Search results for 'Trait' (try it on Scholar)

724 found
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  1.  10
    Shane Connelly, Whitney Helton-Fauth & Michael D. Mumford (2004). A Managerial in-Basket Study of the Impact of Trait Emotions on Ethical Choice. Journal of Business Ethics 51 (3):245-267.
    This paper explores the relationship of various trait emotions to the ethical choices of 189 college students who completed a managerial decision-making task as part of an in-basket exercise in a laboratory setting. Prior research regarding emotion influences on ethical decision-making and linkages between emotions and cognition informed hypotheses about how different types of emotions impact ethical choices. Findings supported our expectations that positive and negative emotions classified as active would be more strongly related to interpersonally-directed ethical choices than (...)
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  2.  11
    Adriyani Sahidi & P. Tommy Y. S. Suyasa (2010). Hubungan Trait Kepribadian Sikap Terhadap Sistem Penilaian Kinerja (Studi Pada Pengemudi Bus Transjakarta). Phronesis 9 (2).
    The research aim was to find out whether the personality trait that using the big five personality factors were significantly and positively correlated with attitude toward performance appraisal system. Method for this research is quantitative and non experimental with correlation research design. A hundred ten (110) TransJakarta bus drivers who have worked minimum for a year, completed the big five scale NEO PI-R and the attitude toward performance appraisal system scale. Among the big five personality facet level, two aspects (...)
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  3.  97
    Gopal Sreenivasan (2002). Errors About Errors: Virtue Theory and Trait Attribution. Mind 111 (441):47-68.
    This paper examines the implications of certain social psychological experiments for moral theory—specifically, for virtue theory. Gilbert Harman and John Doris have recently argued that the empirical evidence offered by ‘situationism’ demonstrates that there is no such thing as a character trait. I dispute this conclusion. My discussion focuses on the proper interpretation of the experimental data—the data themselves I grant for the sake of argument. I develop three criticisms of the anti-trait position. Of these, the central criticism (...)
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  4.  1
    Cristina Moya, Robert Boyd & Joseph Henrich (2015). Reasoning About Cultural and Genetic Transmission: Developmental and Cross‐Cultural Evidence From Peru, Fiji, and the United States on How People Make Inferences About Trait Transmission. Topics in Cognitive Science 7 (4):595-610.
    Using samples from three diverse populations, we test evolutionary hypotheses regarding how people reason about the inheritance of various traits. First, we provide a framework for differentiat-ing the outputs of mechanisms that evolved for reasoning about variation within and between biological taxa and culturally evolved ethnic categories from a broader set of beliefs and categories that are the outputs of structured learning mechanisms. Second, we describe the results of a modified “switched-at-birth” vignette study that we administered among children and adults (...)
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  5.  19
    Elliott Sober (2013). Trait Fitness is Not a Propensity, but Fitness Variation Is. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 44 (3):336-341.
    The propensity interpretation of fitness draws on the propensity interpretation of probability, but advocates of the former have not attended sufficiently to problems with the latter. The causal power of C to bring about E is not well-represented by the conditional probability Pr. Since the viability fitness of trait T is the conditional probability Pr, the viability fitness of the trait does not represent the degree to which having the trait causally promotes surviving. The same point holds (...)
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  6.  9
    Elizabeth O’Neill (2015). Relativizing Innateness: Innateness as the Insensitivity of the Appearance of a Trait with Respect to Specified Environmental Variation. Biology and Philosophy 30 (2):211-225.
    I object to eliminativism about innateness and André Ariew’s identification of innateness with canalization, and I propose a new treatment of innateness. I first argue that the concept of innateness is serving a valuable function in a diverse set of research contexts, and in these contexts, claims about innateness are best understood as claims about the insensitivity of the appearance of a trait to certain variations in the environment. I then argue that innateness claims, like claims about canalization, should (...)
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  7.  68
    Richard A. Depue & Jeannine V. Morrone-Strupinsky (2005). A Neurobehavioral Model of Affiliative Bonding: Implications for Conceptualizing a Human Trait of Affiliation. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 28 (3):313-350.
    Because little is known about the human trait of affiliation, we provide a novel neurobehavioral model of affiliative bonding. Discussion is organized around processes of reward and memory formation that occur during approach and consummatory phases of affiliation. Appetitive and consummatory reward processes are mediated independently by the activity of the ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine (DA)–nucleus accumbens shell (NAS) pathway and the central corticolimbic projections of the u-opiate system of the medial basal arcuate nucleus, respectively, although these two (...)
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  8.  18
    Eldad Yechiam & Eyal Ert (2011). Risk Attitude in Decision Making: In Search of Trait-Like Constructs. Topics in Cognitive Science 3 (1):166-186.
    We evaluate the consistency of different constructs affecting risk attitude in individuals’ decisions across different levels of risk. Specifically, we contrast views suggesting that risk attitude is a single primitive construct with those suggesting it consists of multiple latent components. Additionally, we evaluate such constructs as sensitivity to losses, diminishing sensitivity to increases in payoff, sensitivity to variance, and risk acceptance (the willingness to accept probable outcomes over certainty). In search of trait-like constructs, the paper reviews experimental results focusing (...)
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  9. Andrew S. Fox, Trait-Like Brain Activity During Adolescence Predicts Anxious Temperament in Primates.
    Early theorists speculated that extremely shy children, or those with anxious temperament, were likely to have anxiety problems as adults. More recent studies demonstrate that these children have heightened responses to potentially threatening situations reacting with intense defensive responses that are characterized by behavioral inhibition and physiological arousal. Confirming the earlier impressions, data now demonstrate that children with this disposition are at increased risk to develop anxiety, depression, and comorbid substance abuse. Additional key features of anxious temperament are that it (...)
     
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  10.  37
    Mark Alfano (2015). How One Becomes What One is Called: On the Relation Between Traits and Trait-Terms in Nietzsche. Journal of Nietzsche Studies 46 (1):261-269.
    Despite the recent surge of interest in Nietzsche’s moral psychology and his conceptions of character and virtue in particular, little attention has been paid to his treatment of the relation between character traits and the terms that designate them. In this paper, I argue for an interpretation of this relation: Nietzsche thinks there is a looping effect between the psychological disposition named by a character trait-term and the practice of using that term.
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  11.  21
    James T. Lamiell (2000). A Periodic Table of Personality Elements? The "Big Five" and Trait "Psychology" in Critical Perspective. Journal of Theoretical and Philosophical Psychology 20 (1):1-24.
    Within contemporary personality psychology there is widespread consensus that, at long last, the basic elements of "the" human personality have been empirically discovered, and that the systematic search for the underlying causes and consequences of personality differences can be pursued on this basis. The putatively basic trait dimensions are neuroticism, extraversion, openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness, and are referred to collectively as "the Big Five." In the present article, this perspective on the psychology of personality is examined critically and found (...)
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  12.  7
    Inri K. Almesa, Maria T. Widyastuti & Mardiana (2010). Kompetensi Interpersonal Pada Manajer Level Operasional (Ditinjau Dari Teori Trait Kepribadian Big-Five). Phronesis 9 (1).
    The aim of this research is to find the operating level manager’s interpersonal competence (based on big-five personality trait theory). The total subjects of this research are 139 operating level managers. The subjects of this research are divided by the big-five personality trait, such as openness to experience, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism. Researcher used questionnaire which is based on Likert scale to collect the data of this research. The data was analyzed by descriptive statistics with SPSS program (...)
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  13.  20
    John L. Locke (2008). The Trait of Human Language: Lessons From the Canal Boat Children of England. Biology and Philosophy 23 (3):347-361.
    To fully understand human language, an evolved trait that develops in the young without formal instruction, it must be possible to observe language that has not been influenced by instruction. But in modern societies, much of the language that is used, and most of the language that is measured, is confounded by literacy and academic training. This diverts empirical attention from natural habits of speech, causing theorists to miss critical features of linguistic practice. To dramatize this point, I examine (...)
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  14.  16
    Martina Manns (2005). The Riddle of Nature and Nurture – Lateralization has an Epigenetic Trait. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 28 (4):602-603.
    Vallortigara & Rogers's (V&R's) proposal that directional asymmetries evolved under social pressures raises questions about the ontogenetic mechanisms subserving the alignment of asymmetries in a population. Neuro-ontogenetic principles suggest that epigenetic factors are decisively involved in the determination of individual lateralization and that genetic factors align their direction. Clearly, directional asymmetry has an epigenetic trait.
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  15.  8
    O. Fassler, S. Lynn & J. Knox (2008). Is Hypnotic Suggestibility a Stable Trait?☆. Consciousness and Cognition 17 (1):240-253.
    The present study examined the trait-like nature of hypnotic suggestibility by examining the stability of hypnotic responsiveness in a test–retest design in which the procedures were administered either live or by audiotape. Contrary to the idea that hypnotizability is a largely immutable, stable trait, scores on the scale of hypnotic responsiveness decreased significantly at the second session. Measures of subjective experiences and expectancies accounted for a sizable portion of the variance in hypnotic responding, both at initial test and (...)
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  16.  9
    Frans van Peperstraten (2009). Displacement or Composition? Lyotard and Nancy on the Trait d'Union Between Judaism and Christianity. International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 65 (1):29-46.
    In one of the essays in his recent book on Christianity, La déclosion (2005), Nancy discusses the relationship between Judaism and Christianity. Nancy opens this discussion with a reference to Lyotard’s book on this relationship: Un trait d’union (1993). Both Lyotard and Nancy examine a very early figure in the emergence of Christianity from Judaism—whereas Lyotard focuses on the epistles of Paul, Nancy reads the epistle of James. Lyotard concludes that the hyphen in the expression ‘Judeo-Christian’ actually (...)
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  17.  5
    Michael Glassman & Cynthia K. Buettner (2005). The Role of Trait Affiliation in Human Community. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 28 (3):354-354.
    This commentary speaks to the relationship between Depue & Marrone-Strupinsky's (D&M-S's) concept of trait affiliation and affiliative memory and the formation of human community, especially among peer groups. The target article suggests a model for how and why dynamic communities form in a number of disparate contexts and under a number of circumstances.
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  18.  6
    Hans-Rolf Gregorius (2011). The Analysis of Association Between Traits When Differences Between Trait States Matter. Acta Biotheoretica 59 (3):213-229.
    Because of their elementary significance in almost all fields of science, measures of association between two variables or traits are abundant and multiform. One aspect of association that is of considerable interest, especially in population genetics and ecology, seems to be widely ignored. This aspect concerns association between complex traits that show variable and arbitrarily defined state differences. Among such traits are genetic characters controlled by many and potentially polyploid loci, species characteristics, and environmental variables, all of which may be (...)
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  19.  7
    Sergio M. Pellis (2002). When is a Trait an Adaptation? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 25 (4):524-524.
    The authors outline research strategies that may identify the possible adaptive value of a trait. But this does not solve the problem of how to decide which characteristics of living organisms require an adaptive explanation. I suggest that knowledge of the ontogenetic and phylogenetic construction of a trait facilitates the identification of features that may have been acted on by natural selection.
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  20.  2
    Jacob M. Vigil & Kamilla Venner (2012). Prejudicial Behavior: More Closely Linked to Homophilic Peer Preferences Than to Trait Bigotry. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 35 (6):448-449.
    We disagree with Dixon et al. by maintaining that prejudice is primarily rooted in aversive reactions toward out-group members. However, these reactions are not indicative of negative attributes, such as trait bigotry, but rather normative homophily for peers with similar perceived attributes. Cognitive biases such as stereotype threat perpetuate perceptions of inequipotential and subsequent discrimination, irrespective of individuals' personality characteristics.
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  21.  1
    Kevin Lanning (1986). Traits, Trait Words, and the Explanation of Behavior. Theoretical and Philosophical Psychology 6 (2):108-111.
    Almost 50 years ago, in 1937, Gordon Allport defined 'trait' as "...a generalized and focalized neuropsychic system, , with the capacity to render many stimuli functionally equivalent, and to initiate and guide consistent forms of adaptive and expressive behavior ." But today, the term 'trait' is out of vogue. Much of the reason for this lies in a misunderstanding of the concept: the truth is that most of the empirical literature has little to say about traits. While a (...)
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  22. Christian Miller (forthcoming). The Mixed Trait Model of Character Traits and the Moral Domains of Resource Distribution and Stealing. In Character: New Directions from Philosophy, Psychology, and Theology. Oxford University Press
    In this paper my goal is to extend my earlier discussion, at least in a preliminary way, to two additional areas – fairness and stealing. In doing so, I will consider whether the existing research is compatible with my Mixed Trait model, or whether instead it gives me reason to be concerned with how broadly applicable the model really is. My conclusion will be that the results are, so to speak, a mixed bag. With respect to fairness research, (...)
     
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  23. Eric B. Schmidt (2004). Expanding the Child's Range of Open Futures: A Proposed Basis for the Ethical Assessment of Parental Genetic Trait Selections. Dissertation, University of Washington
    This dissertation considers the bases upon which ethical assessments of parental genetic trait selections for their children can be made. It argues that if parents engage in genetic trait selections, they must act to expand their child's range of open futures, not to constrict their child's range of open futures or to differentially shift their child's range of open futures. It contends that other proposed distinctions, including distinctions between normal and diseased states and between treatment selections and enhancement (...)
     
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  24.  1
    Marvin Zuckerman (1984). Sensation Seeking: A Comparative Approach to a Human Trait. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 7 (3):413.
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  25.  1
    Andrea L. Nelson, Christine Purdon, Leanne Quigley, Jonathan Carriere & Daniel Smilek (2015). Distinguishing the Roles of Trait and State Anxiety on the Nature of Anxiety-Related Attentional Biases to Threat Using a Free Viewing Eye Movement Paradigm. Cognition and Emotion 29 (3):504-526.
  26.  2
    Angela Byrne & Michael W. Eysenck (1995). Trait Anxiety, Anxious Mood, and Threat Detection. Cognition and Emotion 9 (6):549-562.
  27.  8
    Stan Klein (2013). Klein and Loftus's Model of Trait Self-Knowledge: The Importance of Familiarizing Oneself with the Foundational Research Prior to Reading About its Neuropsychological Applications. Fronteris in Human Neuroscience 7:1-3.
    In this article I want to alert investigators who are familiar only with our neuropsychological investigations of self-knowledge to our earlier work on model construction. A familiarity with this foundational research can help avert concerns and issues likely to arise if one is aware only of neuropsychological extensions of our work.
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  28.  19
    Paul J. Silvia (2008). Appraisal Components and Emotion Traits: Examining the Appraisal Basis of Trait Curiosity. Cognition and Emotion 22 (1):94-113.
  29.  3
    Donald Broadbent & Margaret Broadbent (1988). Anxiety and Attentional Bias: State and Trait. Cognition and Emotion 2 (3):165-183.
  30.  3
    Michael Eysenck, Susanna Payne & Nazanin Derakshan (2005). Trait Anxiety, Visuospatial Processing, and Working Memory. Cognition and Emotion 19 (8):1214-1228.
  31.  1
    Jean-Christophe Rohner (2002). The Time-Course of Visual Threat Processing: High Trait Anxious Individuals Eventually Avert Their Gaze From Angry Faces. Cognition and Emotion 16 (6):837-844.
  32.  2
    Jack Van Honk, Adriaan Tuiten, Edward de Haan, Marcel van den Hout & Henderickus Stam (2001). Attentional Biases for Angry Faces: Relationships to Trait Anger and Anxiety. Cognition and Emotion 15 (3):279-297.
  33.  11
    D. Turk, S. Cunningham & C. MaCrae (2008). Self-Memory Biases in Explicit and Incidental Encoding of Trait Adjectives. Consciousness and Cognition 17 (3):1040-1045.
    An extensive literature has demonstrated that encoding information in a self-referential manner enhances subsequent memory performance. This ‘self-reference effect’ is generally elicited in paradigms that require participants to evaluate the self-descriptiveness of personality characteristics. Extending work of this kind, the current research explored the possibility that explicit evaluative processing is not a necessary precondition for the emergence of this effect. Rather, responses to self cues may enhance item encoding even in the absence of explicit evaluative instructions. We explored this hypothesis (...)
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  34.  4
    Nicholas J. Kelley, David Tang & Brandon J. Schmeichel (2014). Mortality Salience Biases Attention to Positive Versus Negative Images Among Individuals Higher in Trait Self-Control. Cognition and Emotion 28 (3):550-559.
  35.  4
    Pilar Cubas (2004). Floral Zygomorphy, the Recurring Evolution of a Successful Trait. Bioessays 26 (11):1175-1184.
  36.  1
    Elizabeth Rutherford, Colin MacLeod & Lynlee Campbell (2004). Brief Report Negative Selectivity Effects and Emotional Selectivity Effects in Anxiety: Differential Attentional Correlates of State and Trait Variables. Cognition and Emotion 18 (5):711-720.
  37.  1
    Leanne Quigley & Keith S. Dobson (2014). An Examination of Trait, Spontaneous and Instructed Emotion Regulation in Dysphoria. Cognition and Emotion 28 (4):622-635.
  38.  8
    Christina L. Fales, Karla E. Becerril, Katherine R. Luking & Deanna M. Barch (2010). Emotional-Stimulus Processing in Trait Anxiety is Modulated by Stimulus Valence During Neuroimaging of a Working-Memory Task. Cognition and Emotion 24 (2):200-222.
  39.  3
    Jo Saunders (2013). Selective Memory Bias for Self-Threatening Memories in Trait Anxiety. Cognition and Emotion 27 (1):21-36.
  40.  1
    Steven P. Tipper Patric Bach (2007). Implicit Action Encoding Influences Personal-Trait Judgments. Cognition 102 (2-3):151.
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  41. Patric Bach & Steven P. Tipper (2007). Implicit Action Encoding Influences Personal-Trait Judgments. Cognition 102 (2):151-178.
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  42. Nick Berggren & Nazanin Derakshan (2013). The Role of Consciousness in Attentional Control Differences in Trait Anxiety. Cognition and Emotion 27 (5):923-931.
  43.  2
    Nazanin Derakshan Michael W. Eysenck (1998). Working Memory Capacity in High Trait-Anxious and Repressor Groups. Cognition and Emotion 12 (5):697-713.
  44.  2
    Kathleen Nugent & Susan Mineka (1994). The Effect of High and Low Trait Anxiety on Implicit and Explicit Memory Tasks. Cognition and Emotion 8 (2):147-163.
  45.  11
    Konstantin Vasily Petrides, Juan Carlos Pérez-González & Adrian Furnham (2007). On the Criterion and Incremental Validity of Trait Emotional Intelligence. Cognition and Emotion 21 (1):26-55.
  46.  1
    Leanne Quigley, Andrea L. Nelson, Jonathan Carriere, Daniel Smilek & Christine Purdon (2012). The Effects of Trait and State Anxiety on Attention to Emotional Images: An Eye-Tracking Study. Cognition and Emotion 26 (8):1390-1411.
  47.  8
    A. D. Groot (1956). The Meaning of Trait Concepts. Synthese 10 (1):461 - 470.
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  48.  1
    Jessica J. Genet & Matthias Siemer (2011). Flexible Control in Processing Affective and Non-Affective Material Predicts Individual Differences in Trait Resilience. Cognition and Emotion 25 (2):380-388.
  49. William K. Goosens (1977). Underlying Trait Terms. In Stephen P. Schwartz (ed.), Naming, Necessity, and Natural Kinds. Cornell University Press 13--41.
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  50.  1
    Bastien Trémolière & Hakim Djeriouat (2016). The Sadistic Trait Predicts Minimization of Intention and Causal Responsibility in Moral Judgment. Cognition 146:158-171.
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