Results for 'Generalization'

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  1.  29
    Generalization, Similarity, and Bayesian Inference.Joshua B. Tenenbaum & Thomas L. Griffiths - 2001 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 24 (4):629-640.
    Shepard has argued that a universal law should govern generalization across different domains of perception and cognition, as well as across organisms from different species or even different planets. Starting with some basic assumptions about natural kinds, he derived an exponential decay function as the form of the universal generalization gradient, which accords strikingly well with a wide range of empirical data. However, his original formulation applied only to the ideal case of generalization from a single encountered (...)
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  2.  34
    The Role of Explanation in Discovery and Generalization: Evidence From Category Learning.Joseph J. Williams & Tania Lombrozo - 2010 - Cognitive Science 34 (5):776-806.
    Research in education and cognitive development suggests that explaining plays a key role in learning and generalization: When learners provide explanations—even to themselves—they learn more effectively and generalize more readily to novel situations. This paper proposes and tests a subsumptive constraints account of this effect. Motivated by philosophical theories of explanation, this account predicts that explaining guides learners to interpret what they are learning in terms of unifying patterns or regularities, which promotes the discovery of broad generalizations. Three experiments (...)
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  3.  61
    The Over-Generalization Problem: Predicates Rigidly Signifying the "Unnatural".Sa Dan López de - 2008 - Synthese 163 (2):263 - 272.
    According to the simple proposal, a predicate is rigid iff it signifies the same property across the different possible worlds. The simple proposal has been claimed to suffer from an over-generalization problem. Assume that one can make sense of predicates signifying properties, and assume that trivialization concerns, to the effect that the notion would cover any predicate whatsoever, can be overcome. Still, the proposal would over-generalize, the worry has it, by covering predicates for artifactual, social, or evaluative properties, such (...)
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  4.  31
    Sampling Assumptions in Inductive Generalization.Daniel J. Navarro, Matthew J. Dry & Michael D. Lee - 2012 - Cognitive Science 36 (2):187-223.
    Inductive generalization, where people go beyond the data provided, is a basic cognitive capability, and it underpins theoretical accounts of learning, categorization, and decision making. To complete the inductive leap needed for generalization, people must make a key ‘‘sampling’’ assumption about how the available data were generated. Previous models have considered two extreme possibilities, known as strong and weak sampling. In strong sampling, data are assumed to have been deliberately generated as positive examples of a concept, whereas in (...)
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  5.  18
    Generalization: A Practice of Situated Categorization in Talk. [REVIEW]Eric Hauser - 2011 - Human Studies 34 (2):183-198.
    This paper analyzes four instances in talk of generalization about people, that is, of using statements about one or more people as the basis of stating something about a category. Generalization can be seen as a categorization practice which involves a reflexive relationship between the generalized-from person or people and the generalized-to category. One thing that is accomplished through generalization is instruction in how to understand the identity of the generalized-from person or people, so in addition to (...)
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  6.  4
    Evolution of Signs, Organisms and Artifacts as Phases of Concrete Generalization.Eliseo Fernández - 2015 - Biosemiotics 8 (1):91-102.
    Expanding on the results of previous contributions I advance several hypotheses on the interaction of physical and semiotic processes, both in organisms and in human artifacts. I then proceed to employ these ideas to formulate a general account of evolutionary processes in terms of concrete generalization, where, in analogy with conceptual generalization, novel creations retain antecedent features as special or restricted cases. I argue the following theses: 1) the main point of intersection of physical and semiotic causation is (...)
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  7. The Universal Generalization Problem.Carlo Cellucci - 2009 - Logique Et Analyse 52.
    The universal generalization problem is the question: What entitles one to conclude that a property established for an individual object holds for any individual object in the domain? This amounts to the question: Why is the rule of universal generalization justified? In the modern and contemporary age Descartes, Locke, Berkeley, Hume, Kant, Mill, Gentzen gave alternative solutions of the universal generalization problem. In this paper I consider Locke’s, Berkeley’s and Gentzen’s solutions and argue that they are problematic. (...)
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  8.  49
    Main Problems of Diagrammatic Reasoning. Part I: The Generalization Problem. [REVIEW]Zenon Kulpa - 2009 - Foundations of Science 14 (1-2):75-96.
    The paper attempts to analyze in some detail the main problems encountered in reasoning using diagrams, which may cause errors in reasoning, produce doubts concerning the reliability of diagrams, and impressions that diagrammatic reasoning lacks the rigour necessary for mathematical reasoning. The paper first argues that such impressions come from long neglect which led to a lack of well-developed, properly tested and reliable reasoning methods, as contrasted with the amount of work generations of mathematicians expended on refining the methods of (...)
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  9.  4
    Logics for Qualitative Inductive Generalization.Diderik Batens - 2011 - Studia Logica 97 (1):61 - 80.
    The paper contains a survey of (mainly unpublished) adaptive logics of inductive generalization. These defeasible logics are precise formulations of certain methods. Some attention is also paid to ways of handling background knowledge, introducing mere conjectures, and the research guiding capabilities of the logics.
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  10.  7
    Horwich and the Generalization Problem.Klaus Ladstaetter - 2004 - Papers of the 27th International Wittgenstein Symposium:187-189.
    In order to be complete, Horwich’s minimalist theory must be able to deal with generalizations about truth. A logical and an epistemic-explanatory level of the generalization problem are distinguished, and Horwich’s responses to both sides of the problem are examined. Finally some persistent problems for minimalism are pointed out.
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  11.  18
    Geach on Generalization.Charles Sayward - 2002 - Dialogue 41 (02):221-.
    There are plausible objections to substitutional construals of generalization. But these objections do not apply to a substitutional construal of generalization proposed by Peter Geach several years ago. This paper examines Geach’s conception.
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  12.  2
    Classifying Generalization: Paradigm War or Abuse of Terminology?John N. Williams & Eric W. K. Tsang - 2015 - Journal of Information Technology 30 (1):18-19.
    Lee and Baskerville (2003) attempted to clarify the concept of generalization and classify it into four types. In Tsang and Williams (2012) we objected to their account of generalization as well as their classification and offered repairs. Then we proposed a classification of induction, within which we distinguished five types of generalization. In their (2012) rejoinder, they argue that their classification is compatible with ours, claiming that theirs offers a ‘new language.’ Insofar as we resist this ‘new (...)
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  13. Rationality and the Generalization of Randomized Controlled Trial Evidence.Jonathan Fuller - 2013 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 19 (4):644-647.
    Over the past several decades, we devoted much energy to generating, reviewing and summarizing evidence. We have given far less attention to the issue of how to thoughtfully apply the evidence once we have it. That’s fine if all we care about is that our clinical decisions are evidence-based, but not so good if we also want them to be well-reasoned. Let us not forget that evidence based medicine (EBM) grew out of an interest in making medicine ‘rational’, with the (...)
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  14.  13
    Causal‐Based Property Generalization.Bob Rehder - 2009 - Cognitive Science 33 (3):301-344.
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  15.  4
    Comparison of Decision Learning Models Using the Generalization Criterion Method.Woo‐Young Ahn, Jerome R. Busemeyer, Eric‐Jan Wagenmakers & Julie C. Stout - 2008 - Cognitive Science 32 (8):1376-1402.
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  16.  18
    Discriminability and Stimulus Generalization.Norman Guttman & Harry I. Kalish - 1956 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 51 (1):79.
  17.  20
    Stimulus and Response Generalization: Tests of a Model Relating Generalization to Distance in Psychological Space.Roger N. Shepard - 1958 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 55 (6):509.
  18.  8
    Effect of Discrimination Training on Auditory Generalization.Herbert M. Jenkins & Robert H. Harrison - 1960 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 59 (4):246.
  19.  5
    Increase Over Time in the Stimulus Generalization of Acquired Fear.Wallace R. McAllister & Dorothy E. McAllister - 1963 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 65 (6):576.
  20.  3
    Changes in Fear Generalization Gradients as a Function of Delayed Testing.Otello Desiderato, Barrie Butler & Cornelius Meyer - 1966 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 72 (5):678.
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  21.  1
    Incubation of Anxiety: Effect on Generalization Gradients.Otello Desiderato & Merton E. Wassarman - 1967 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 74 (4, Pt.1):506-510.
  22.  1
    Successive Negative Contrast Effect: Intertrial Interval, Type of Shift, and Four Sources of Generalization Decrement.E. J. Capaldi - 1972 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 96 (2):433.
  23.  20
    Feature Selection for Inductive Generalization.Na-Yung Yu, Takashi Yamauchi, Huei-Fang Yang, Yen-Lin Chen & Ricardo Gutierrez-Osuna - 2010 - Cognitive Science 34 (8):1574-1593.
    Judging similarities among objects, events, and experiences is one of the most basic cognitive abilities, allowing us to make predictions and generalizations. The main assumption in similarity judgment is that people selectively attend to salient features of stimuli and judge their similarities on the basis of the common and distinct features of the stimuli. However, it is unclear how people select features from stimuli and how they weigh features. Here, we present a computational method that helps address these questions. Our (...)
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  24.  29
    Object Dependent Thoughts, Perspectival Thoughts, and Psychological Generalization.Max F. Adams, R. Stecker & G. Fuller - 1999 - Dialectica 53 (1):47–59.
  25.  10
    Effects of Discrimination Training on Stimulus Generalization.Harley M. Hanson - 1959 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 58 (5):321.
  26.  13
    Generalization Gradients as Indicants of Learning and Retention of a Recognition Task.Harry P. Bahrick, Sandra Clark & Phyllis Bahrick - 1967 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 75 (4):464.
  27.  8
    Generalization Gradients Around Stimuli Associated with Different Reinforcement Schedules.Norman Guttman - 1959 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 58 (5):335.
  28.  3
    Analysis of Stimulus Generalization with a Psychophysical Method.Eric G. Heinemann, Edward Avin, Mary A. Sullivan & Sheila Chase - 1969 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 80 (2p1):215.
  29.  8
    Stimulus Generalization and Spontaneous Blinking in Man Involved in a Voluntary Activity.Y. Baumstimler & J. Parrot - 1971 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 88 (1):95.
  30.  4
    Stimulus Generalization in the Learning of Classifications.Roger N. Shepard & Jih-Jie Chang - 1963 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 65 (1):94.
  31.  8
    Stimulus Generalization as a Function of Drive Level, and the Relation Between Two Measures of Response Strength.J. Robert Newman & G. Robert Grice - 1965 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 69 (4):357.
  32.  8
    The Generalization of Conditioned Responses. IV. The Effects of Varying Amounts of Reinforcement Upon the Degree of Generalization of Conditioned Responses. [REVIEW]C. I. Hovland - 1937 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 21 (3):261.
  33.  12
    Octave Generalization, Pitch Discrimination, and Loudness Thresholds in the White Rat.H. R. Blackwell & H. Schlosberg - 1943 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 33 (5):407.
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  34.  6
    A Study of Concept Formation as a Function of Reinforcement and Stimulus Generalization.Arnold H. Buss - 1950 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 40 (4):494.
  35.  7
    Primary Stimulus Generalization of the Gsr as a Function of Objective and Subjective Definition of the Stimulus Dimension.Kenneth R. Burstein, Seymour Epstein & Barry D. Smith - 1967 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 74 (1):124-131.
  36.  5
    Stimulus Generalization as a Function of the Frame of Reference.David R. Thomas & Charles G. Jones - 1962 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 64 (1):77.
  37.  11
    The Generalization of Conditioned Responses. III. Extinction, Spontaneous Recovery, and Disinhibition of Conditioned and of Generalized Responses. [REVIEW]C. I. Hovland - 1937 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 21 (1):47.
  38.  12
    Effects of Interdimensional Training on Stimulus Generalization: II. Within-Subjects Design.Joseph Lyons & David R. Thomas - 1967 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 75 (4):572.
  39.  7
    Generalization of Acquired Fear as a Function of CS Intensity and Number of Acquisition Trials.Othello Desiderato - 1964 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 67 (1):41.
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  40.  1
    Stimulus Generalization as a Function of Level of Motivation.David R. Thomas & Richard A. King - 1959 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 57 (5):323.
  41.  2
    The Generalization Gradient in Recognition Memory.Leo Postman - 1951 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 42 (4):231.
  42.  4
    Effects of Context on the Postdiscrimination Gradient of Stimulus Generalization.John W. Donahoe, James H. McCroskery & W. Kirk Richardson - 1970 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 84 (1):58.
  43.  10
    Effect of Test Stimulus Range on Stimulus Generalization in Human Subjects.Gary Hansen, Arthur Tomie, David R. Thomas & Doris H. Thomas - 1974 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 102 (4):634.
  44.  7
    Stimulus Generalization After Equal Training on Two Stimuli.Harry I. Kalish & Norman Guttman - 1957 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 53 (2):139.
  45.  7
    Stimulus Generalization After Training on Three Stimuli: A Test of the Summation Hypothesis.Harry I. Kalish & Norman Guttman - 1959 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 57 (4):268.
  46.  3
    Effects of Extradimensional Training on Stimulus Generalization.David R. Thomas, Frederick Freeman, John G. Svinicki, D. E. Scott Burr & Joseph Lyons - 1970 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 83 (1p2):1.
  47.  3
    Semantic Generalization Without Prior Conditioning.Irving Maltzman, Barry Langdon & Dennis Feeney - 1970 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 83 (1p1):73.
  48.  2
    Effects of Interdimensional Training on Stimulus Generalization: An Extension.David R. Thomas & Kimbal L. Wheatley - 1974 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 103 (6):1080.
  49.  4
    Stimulus Generalization Following Different Methods of Training.Daniel B. Reinhold & Charles C. Perkins Jr - 1955 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 49 (6):423.
  50.  9
    Within-Subject Partial Reinforcement Effects: Reward-Nonreward Transitions and Generalization.Roger L. Mellgren, Dennis G. Dyck, Jeffrey A. Seybert & Dan M. Wrather - 1973 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 99 (3):389-394.
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