Results for 'Affirmative Action'

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  1. Rawlsian Affirmative Action.Robert S. Taylor - 2009 - Ethics 119 (3):476-506.
    My paper addresses a topic--the implications of Rawls's justice as fairness for affirmative action--that has received remarkably little attention from Rawls's major interpreters. The only extended treatments of it that are in print are over a quarter-century old, and they bear scarcely any relationship to Rawls's own nonideal theorizing. Following Christine Korsgaard's lead, I work through the implications of Rawls's nonideal theory and show what it entails for affirmative action: viz. that under nonideal conditions, aggressive forms (...)
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  2.  69
    Affirmative Action and the Choice of Amends.George Hull - 2015 - Philosophia 43 (1):113-134.
    Affirmative action is often implemented as a way of making redress to victims of past injustices. But critics of this practice have launched a three-pronged assault against it. Firstly, they point out that beneficiaries of preferential policies tend not to benefit to the same extent as they were harmed by past injustices. Secondly, when its defenders point to the wider benefits of affirmative action , critics maintain that such ends could never be sufficiently weighty to permit (...)
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  3.  53
    Strong Affirmative Action Programs and Disproportionate Burdens.S. Kershnar - 1999 - Journal of Value Inquiry 33 (2):201-209.
    Affirmative action programs are not justified by compensatory justice. They place a disproportionate burden on white-male applicants. White-male applicants do not owe compensation because they committed a relevant wrongdoing or because they benefitted from another’s wrongdoing. They did not commit a relevant wrongdoing. Receipt of an unjust benefit, when unavoidable and mixed with hard work, does not justify a duty to compensate a victim of the injustice. Thus, the compensatory-justice argument for affirmative action fails.
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  4. Procedural Justice and Affirmative Action.Kristina Meshelski - 2016 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 19 (2):425-443.
    There is widespread agreement among both supporters and opponents that affirmative action either must not violate any principle of equal opportunity or procedural justice, or if it does, it may do so only given current extenuating circumstances. Many believe that affirmative action is morally problematic, only justified to the extent that it brings us closer to the time when we will no longer need it. In other words, those that support affirmative action believe it (...)
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  5.  86
    Affirmative Action, Non-Consequentialism, and Responsibility for the Effects of Past Discrimination.Mark Van Roojen - 1997 - Public Affairs Quarterly 11 (3):281-301.
    One popular criticism of affirmative action is that it discriminates against those who would otherwise have been offered jobs without it. This objection must rely on the non- consequentialist distinction between what we do and what we merely allow to claim that doing nothing merely allows people to be harmed by the discrimination of others, while preferential programs actively harm those left out. It fails since the present effects of past discrimination result from social arrangements which result from (...)
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  6.  97
    Affirmative Action as a Form of Restitution.Leo Groarke - 1990 - Journal of Business Ethics 9 (3):207 - 213.
    Though the common sense defense of affirmative action (or employment equity) appeals to principles of restitution, philosophers have tried to defend it in other ways. In contrast, I defend it by appealing to the notion of restitution, arguing (1) that alternative attempts to justify affirmative action fail; and (2) that ordinary affirmative action programs need to be supplemented and amended in keeping with the principles this suggests.
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  7.  44
    Affirmative Action, Historical Injustice, and the Concept of Beneficiaries.Kasper Lippert‐Rasmussen - 2017 - Journal of Political Philosophy 25 (1):72-90.
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  8.  47
    Affirmative Action Policy and Changing Views.Anthony F. Libertella, Sebastian A. Sora & Samuel M. Natale - 2007 - Journal of Business Ethics 74 (1):65-71.
    Critiquing any practice, theory, or law, requires understanding the characteristics of the environment which created a need for this law. There are hundreds of different cultures in the world, and each one has its own set of norms, characteristics, and values. What in one country is perceived normal, ethical or unethical, right or wrong, may not be the same somewhere else in the world. The first civilizations begun in Africa and Europe many thousands of years ago when people were hunters (...)
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  9.  66
    Affirmative Action, Historical Injustice, and the Concept of Beneficiaries.Kasper Lippert‐Rasmussen - 2016 - Journal of Political Philosophy 24 (4).
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  10.  31
    Rawlsian Affirmative Action.D. C. Matthew - 2015 - Critical Philosophy of Race 3 (2):324-343.
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  11. Affirmative Action: An Ethical Evaluation. [REVIEW]Bill Shaw - 1988 - Journal of Business Ethics 7 (10):763 - 770.
    This paper examines four major arguments advanced by opponents of race and gender conscious affirmative action and rebuts them on the basis of moral considerations. It is clear that the problem of past racial/gender discrimination has not disappeared; its effects linger, resulting in a wide disparity in opportunities and attainments between minorities/women and whites/males. Affirmative action, although not the perfect solution, is by far the most viable method of redressing the effects of past discrimination. Thus it (...)
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  12. Affirmative Action.Robert Fullinwider - 2008 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
  13. Affirmative Action.Alan H. Goldman - 1976 - Philosophy and Public Affairs 5 (2):178-195.
  14. The Ethical Case for Affirmative Action.Prue Burns & Jan Schapper - 2008 - Journal of Business Ethics 83 (3):369-379.
    Affirmative action has been a particularly contentious policy issue that has polarised contributions to the debate. Over recent times in most western countries, support for affirmative action has, however, been largely snuffed out or beaten into retreat and replaced by the concept of ‹diversity management’. Thus, any contemporary study that examines the development of affirmative action would suggest that its opponents have won the battle. Nonetheless, this article argues that because the battle has been (...)
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  15. “Group Rights” and Racial Affirmative Action.Kwame Anthony Appiah - 2011 - The Journal of Ethics 15 (3):265-280.
    This article argues against the view that affirmative action is wrong because it involves assigning group rights. First, affirmative action does not have to proceed by assigning rights at all. Second, there are, in fact, legitimate “group rights” both legal and moral; there are collective rights—which are exercised by groups—and membership rights—which are rights people have in virtue of group membership. Third, there are continuing harms that people suffer as blacks and claims to remediation for these (...)
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  16. Affirmative Action, Meritocracy, and Efficiency.Steven N. Durlauf - 2008 - Politics, Philosophy and Economics 7 (2):131-158.
    This article provides a framework for comparing meritocratic and affirmative action admissions policies. The context of the analysis is admissions to public universities; admission rules are evaluated as part of the public investment problem faced by a state government. Meritocratic and affirmative admissions policies are compared in terms of their effects on the level and distribution of human capital. I argue that (a) meritocratic admissions are not necessarily efficient and (b) affirmative action policies may be (...)
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  17.  2
    Making Sense of Affirmative Action.Kasper Lippert-Rasmussen - 2020 - Oup Usa.
    In this book Kasper Lippert-Rasmussen address the complexities of his question "Is affirmative action morally justifiable?" by analyzing the prevailing contemporary arguments both for and against affirmative action. The book applies current political philosophy to demonstrate that arguments on both sides justify different conclusions given different specific cases, though it ultimately does argue in favor of affirmative action based on the relative strength and significance of the anti-discrimination- and equality of opportunity-based positions.
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  18.  25
    Strong Affirmative Action Programs at State Educational Institutions Cannot Be Justified Via Compensatory Justice.Stephen Kershnar - 1997 - Public Affairs Quarterly 11 (4):345-363.
    In the context of state educational institutions, young white males are owed a duty to respect their interest or desert tokens. Not all white males have waived this duty since many white males have not performed the relevant types of culpable wrongdoing. Merely having benefitted from an unjust injury act or being a member of a community that owe a debt of compensation to racial minorities and women are not sufficient grounds to override the duty owed to the white male. (...)
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  19. Affirmative Action and Racial Preference.Carl Cohen & James P. Sterba - 2003 - Oxford University Press USA.
    Racial preferences are among the most contentious issues in our society, touching on fundamental questions of fairness and the proper role of racial categories in government action. Now two contemporary philosophers, in a lively debate, lay out the arguments on each side. Carl Cohen, a key figure in the University of Michigan Supreme Court cases, argues that racial preferences are morally wrong--forbidden by the 14th Amendment to the Constitution, and explicitly banned by the Civil Rights Act of 1964. He (...)
     
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  20. Affirmative Action for Disadvantaged Groups: A Cross-Constitutional Study of India and the US.Ashok Acharya - 2009 - In Rajeev Bhargava (ed.), Politics and Ethics of the Indian Constitution. New Delhi: Oxford University Press India. pp. 267--97.
     
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  21. Affirmative Action and the Demands of Justice.N. Scott Arnold - 1998 - Social Philosophy and Policy 15 (2):133.
    This essay is about the moral and political justification of affirmative action programs in the United States. Both legally and politically, many of these programs are under attack, though they remain ubiquitous. The concern of this essay, however, is not with what the law says but with what it should say. The main argument advanced in this essay concludes that most of the controversial affirmative action programs are unjustified. It proceeds in a way that avoids dependence (...)
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  22. The Case Against Affirmative Action.Louis P. Pojman - 1998 - International Journal of Applied Philosophy 12 (1):97-115.
    Affirmative Action is becoming the most controversial social issue of our day. In this essay I examine nine arguments on the moral status of Affirmative Action. I distinguish between weak Affirmative Action, which seeks to provide fair opportunity to all citizens from strong Affirmative Action, which enjoins preferential treatment to groups who have been underrepresented in social positions. I conclude that while weak Affirmative Action is morally required, strong Affirmative (...)
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  23. The Affirmative Action Debate.Steven M. Cahn (ed.) - 1995 - Routledge.
    Contributors: Steven M. Cahn, James W. Nickel, J. L. Cowan, Paul W. Taylor, Michael D. Bayles, William A. Nunn III, Alan H. Goldman, Paul Woodruff, Robert A. Shiver, Judith Jarvis Thomson, Robert Simon, George Sher, Robert Amdur, Robert K. Fullinwider, Bernard R. Boxhill, Lisa H. Newton, Anita L. Allen, Celia Wolf-Devine, Sidney Hook, Richaed Waaserstrom, Thomas E. Hill, Jr., John Kekes.
     
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  24. In Defense of Affirmative Action.Tom L. Beauchamp - 1998 - The Journal of Ethics 2 (2):143-158.
    Affirmative action refers to positive steps taken to hire persons from groups previously and presently discriminated against. Considerable evidence indicates that this discrimination is intractable and cannot be eliminated by the enforcement of laws. Numerical goals and quotas are justified if and only if they are necessary to overcome the discriminatory effects that could not otherwise be eliminated with reasonable efficiency. Many past as well as present policies are justified in this way.
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  25. The Message of Affirmative Action: THOMAS E. HILL, JR.Thomas E. Hill - 1991 - Social Philosophy and Policy 8 (2):108-129.
    Affirmative action programs remain controversial, I suspect, partly because the familiar arguments for and against them start from significantly different moral perspectives. Thus I want to step back for a while from the details of debate about particular programs and give attention to the moral viewpoints presupposed in different types of argument. My aim, more specifically, is to compare the “messages” expressed when affirmative action is defended from different moral perspectives. Exclusively forward-looking arguments, I suggest, tend (...)
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  26. Selection Under Uncertainty: Affirmative Action at Shortlisting Stage.Luc Bovens - 2016 - Mind 125 (498):421-437.
    Choice often proceeds in two stages: We construct a shortlist on the basis of limited and uncertain information about the options and then reduce this uncertainty by examining the shortlist in greater detail. The goal is to do well when making a final choice from the option set. I argue that we cannot realise this goal by constructing a ranking over the options at shortlisting stage which determines of each option whether it is more or less worthy of being included (...)
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  27.  84
    Defending Affirmative Action, Defending Preferences.James P. Sterba - 2003 - Journal of Social Philosophy 34 (2):285–300.
  28.  47
    Affirmative Action and the Doctrine of Double Effect.William Cooney - 1989 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 6 (2):201-204.
    ABSTRACT This article attempts to show that affirmative action can be supported by the doctrine of double effect which recognises distinctions between desired and unintended effects such that the responsibility for acts falls on the side of the former rather than the latter. With this doctrine it may also be seen why affirmative action programmes cannot be simply equated with numerical quota systems, nor can they be called discriminatory, at least not under the definition of discrimination (...)
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  29. Discrimination, Affirmative Action, and Diversity in Business.Bernard Boxill - 2010 - In George G. Brenkert & Tom L. Beauchamp (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Business Ethics. Oxford University Press.
  30. Sex Discrimination and the Affirmative Action Remedy: The Role of Sex Stereotypes. [REVIEW]Madeline E. Heilman - 1997 - Journal of Business Ethics 16 (9):877-889.
    This paper explores the psychological phenomena of sex stereotypes and their consequences for the occurrence of sex discrimination in work settings. Differential conceptions of the attributes of women and men are shown to extend to women and men managers, and the lack of fit model is used to explain how stereotypes about women can detrimentally affect their career progress. Commonly-occurring organizational conditions which facilitate the use of stereotypes in personnel decision making are identified and, lastly, data are provided demonstrating the (...)
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  31.  58
    Sterba on Affirmative Action, or, It Never Was the Bus, It Was Us!Bill E. Lawson - 2011 - The Journal of Ethics 15 (3):281-290.
    Professor Sterba argues for two interesting and provocative positions regarding affirmative action. First, affirmative action programs are still needed to ensure diversity in educational institutions of higher learning. Secondly, the proponents and opponents of affirmative action are not as far apart as they seem to think. To this end, he proposes a position that would give weight to race as a category for affirmative action that can withstand the challenges of affirmative (...)
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  32.  21
    Affirmative Action and the Principle of Equality.Robert F. Sasseen - 1976 - Studies in Philosophy and Education 9 (3):275-295.
  33.  25
    Affirmative Action, Neutrality, and Integration.Georgia Warnke - 1998 - Journal of Social Philosophy 29 (3):87-103.
  34.  17
    Affirmative Action Rhetoric.Margaret Jane Radin - 1991 - Social Philosophy and Policy 8 (2):130.
    For the students, while the numbers are up,… the problem that minorities face – and it is persistent – is that there is still too much of a patronizing air in the professional schools. And there's still too much of the notion that if you're here it must be because someone gave you a break and you're different and you really don't belong here. And indeed when my son went off to school four years ago… I really wanted to warn (...)
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  35. Affirmative Action, John Rawls, and a Partial Compliance Theory of Justice.Edwin L. Goff - 1976 - Philosophy and Social Criticism 4 (1):43-59.
  36.  65
    The Affirmative Action Debate.Dale Murray - 2005 - Teaching Philosophy 28 (3):284-287.
  37.  4
    Gay Rights and Affirmative Action.Joseph Sartorelli - 1994 - Journal of Homosexuality 3 (27):179-222.
    While affirmative action programs exist for a number of groups, little serious consideration has been given to the establishment of such programs for gay men and lesbians. This essay argues that many of the conditions that justify current affirmative action programs would also justify their extension to gay people, both in terms of compensation for injuries suffered and in terms of benefit to both individuals and society generally. It is argued that anti-discrimination policies are hard to (...)
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  38. Affirmative Action: Strategies for the Future.Michael Boylan - 2002 - Journal of Social Philosophy 33 (1):117–130.
  39.  62
    Affirmative Action for a Face Only a Mother Could Love?Stephen M. Crow & Dinah Payne - 1992 - Journal of Business Ethics 11 (11):869 - 875.
    Physical attractiveness is highly valued in our society and impacts a variety of decisions made by organizations. Generally speaking, research findings suggest that the more attractive the person, the greater the likelihood of favorable employment-related decisions. It follows then, that those considered physically unattractive will suffer adversely in some employment-related decisional contexts — decisions that may prevent them from achieving the good life. Until recently, discrimination against unattractive people has been considered nothing more than a moral or ethical issue. However, (...)
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  40.  42
    Affirmative Action and Philosophy Instruction.Parker English - 1992 - Teaching Philosophy 15 (4):311-327.
  41.  14
    Affirmative Action, Old and New.Mane Hajdin - 2002 - Journal of Social Philosophy 33 (1):83-96.
  42.  9
    Affirmative Action and Desert.J. M. Dieterle - 2005 - Public Affairs Quarterly 19 (2):81-94.
  43.  57
    Shared Being, Old Promises, and the Just Necessity of Affirmative Action.Peter McHugh - 2005 - Human Studies 28 (2):129-156.
    Although the residues of official segregation are widespread, affirmative action continues to meet resistance in both official and everyday life, even in such recent Supreme Court decisions as Grutter v Bollinger (539 U.S. 306). This is due in part to a governing ontology that draws the line between individual and collective. But there are other possibilities for conceiving the social, and I offer one here in a theory of affirmative action that is developed through close examination (...)
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  44.  40
    Affirmative Action and the Police.Timothy Stroup - 1982 - International Journal of Applied Philosophy 1 (2):1-19.
  45.  62
    The Moral Status of Affirmative Action.Louis P. Pojman - 1992 - Public Affairs Quarterly 6 (2):181-206.
  46. Was I Entitled or Should I Apologize? Affirmative Action Going Forward.Anita L. Allen - 2011 - The Journal of Ethics 15 (3):253-263.
    As a U.S. civil rights policy, affirmative action commonly denotes race-conscious and result-oriented efforts by private and public officials to correct the unequal distribution of economic opportunity and education attributed to slavery, segregation, poverty and racism. Opponents argue that affirmative action (1) violates ideals of color-blind public policies, offending moral principles of fairness and constitutional principles of equality and due process; (2) has proven to be socially and politically divisive; (3) has not made things better; (4) (...)
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  47.  32
    Dequantifying Diversity: Affirmative Action and Admissions at the University of Michigan.Fiona Rose-Greenland, Ellen Berrey & Daniel Hirschman - 2016 - Theory and Society 45 (3):265-301.
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  48.  22
    Rethinking Affirmative Action.Stephen J. Massey - 1981 - Social Theory and Practice 7 (1):21-47.
  49.  8
    Affirmative Action in Higher Education as Redistribution.Louis M. Guenin - 1997 - Public Affairs Quarterly 11 (2):117-140.
  50.  53
    The Libertarian Case for Affirmative Action.Andrew Valls - 1999 - Social Theory and Practice 25 (2):299-323.
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