodern subjectifying subjectivity. The modern will to power and its drive for controlling the Other has given way to a postmodern form of 'unavailability', a key concept in the ethical reflections of the Christian Socratic philosopher Gabriel Marcel. This paper attempts to highlight the degree to which fundamental features of Postmodernity, from instrumental technology to (...)
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  42. Henry V. Cobb (1941). Hope, Fate, and Freedom: A Soliloquy. Ethics 52 (1):1-16.
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  43. Joshua Cohen & Joel Rogers, Knowledge, Morality and Hope: The Social Thought of Noam Chomsky.
    The characteristic focus, intensity and hopefulness of Chomsky’s political writings, however, reflect a set of more fundamental views about human nature, justice and social order that are not simple matters of fact. This article explores these more fundamental ideas, the central elements in Chomsky’s social thought. We begin (section i) by sketching the relevant features of Chomsky’s conception of human nature. We then examine his libertarian social ideals (section ii), and views on social stability and social evolution (section iii), both (...)
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  44. Elizabeth Cooke (2005). Transcendental Hope: Peirce, Hookway, and Pihlström on the Conditions for Inquiry. Transactions of the Charles S. Peirce Society 41 (3):651 - 674.
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  45. Aaron Cooley (2007). Review: Of Westbrook, Democratic Hope: Pragmatism and the Politics of Truth. [REVIEW] Education and Culture 23 (2):pp. 76-79.
    The dormancy of American pragmatism is over. At least, this is what numerous articles and books have unequivocally stated in the decades since Richard Rorty gave up his belief in orthodox analytical epistemology and settled into his own brand of John Dewey's antifoundational epistemology. Even though Rorty's interpretation and manipulation of Dewey have been controversial, we are all the better for the revival of discourse around what pragmatism was, is, and will be. Robert Westbrook's Democratic Hope: Pragmatism and the Politics (...)
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  46. Adam G. Cooper (2012). Hope, a Mode of Faith: Aquinas, Luther and Benedict XVI on Hebrews 11:1. Heythrop Journal 53 (2):182-190.
    In articulating a theological account of Christian hope faithful to its objective character, Pope Benedict XVI summons the authority of Thomas Aquinas, citing his comments on faith and hope as those terms occur in Hebrews 11:1. Benedict sets off Aquinas's understanding of hope-filled faith's objectivity by placing it in contrast with Luther's apparently more subjective interpretation of faith in Hebrews 11:1 as conviction. Closer analysis of both Aquinas and Luther, however, suggests a greater overlap in their exegetical conclusions, opening the (...)
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  47. Steven H. Cooper (2000). Objects of Hope: Exploring Possibility and Limit in Psychoanalysis. Analytic Press.
    Objects of Hope brings ranging scholarship and refreshing candor to bear on the knotty issue of what can and cannot be achieved in the course of psychoanalytic therapy. It will be valued not only as an exemplary exercise in comparative psychoanaly.
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  48. Jack Coulehan (2011). Deep Hope: A Song Without Words. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 32 (3):143-160.
    Hope helps alleviate suffering. In the case of terminal illness, recent experience in palliative medicine has taught physicians that hope is durable and often thrives even in the face of imminent death. In this article, I examine the perspectives of philosophers, theologians, psychologists, clinicians, neuroscientists, and poets, and provide a series of observations, connections, and gestures about hope, particularly about what I call “deep hope.” I end with some proposals about how such hope can be sustained and enhanced at the (...)
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  49. Norman Cousins (1974/1991). The Celebration of Life: A Dialogue on Hope, Spirit, and the Immortality of the Soul. Bantam Books.
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  50. T. Crane, Intentionality.
    Intentionality is the mind’s capacity to direct itself on things. Mental states like thoughts, beliefs, desires, hopes (and others) exhibit intentionality in the sense that they are always directed on, or at, something: if you hope, believe or desire, you must hope, believe or desire something. Hope, belief, desire and any other mental state which is directed at something, are known as intentional states. Intentionality in this sense has only a peripheral connection to the ordinary ideas of intention and intending. (...)
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