Promises

Edited by Allen Habib (University of Calgary)
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  1. added 2020-05-07
    The People’s Integrity and Property – a Reply to My Critics.Shmuel Nili - forthcoming - Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy:1-10.
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  2. added 2020-04-20
    Moral Risk and Communicating Consent.Renée Jorgensen Bolinger - 2019 - Philosophy and Public Affairs 47 (2):179-207.
    In addition to protecting agents’ autonomy, consent plays a crucial social role: it enables agents to secure partners in valuable interactions that would be prohibitively morally risk otherwise. To do this, consent must be observable: agents must be able to track the facts about whether they have received a consent-based permission. I argue that this morally justifies a consent-practice on which communicating that one consents is sufficient for consent, but also generates robust constraints on what sorts of behaviors can be (...)
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  3. added 2020-03-25
    Matters of Trust as Matters of Attachment Security.Andrew Kirton - forthcoming - International Journal of Philosophical Studies.
    I argue for an account of the vulnerability of trust, as a product of our need for secure social attachments to individuals and to a group. This account seeks to explain why it is true that, when we trust or distrust someone, we are susceptible to being betrayed by them, rather than merely disappointed or frustrated in our goals. What we are concerned about in matters of trust is, at the basic level, whether we matter, in a non-instrumental way, to (...)
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  4. added 2020-03-17
    Permissible Promise-Making Under Uncertainty.Alida Liberman - 2019 - Journal of the American Philosophical Association 5 (4):468-486.
    I outline four conditions on permissible promise-making: the promise must be for a morally permissible end, must not be deceptive, must be in good faith, and must involve a realistic assessment of oneself. I then address whether promises that you are uncertain you can keep can meet these four criteria, with a focus on campaign promises as an illustrative example. I argue that uncertain promises can meet the first two criteria, but that whether they can meet the second two depends (...)
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  5. added 2019-10-29
    The Paradox of Duties to Oneself.Daniel Muñoz - forthcoming - Australasian Journal of Philosophy:1-12.
    Philosophers have long argued that duties to oneself are paradoxical, as they seem to entail an incoherent power to release oneself from obligations. I argue that self-release is possible, both as a matter of deontic logic and of metaethics.
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  6. added 2019-10-01
    Consequentialism and Robust Goods.Vuko Andrić - 2019 - Utilitas 31 (3):334-342.
    In this article, I critique the moral theory developed in Philip Pettit's The Robust Demands of the Good: Ethics with Attachment, Virtue, and Respect. Pettit's theory, which I label Robust-Goods Consequentialism, aims to avoid the problems but retain the attractive features of traditional consequentialist theories. The distinctive feature of Robust-Goods Consequentialism is a value theory that attempts to accommodate what Pettit calls rich goods: certain moral phenomena that can be categorized under the headings of attachment, virtue and respect. I argue (...)
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  7. added 2019-10-01
    Почему эвиденциалисты должны верить обещаниям (Why Evidentialists Must Believe in Promises).Pavel Butakov - 2019 - Phiosophy. Journal of the Higher School of Economics 3 (3):172-200.
    I argue that evidentialist ethics of belief requires believing in every promise, because any promise always has sufficient evidence. In order to combine evidentialism with ethics of belief, I distinguish two belief-like propositional attitudes. The first is categorical belief, which I call “opinion,” the second is quantitative belief, which I call “credence.” I accept doxastic voluntarism about opinions, and doxastic involuntarism about credences. Opinion has two values—affirmative and negative—and the subject has control over which one to choose. Credence can have (...)
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  8. added 2019-08-20
    Joint Practical Deliberation.Brendan de Kenessey - 2017 - Dissertation, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
    Joint practical deliberation is the activity of deciding together what to do. In this dissertation, I argue that several speech acts that we can use to alter our moral obligations – promises, offers, requests, demands, commands, and agreements – are moves within joint practical deliberation. -/- The dissertation begins by investigating joint practical deliberation. The resulting account implies that joint deliberation is more flexible than we usually recognize, in two ways. First, we can make joint decisions not only about what (...)
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  9. added 2019-06-07
    Droit Et Théologie Dans la Pensée Scolastique.Alain Boureau & Irène Rosier-Catach - 2008 - Revue de Synthèse 129 (4):509-528.
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  10. added 2019-06-07
    The Imperial Oath of Allegiance. [REVIEW]John Briscoe - 1971 - The Classical Review 21 (2):260-263.
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  11. added 2019-06-06
    Shaping the Normative Landscape. By David Owens. [REVIEW]Mark Lebar - 2013 - Philosophical Quarterly 63 (253):851-853.
    David Owens argues that we have interests in purely normative phenomena—in particular, in being obligated. That is, obligation is valuable not merely because our more obvious and non-normative interests are served via being obligated and doing what we are obligated to do, but because the various ways in which we obligate ourselves to others, and they to us, are valuable in and of themselves. This is our ‘normative landscape’, and we shape that landscape through our various normative undertakings, such as (...)
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  12. added 2019-06-06
    Underivative Duty: Prichard on Moral Obligation: Thomas Hurka.Thomas Hurka - 2010 - Social Philosophy and Policy 27 (2):111-134.
    This paper examines H.A. Prichard's defense of the view that moral duty is underivative, as reflected in his argument that it is a mistake to ask “Why ought I to do what I morally ought?”, because the only possible answer is “Because you morally ought to.” This view was shared by other philosophers of Prichard's period, from Henry Sidgwick through A.C. Ewing, but Prichard stated it most forcefully and defended it best. The paper distinguishes three stages in Prichard's argument: one (...)
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  13. added 2019-06-06
    From Predictions to Promises: How to Derive Deontic Commitment.Mikhail Kissine - 2008 - Radical Philosophy Review of Books 16 (3):471-491.
    This paper attempts to identify general, cross-cultural cognitive factors that trigger the default commissive interpretation of assertions about one's future action. It is argued that the solution cannot be found at the level of the semantics of the English will, or any other future tense marker, but should be sought in the structure of rational intentions, as combined with the pragmatics of felicitous predictions and with parameters linked to the evolutionary advantage of cooperative behaviour. Some supporting evidence from language development (...)
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  14. added 2019-06-06
    A Comment on Threats and Communicative Rationality.Cristina Corredor - 2001 - Theoria: Revista de Teoría, Historia y Fundamentos de la Ciencia 16 (1):147-166.
    The article studies two especific forms of social interaction, linguistically mediated: promises and threats. Two pregnant theoretical accounts are to be considered here. Firstly, the analysis propounded within the framework of Game Theory, assuming an intentionalist account of human agency and an instrumentalist concept of rationality; and secondly, the attempt carried out by Speech Acts theorists. In the first case, it can be shown that the theoretical premisses are insufficient to offer a proper account of such basic forms of social (...)
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  15. added 2019-06-06
    Promise-Giving and Treaty-Making: Homer and the Near East. [REVIEW]Peter Walcot - 1993 - The Classical Review 43 (1):163-164.
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  16. added 2019-06-06
    Consequentialism: The Philosophical Dog That Does Not Bark?: Daniel Holbrook.Daniel Holbrook - 1991 - Utilitas 3 (1):107-112.
    By consequentialism, I mean the position that actions are right or wrong insofar as they affect the happiness, preferences, etc., of some class of sentient beings, usually humans. Consequentialism specifies a fairly narrow range of properties as being the determining factors in regard to actions being right or wrong. Each action has properties other than how it affects the happiness preferences, etc., of humans. According to consequentialism, the kind of action it is, the motivation behind the action, and other consequences, (...)
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  17. added 2019-06-06
    More on Self-Enslavement and Paternalism in Mill: D. G. Brown.D. G. Brown - 1989 - Utilitas 1 (1):144-150.
  18. added 2019-06-06
    Gavin Hamilton’s Oath of Brutus and David’s Oath of the Horatii: The Revisionist Interpretation of Neo-Classical Art.David Carrier - 1988 - The Monist 71 (2):197-213.
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  19. added 2019-05-01
    Is There Value in Keeping a Promise?Crescente Molina - 2019 - Journal of Ethics and Social Philosophy 15 (1).
    According to Joseph Raz, the fact of making a valid promise creates “promissory reasons”: it constitutes for the promisor a reason for performing her promise and a reason for not acting for at least some of the reasons that recommend something different than performing. In his latest work on promising, Raz provides a novel account of the grounds of promissory reasons—an account which is different in important respects to the one he defended decades ago. In this paper, I argue that, (...)
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  20. added 2019-03-18
    The Philosophy of Medicine Reborn: A Pellegrino Reader.H. Tristram Engelhardt & Fabrice Jotterand (eds.) - 2008 - University of Notre Dame Press.
    Edmund D. Pellegrino has played a central role in shaping the fields of bioethics and the philosophy of medicine. His writings encompass original explorations of the healing relationship, the need to place humanism in the medical curriculum, the nature of the patient’s good, and the importance of a virtue-based normative ethics for health care. In this anthology, H. Tristram Engelhardt, Jr., and Fabrice Jotterand have created a rich presentation of Pellegrino’s thought and its development. Pellegrino’s work has been dedicated to (...)
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  21. added 2019-03-18
    The Hippocratic Contract.J. Rosalki - 1993 - Journal of Medical Ethics 19 (3):154-156.
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  22. added 2019-03-10
    Variable Objects and Truthmaking.Friederike Moltmann - forthcoming - In Mircea Dumitru (ed.), Metaphysics, Meaning, and Modality. Themes from Kit Fine. Oxford University Press.
    This paper will focus on a philosophically significant construction whose semantics brings together two important notions in Kit Fine’s philosophy, the notion of truthmaking and the notion of a variable embodiment, or its extension, namely what I call a ‘variable object’. The analysis of the construction this paper will develop will be based on an account of clausal complements of intensional verbs that is of more general interest, based on truthmaking and the notion of a cognitive product, such as a (...)
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  23. added 2019-03-10
    Promises as invitations to trust.Robert Shaver - 2020 - Philosophical Studies 177 (6):1515-1522.
    It is now popular to think that promissory obligation is grounded in an invitation to trust. I object that there are important differences between invitations and promises; appealing to trust faces one of the main problems alleged to face appealing to expectations; and whatever puzzles afflict promissory obligation afflict the obligation not to renege on one’s invitations.
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  24. added 2019-03-10
    Apology, Restitution, and Forgiveness After Psychological Contract Breach.Nicholas DiFonzo, Anthony Alongi & Paul Wiele - 2020 - Journal of Business Ethics 161 (1):53-69.
    Using forgiveness theory, we investigated the effects of organizational apology and restitution on eliciting forgiveness of a transgressing organization after transactional psychological contract breach. Forgiveness theory proposes that victims are more likely to forgive offenders when victims’ positive offender-oriented emotions replace negative ones. Three pre-post laboratory experiments, using vignettes about a broken promise of financial aid, found that while apology-alone and restitution-alone each increased likelihood of forgiving, restitution-alone was the more effective of the two responses. When combined with an apology, (...)
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  25. added 2019-03-10
    Right in Some Respects: Reasons as Evidence.Daniel Whiting - 2018 - Philosophical Studies 175 (9):2191-2208.
    What is a normative reason for acting? In this paper, I introduce and defend a novel answer to this question. The starting-point is the view that reasons are right-makers. By exploring difficulties facing it, I arrive at an alternative, according to which reasons are evidence of respects in which it is right to perform an act, for example, that it keeps a promise. This is similar to the proposal that reasons for a person to act are evidence that she ought (...)
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  26. added 2019-03-10
    Temporally Extended Practical Rationality and the Ethics of Belief.Emily Sherwin - unknown
    Actors may be called on to judge their reasons for action at two different points in time: once when they form an intention to act in the future and again at the time of action. At the time the actor forms her intention, her perspective is a general one, encompassing a range of possible circumstances that cannot be narrowed or fully specified in advance of action. At time of action, the actor's perspective is particularized, with more evidence available about reasons (...)
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  27. added 2019-03-10
    Hannah Arendt Reads Carl Schmitt’s The Nomos of the Earth: A Dialogue on Law and Geopolitics From the Margins.Anna Jurkevics - 2017 - European Journal of Political Theory 16 (3):345-366.
    Many studies have deduced subterranean dialogues between Hannah Arendt and Carl Schmitt from indirect evidence. This article uses new evidence from marginalia in Arendt’s copy of Nomos of the Earth and finds that she formed, but never published, an incisive critique of Schmitt’s geopolitics. Through an analysis of Arendt’s comments on the topics of soil, conquest, and contract, I show that Arendt deemed Schmitt’s theory to be imperialist and in contradiction with itself. Her reading of Schmitt prompts important new questions (...)
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  28. added 2019-03-10
    Uncertainty, Indeterminacy, and Agent-Centred Constraints.Douglas W. Portmore - 2017 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 95 (2):284-298.
    Common-sense morality includes various agent-centred constraints, including ones against killing unnecessarily and breaking a promise. However, it's not always clear whether, had an agent ϕ-ed, she would have violated a constraint. And sometimes the reason for this is not that we lack knowledge of the relevant facts, but that there is no fact about whether her ϕ-ing would have constituted a constraint-violation. What, then, is a constraint-accepting theory to say about whether it would have been permissible for her to have (...)
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  29. added 2019-03-10
    Of Ceilings and Flaws: An Analytical Approach to the Minimum Performance Rule in Contract Damages.David Pearce - 2016 - Oxford Journal of Legal Studies 36 (4):781-798.
    The minimum performance rule applies where the defendant who has repudiated his contract would have had a choice as to how to perform it. The rule requires that damages be assessed on the basis that the defendant would have chosen to perform in the least onerous manner. Two principal criticisms of the rule are made. The first is that the rule’s fundamental assumption, that minimum performance is all the claimant is entitled to, rests on a flawed understanding of what it (...)
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  30. added 2019-03-10
    Interpersonal Responsibilities and Communicative Intentions.Antonella Carassa & Marco Colombetti - 2014 - Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 13 (1):145-159.
    When they interact in everyday situations, people constantly create new fragments of social reality: they do so when they make promises or agreements, but also when they submit requests or answer questions, when they greet each other or express gratitude. This type of social reality ‘in the small,’ that we call interpersonal reality, is deontic in nature as all other kinds of social reality; what makes it somewhat special is that its deontology applies to the very same persons who create (...)
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  31. added 2019-03-10
    The Possibility of Consent.David Owens - unknown
    Worries about the possibility of consent recall a more familiar problem about promising raised by Hume. To see the parallel here we must distinguish the power of consent from the normative significance of choice. I'll argue that we have normative interests, interests in being able to control the rights and obligations of ourselves and those around us, interests distinct from our interest in controlling the non-normative situation. Choice gets its normative significance from our non-normative control interests. By contrast, the possibility (...)
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  32. added 2019-03-10
    Turbulent Worlds.Melinda Cooper - 2010 - Theory, Culture and Society 27 (2-3):167-190.
    Focusing on the speculative methodologies used to generate models of the financial and meteorological future, this article develops a series of theses on the ‘evental’ and ‘atmospheric’ quality of contemporary power. What is at stake in the circulation of capital today, I argue, is not so much the exchange of equivalents as the universal transmutability of fluctutation. Whether we are dealing with the turbulence of world financial markets or that of complex earth systems, the non-dialectical relation can itself be extracted, (...)
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  33. added 2019-03-10
    The Linguistics of Misrepresentation: Intentions and Truth Values. [REVIEW]Ross Charnock - 2010 - International Journal for the Semiotics of Law - Revue Internationale de Sémiotique Juridique 23 (4):427-449.
    During contractual negotiations, one party may lead the other into error, thus causing loss or damage. If misrepresentation is shown, the aggrieved party may therefore claim for damages or rescission. In the English law, it was for many years unclear whether a finding of misrepresentation required proof of deliberate, intentional fraud, or whether it could be analysed as a simple failure of consensus, in which case it would be sufficient to show negligence. According to the traditional rule, the misleading declaration (...)
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  34. added 2019-03-10
    A Conditional Intent to Perform.Gregory Klass - 2009 - Legal Theory 15 (2):107.
    The doctrine of promissory fraud holds that a contractual promise implicitly represents an intent to perform. A promisor's conditional intent to perform poses a problem for that doctrine. It is clear that some undisclosed conditions on the promisor's intent should result in liability for promissory fraud. Yet no promisor intends to perform come what may, so there is a sense in which all promisors conditionally intend to perform. Building on Michael Bratman's planning theory of intentions, this article provides a theoretical (...)
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  35. added 2019-03-10
    Inducing Breach of Contract, Conversion and Contract as Property.Pey-Woan Lee - 2009 - Oxford Journal of Legal Studies 29 (3):511-533.
    This article seeks to understand contractual rights through an examination of the possible ‘property’ content in contracts in the context of the inducement tort and conversion. It argues that, contrary to popular perception, contracts and property are different shades of a similar phenomenon. Not being a reified ‘thing’ with stable features and structure, property is a relative rather than an absolute concept. To determine whether the holder of an intangible resource ought to be conferred with ‘property’ or exclusive control of (...)
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  36. added 2019-03-10
    The Choice of Paradigm for Theory of Contract: Reflections on the Relational Model.Dori Kimel - 2007 - Oxford Journal of Legal Studies 27 (2):233-255.
    The article comments on the supposed need for a paradigm for the theory of contract, primarily by way of engaging with the most prominent source of late of calls for a paradigm shift in contract theory, the relational theory of contract. The article distinguishes between an empirical, a doctrinal-prescriptive and a theoretical–analytical line of argument as offered by relational theory. With regard to the first line of argument, the article argues that the thought that contract law already is ‘relationally constituted’ (...)
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  37. added 2019-03-10
    Altruists with Green Beards.Ernst Fehr & Urs Fischbacher - 2005 - Analyse & Kritik 27 (1):73-84.
    If cooperative dispositions are associated with unique phenotypic features , cooperative individuals can be identi ed. Therefore, cooperative individuals can avoid exploitation by defectors by cooperating exclusively with other cooperative individuals; consequently, cooperators ourish and defectors die out. Experimental evidence suggests that subjects, who are given the opportunity to make promises in face-to-face interactions, are indeed able to predict the partner's behavior better than chance in a subsequent Prisoners' Dilemma. This evidence has been interpreted as evidence in favor of green (...)
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  38. added 2019-03-10
    Is an Agreement an Exchange of Intentions?Joe Mintoff - 2004 - Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 85 (1):44–67.
    Margaret Gilbert has argued that an agreement is not exchange of promises, since no such exchange plays all the roles she claims are distinctive of agreements. After briefly discussing the notion of intention and the principles governing intentions, I argue that a certain type of exchange of intentions — in which one person forms a conditional intention to act if the other does, and the other forms an unconditional intention to act on the presumption that the first will do what (...)
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  39. added 2019-03-10
    Intimate Relationships, Relational Contract Theory, and the Reach of Contract.John Wightman - 2000 - Feminist Legal Studies 8 (1):93-131.
    This article explores the role of contract law inintimate relationships, focussing on tacit or onlypartially express agreements rather than expressprenuptial or cohabitation contracts. It welcomes theembrace of relational contract theory by feminist andgay and lesbian commentators, but argues that keydifferences between commercial and intimaterelationships need further analysis if the potentialof relational theory in cases of informal agreement isto be realised. The first difference is that,while commercial contracts can draw on the context ofa contracting community as a source of norms to (...)
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  40. added 2019-03-10
    Practices and Principles: Approaches to Ethical and Legal Judgment.Mark Tunick - 1998 - Princeton University Press.
    Are there universally valid moral principles that dictate what's right regardless of what the consensus is within a particular society? Or are moral judgments culturally relative, ultimately dictated by conventions and practices which vary among societies? Practices and Principles takes up the debate between cultural relativists and universalists, and the related debate in political philosophy between communitarians and liberals, each of which has roots in an earlier debate between Kant and Hegel. Rejecting uncritical deference to social practice, I acknowledge the (...)
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  41. added 2019-03-10
    Agency and Character: A View of Action and Agency.Pauline Marie Kaurin - 1997 - Dissertation, Temple University
    Standard accounts in action theory, given by Davidson, Hornsby, Thalberg and Chisholm explain action and agency by reducing them to descriptions, mental states and/or bodily movements. I argue such accounts are insufficient; they fail to take into account the full range of agency. Agency is individual and social. When agents perform actions, they consider ideas, beliefs and desires that are part of a social, moral and conventional network; these also give meaning and significance to the agent's actions. By isolating the (...)
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  42. added 2019-03-10
    Altruismus, Moralität und Vertrauen.Norman Braun - 1992 - Analyse & Kritik 14 (2):177-186.
    Successful trust-relations exist if the trustee reciprocates in aceordance with his/her promises to the trustor's unilateral cooperation. Using a parametric rational choice approach, Coleman shows that an egoist without a moral conscience may place trust in another unmoral egoist. Consequently, successful trust-relations between those actors are possible if strategie considerations play no role for individual decision-making. This paper focusses on such considerations for the emergence of those relations, given complete information of the players. Generally, trust-relations are hard to establish if (...)
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  43. added 2019-03-10
    Speaker-Occasion Meaning and Commitment.Christopher Max Wahren - 1992 - Dissertation, Yale University
    Speaker-occasion meaning is the meaning and communicative "thrust" lent an utterance, by a speaker, on a particular occasion of utterance. While such meaning is plausibly interpreted as a function of communication-intentions on the part of the uttering agent, the most popular version of such an analysis, that of Paul Grice, is--I argue--bankrupt. ;In seeking a grip on the essential communication-intentions of communicative agents, one might turn to the commitments which these intentions create. Assertion, for example, entails a speaker commitment to (...)
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  44. added 2019-03-10
    The Self-Interest Based Contractarian Response to the Why-Be-Moral Skeptic.Anita M. Superson - 1990 - Southern Journal of Philosophy 28 (3):427-447.
    I examine the self-interest based contractarian's attempt to answer the question, "Why be moral?" In order to defeat the skeptic who accepts reasons of self-interest only, contractarians must show that the best theory of practical reasons includes moral reasons. They must show that it is rational to act morally even when doing so conflicts with self-interest. ;I examine theories offered by Hobbes, Baier, and Grice, and show they fail to defeat skepticism. Hobbes' theory gives no special weight to moral reasons (...)
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  45. added 2019-03-10
    Insincerity and Disloyalty.Gabriel Falkenberg - 1988 - Argumentation 2 (1):89-97.
    Insincerity is the intentional conflict between a state of mind and a synchronic linguistic act. Three cases have to be distinguished: lying, as the opposition of belief and assertion (the act is untruthful); dishonesty, as the opposition of will and declaration of will (act empty); and simulation, as the opposition of emotion and exclamation (act ungenuine). One of the problems arising is: Are there insincere commands, and if not, why?Disloyalty, on the other hand, is a diachronic inconsequence, the breach of (...)
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  46. added 2019-03-10
    Contemporary Hobbesian Contractarianism.Jody Steven Kraus - 1987 - Dissertation, The University of Arizona
    Contemporary Hobbesian contractarianism began in the wake of John Rawls' revitalization of contractarianism in A Theory of Justice and the subsequent body of critical literature which has grown up around it. Philosophers have been impressed with Rawls' powerful application of a contractarian framework to traditional issues in moral and political philosophy but dismayed at the extensive normative precommitments of his particular contractarian theory. They have thus sought an equally powerful contractarian approach unwed to strong normative precommitments. Of all extant contractarian (...)
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  47. added 2019-03-10
    Internalism and Moral Training.ron L. Haines - 1986 - Journal of Value Inquiry 20 (1):63-69.
    Internalism--The view that one can have a reason such as to justify an action only if one is moved to do that action--Cannot account for what a child must learn in order to be moved to keep a promise. Nor can it account for the relevance of the considerations that the child must come to understand in order to understand the wrongness of racism. Therefore there is good reason to think internalism false.
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  48. added 2019-03-06
    Graveside and Other Asymmetrical Promises in Advance.Ingrid V. Albrecht - forthcoming - Social Theory and Practice.
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  49. added 2019-03-06
    Could Ross’s Pluralist Deontology Solve the Conflicting Duties Problem?Cecilia Tohaneanu - forthcoming - Revue Roumaine de Philosophie 59.
    No matter how it is viewed, as a plausible version of anti-utilitarianism or of non-consequentialist, or even as a plausible version of deontology, the theory of prima facie duties certainly makes W. D. Ross one of the most important moral philosopher of the twentieth-century. By outlining his pluralistic deontology, this paper attempts to argue for a positive answer to the question of whether Ross’s theory can offer a solution to the issue of conflicting duties. If such a solution is convincing, (...)
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  50. added 2019-03-06
    The Identity-Enactment Account of Associative Duties.Saba Bazargan-Forward - 2019 - Philosophical Studies 176 (9):2351-2370.
    Associative duties are agent-centered duties to give defeasible moral priority to our special ties. Our strongest associative duties are to close friends and family. According to reductionists, our associative duties are just special duties—i.e., duties arising from what I have done to others, or what others have done to me. These include duties to abide by promises and contracts, compensate our benefactors in ways expressing gratitude, and aid those whom we have made especially vulnerable to our conduct. I argue, though, (...)
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