Tras recordar la intensa labor intelectual desarrollada por José Gómez Caffarena, se analizan la estructura y tesis fundamentales de su obra El enigma y el misterio. Una filosofía de la religión. A las consideraciones sobre la historia y estructura del hecho religioso se agrega un amplio estudio sobre las diversas posiciones ante lo religioso, conforme a una triple tipología inspirada en Dilthey, para articular finalmente una elaborada propuesta sobre la plausibilidad filosófica de la fe en Dios, en la que se (...) abordan muy diversos problemas de la filosofía de la religión . Con un sólido conocimiento de la tradición escolástica y de la filosofía moderna , Caffarena ofrece una sobria y matizada propuesta en la que defiende la posible conjugación de las cautelas de la razón con el aliento de la esperanza. (shrink)
Dentro dei ámbito de estudio da la ciancia, recientemente ha surgido con fuerza un nuevo enfoque, la sociología dei conocimiento científico (SSK). Desde su aparición a mediados de la dacada de los setenta, la SSK ha tomado formas diversas. Entre éstas y la filosofía de la ciencia ha existido una continua disputa. Ultimamente, sin embargo, la SSK se ha ido transformando en una “sociologfa de la practica cientrfica”. A partir de este cambio, ambas disciplinas -la filosofía de la ciencia y (...) a SSK- están encontrando puntos en común de influencia, diálogo y estudio. Mi propósito es mostrar la trayectoria de la SSK y analizar esos puntos de contacto.Within the field of science studies, recently a new approach has taken a strong hold -the sociology of scientific knowledge (SSK). Ever since its appearance in the mid-seventies, within SSK there have been diverse tendencies. Between these and the philosophy of science there has been a perpetual confrontation. Lately, SSK appears to be undergoing a metamorphosis, transforming into a sociology of scientific practice. What is interesting about this case is that both disciplines -philosophy of science and SSK- are finding a common point of confluence, dialogue and study. My aim is to trace the trajectory of SSK and to analyze these points of contact. (shrink)
Gomez, Cristina Lledo This article explores the idea that motherhood is an invitation to engage with the paschal mystery and can thus be a salvific experience in the lives of women. This is of even greater significance for a Christian mother who can explicitly name the experience as her own sharing in the paschal event of Jesus. This article will focus on crisis moments of motherhood in a contemporary Western context, exploring particularly the issues raised in first becoming a (...) mother, and on the initial years of motherhood. (shrink)
El cosmopolitismo, esto es, la representación del conjunto de los seres humanos como una sociedad universal, tiene una larga historia: las doctrinas y propuestas cosmopolitas atraviesan lo siglos. Pero hoy el cosmopolitismo suscita un renovado e intenso interés, debido tanto a la intensificación de la comunicación e interdependencia económica, cultural y política entre los habitantes y pueblos de la Tierra como a los presupuestos universalistas de los principales planteamientos morales y políticos actuales. Este libro examina los variados aspectos y expresiones (...) del cosmopolitismo -cultural, económico, moral, jurídico, político-, atendiendo siempre a su relación, explícita o implícita, con la política. Trata igualmente de hacerse cargo de las principales críticas a las que se enfrenta, ya se trate de las que lo consideran una fantasía bienintencionada, ajena a la realidad conflictiva y plural de la política, y por tanto de imposible realización, o bien de aquellas que ven en el cosmopolitismo una máscara ideológica que encubre la dominación y la represión de las diferencias por parte de los poderosos. Teniendo en cuenta todo eso, aquí se concluye sin embargo que la política del siglo XXI ha de ser comprendida necesariamente desde un punto de vista cosmopolita, es decir, teniendo en cuenta el horizonte mundial de los problemas y propuestas de cualquier signo. Al mismo tiempo, se sostiene que el cosmopolitismo ha de ser concebido como un proyecto político para ser real y eficaz, por difícil o lejana que nos parezca su realización. Javier Peña Echeverría (San Sebastián, 1951) es catedrático de Filosofía Moral de la Universidad de Valladolid. Sus líneas de investigación fundamentales son la historia del pensamiento político moderno, la ciudadanía, el republicanismo y el cosmopolitismo, temas sobre los que ha publicado varios libros, artículos y contribuciones a obras colectivas. Cabe destacar los libros La filosofía política de Espinosa (1989) y La ciudadanía hoy. Problemas y propuestas (Universidad de Valladolid, 2000). (shrink)
Abstract: I address the issue of how pretence emerged in evolution by reviewing the (mostly negative) evidence about pretend behaviour in non-human primates, and proposing a model of the type of information processing abilities that humans had to evolve in order to be able to pretend. Non-human primates do not typically pretend: there are just a few examples of potential pretend actions mostly produced by apes. The best, but still rare, examples are produced by so-called 'enculturated' apes (reared by humans) (...) and among them specially those that have been systematically trained to use symbols (so-called 'linguistic' apes). A hypothesis that would explain the lack of pretence in apes is that they lack the mentalistic ability of theory of mind. However, in the last years apes have been demonstrated to possess relatively sophisticated social cognitive skills, some of them ontogenetically appearing in humans alongside with or even after pretend play. As a solution to the paradox, I discuss a model according to which pretence is supported by a mechanism capable of computing intentional relations with non-existing objects or properties (Intentional non-existence), as opposed to mechanisms computing intentional relations with existing, although not necessarily currently perceived, objects (Intentional availability). Apes possess the latter, which allows them to solve a variety of theory of mind tasks, but not the former, which typically prevents them from developing pretence. (shrink)
Paulo Freire consistently upheld humanization and mutuality as educational ideals. This article argues that conceptualizations of knowledge and how knowledge is sought and produced play a role in fostering humanization and mutuality in educational contexts. Drawing on Mary Shelley?s novel Frankenstein, this article focuses on the two central characters who ?ardently? pursue knowledge at all costs. It will be argued that the text suggests two possible outcomes from the pursuit of knowledge. One is mutuality; the other is social disconnectedness.
Beltrami's first allegedly true interpretation of lobachevsky's geometry can be conceived as (i) pursuing a kantian program insofar as it shows that all the geometrical lobachevskian concepts are constructible in the euclidean space of our human representation, And (ii) proving, Even to kant, That a non-Euclidean geometry is not only logically possible (something that kant never denied) but also mathematically acceptable from a kantian point of view (something that kant would have accepted only after beltrami's interpretation).
This chapter proposes that the cognitive mechanisms of joint attention (defined as a combination of attention following skills with attention contact skills) are not metarepresentational in nature, but based upon the coordination of two different types of intentional understanding — third-person and second-person intentions — that are represented at the level of a sensorimotor notion of others as subjects. This proposal is developed and analyzed from a comparative perspective through a review of findings concerning apes, typically developing children, and children (...) with autism. It is argued that each of these populations illustrates a different type of joint attention system based upon different notions of the other as a subject. (shrink)
The Freud Wars offers a comprehensive introduction to the crucial question of the justification of psychoanalysis. Part I examines three powerful critiques of psychoanalysis in the context of a recent controversy about its nature and legitimacy: is it a bankrupt science, an innovative science, or not a science at all but a system of interpretation? The discussion makes sense of the entrenched disagreement about the validity of psychoanalysis, and demonstrates how the disagreement is rooted in the theoretical ambiguity of the (...) central concept of psychoanalysis, the unconscious. This ambiguity is then presented as the pathway to a new way of understanding psychoanalysis, based on a mode of thinking that precedes division into mental and physical. The reader is drawn into a lively and thought-provoking analysis of the central issues: · What would it mean for psychoanalysis to count as a science? · Is psychoanalysis a form of hermeneutics? · How can mental and physical explanations coincide? Part II contains the source material for Part I: the influential critiques of psychoanalysis by Adolf Grünbaum, Thomas Nagel and Jürgen Habermas. No specialised knowledge is assumed, and the book is clear and accessible while still conveying the complexity and richness of the subject. It provides a fascinating introduction to philosophical thinking on psychoanalysis for students and practitioners of psychoanalysis, psychotherapy and philosophy. (shrink)
This book presents a historical perspective on patterns of human rights abuse in Cuba, El Salvador and Nicaragua and incorporates international relations in to the traditional theories of state repression found within the social sciences.
In this work, we examine the debate over thecommodification of agricultural germplasm in Mexico using aneo-Marxist theoretical framework. Specifically, we examine Mexico's movement away from a ``Farmers' Rights'' framework, whichtreats germplasm as a ``common good'' towards the passage of theMexican Federal Law on Plant Varieties, which sees germplasm as acommodity. In order to understand this legal change, the recenthistory of this discourse in Mexico is examined. Usingtheoretical insights based in an analysis of this discourse, weexamine the ideological elements of this (...) debate. It is arguedthat an international hegemonic bloc has arisen to address thisissue, superceding the bounds of any single state entity andfunctioning through the international bodies of free trade.Taking the Mexican state to be relatively autonomous fromcapital, we argue that the hegemonic bloc influenced the changein Mexican policy. We conclude with a discussion of the possibleeffects of this legal change in Mexico. (shrink)
El presente trabajo pretende servir como introducción a una teodicea de la filosofía y la teología racionalista (mu'tazilí) árabe a partir de un texto de Algazel. Esta teología y filosofía cree que Dios ha creado el mejor de los mundos posibles debido a su esencia buena, siendo, por tanto, optimista y determinista. Sin embargo, este optimismo en la teología viene dado por la mera voluntad de Dios, mientras que en la filosofía por la causalidad y la necesidad lógica.
This commentary criticizes nonverbal methods of assessing theory-of-mind on the basis of prior training of the critical response because they would encourage simple, nonmentalistic, associative solutions even in subjects with mentalistic capacities. I propose instead a new experimental paradigm based upon the use of spontaneous responses in less artificial situations. This method has already provided positive evidence of some level of ToM understanding in nonhuman primates.
On the basis of Eugen Fink’s insistence that the true contribution of Kant’s transcendental dialectic is that its treatment of the problem of totality reveals the concept ‘totum’ to be a masking of the nothing, our aim is to highlight that the theory of sexual relation introduced by Lacan in his Seminar Encore –and in general his turn to the real from the 1960 onwards– presents a group of features that make clear its Kantian affiliation. The particular analysis of the (...) logic of illusion contained in Lacan’s formulas of sexuation entail the exposure of three nothings: the impossibility of the sexual relation, the non-existence of The woman, and the absence of the Other of the Other. (shrink)
The aim of this paper is to prove how what is apparently a mistake made by Plutarch, wheter deliberate or not, in his reference to the arson attack of Caesar´s soldiers in Alexandria as the end of the famous Library, show us the common sense of the term “bibliotheke” from that time up to now. Coming to this conclusion has required a detailed analysis of the Library of Alexandria since its birth applying Aristotelian doctrine to its configuration not only as (...) an organized space for books but also as an imaginary reading room from which the helenistic world of relations is established. In a second approach, we focus the attention on the change occurred in this collection with the introduction of alphabetical order and, then, with the philological activity of Callimachus. As a result of his Pinakes, the platonic concept of daimon, “guide”, became the first characteristic o a philologist or librarian. Using the information ordered in the Pinakes anybody could be a librarian and find a library anywhere. The old megále bibliotheke of Alexandría remains only with the idea of the conservation of original papyrus. This is de reason of the enigmatic sentence of Plutarch announcing the end of this situation caused by the action of the fire. (shrink)
In this paper we present a semantic analysis of the application of didactic constructivism to chemical education. We show that the psychological basis of constructivism yield, when applied to chemistry, an internalist semantics for the chemical names. Since these names have been presented as typical examples of an externalism for kind terms, a fundamental incompatibility ensues. We study this situation, to conclude that it affects chemical education at every level. Finally, we present a preliminary analysis of this problem from the (...) point of view of physics. (shrink)
Nowadays is necessary to understand Life in a global way and that means to consider several dimensions of the topic at the same time: the ecological and the biological ones, but also the technical and symbolic ones, because we are just living –as it is well known– in a great “net-world”. The interdependence is the key, above all when Nature and Culture interact and integrate the new ecosystem of the planet Earth as never they did before, and all that includes (...) many challenges and risks too. (shrink)
It is pretended to show the influence Cervantes had on Freud. Freud was worried about the psychic disorders. He was also disappointed by the methods of psychiatry had at that time. Freud was very interested in the plays of Cervantes, especially in El coloquio de los perros and El Quixote, where reality and illusion, and the relationship between sanity and insanity are their central axes. One of the possible readings of the great play is the one where limits between reason (...) and unreason are not clear, to the point of achieving “the reason of the unreasonableness”, which would make it understandable and explicable. Real fantasy, fantastic reality, the demarcation between them was one of the topics that worried Freud. Freud is not a simple lawyer of the irrationality, but he also tries to find “the reason of the unreasonableness” that neurotics show in the symptoms he tried to explain in detail. (shrink)
La polémica Mach-Planck acerca del estado cognitivo de las teorías científicas nos permite llegar a las siguientes conclusiones. No siempre el que defendió las posturas luego asentadas científicamente desarrolló los mejores argumentos en la polémica. Por ejemplo, Planck malinterpretó las tesis de Mach acerca de la imagen científica, sus conceptos y leyes. La postura de ambos estaba fundada en distintas filosofías y, por ende, en distintos sistemas de valores y en modos diferentes de priorizarlos. Hay una relatividad temporal de un (...) aparente vencedor por sobre otro que se invierte en otro momento del desarrollo histórico de la física. No hay algoritmo o argumento definitivo alguno para declarar vencedora a ninguna de las posturas. Dicotomías filosóficas como realismo-instrumentalismo son insuficientes para captar la complejidad de las posturas epistemológicas y ontológicas de los científicos. Finalmente, la polémica enfatiza el rol decisivo de la dimensión filosófica en cuestiones teóricas de la física. The Mach-Planck controversy about the cognitive status of scientific theories lead us to the following conclusions. Not always the one who maintains some theses that look better is the one who advanced the best arguments for criticizing his opponent. Their views were grounded in different philosophies, and consequently, in different valuesystems. There was no absolute winner-loser; each one might look like a winnerloser depending upon de historical and scientific context relative to which the choice is being made. There is no algorithm and definitive argument for declaring a final winner-loser. Standard philosophical dichotomies like realism vs. instrumentalism are insufficient for grasping the complexity of the epistemological and ontological positions of scientists. Finally, the controversy emphasizes the decisive role played by philosophy in the theoretical issues of physics. (shrink)
This paper reports a longitudinal study on the ontogeny of triadic cooperative interactions in a hand-reared lowland gorilla from 6 months to 36 months of age. Using the behavioural categories developed by Hubley and Trevarthen to characterize the origins of “secondary intersubjectivity” in human babies between 8-12 months of age, I chart the emergence of comparable coordinations of gestures and actions with objects and acts of dyadic communication. The findings show that the categories and concepts of secondary intersubjectivity are applicable (...) to the gorilla, who engages with people in cooperative actions with objects. The ontogeny of triadic interaction in the gorilla was very similar to that described in human infants, but more extended in time and with some peculiarities, such as the absence of pointing and showing gestures, some of whose functions might be taken over by contact gestures which in human infants may appear later in development. The results do not support claims of human uniqueness in the development of cooperative action, but suggest a heterochrony in some aspects of the ontogeny of triadic interactions leading to a divergence between gorilla and human infants within secondary intersubjectivity. (shrink)
An introduction, from an al-Ghazâlî´s text, into a philosophic theodicy and an Arabic rationalistic theology (mu`tazili). Both of them, theology and philosophy, belive that God has created the best of possible worlds, so that, this world is optimistic and deterministic. However this optimism sense has different causes in them; for theodicy that is owing to Good wishes, while for philosophy is because of the causality and logical necessity.