The penetration process of structures traditionally assigned to civil law into administrative law, especially administrative law aiming environmental protection, has been more noticeable through recent years. This process resulted in deepening the absence of a clear separation of private law norms from public law norms. It led to the existence of so-called quasi civil solutions, which can be found for example in the Act on prevention from damages in environment and its repair. Their specificity consists in the fact that they (...) cannot be regarded as civil law structures due to the differences between them and the civil law structures. This legal status sets new challenges for legal theorists as well as practition- ers. They concentrate on interpretation of administrative law provisions which were penetrated by civil law structures, taking into account differences between interpretation of administrative and civil law provisions. We should not reject specific character of the civil law provisions’ interpretation and interpret these provisions only by taking into account specificity of administrative law inter- pretation. Civil law institutions are characterized by a larger field for action, which is left for parties or performers, in comparison to the institutions of ad- ministrative law. This specificity of civil law structures should be considered as its advantage that should not be removed in the activities of public authorities. (shrink)
This paper aims to discuss selected issues related to the effect exerted by the financial aspects of psychotherapy on a psychotherapeutic relationship. At the beginning, I consider the effect that remuneration received by the therapist directly from the customer can have on their therapeutic relationship. Then I discuss the issues related to the compensation for psychotherapy services and show the consequences which the criteria of compensating for specific therapeutic methods have for the quality of psychotherapeutic relationships, as well as the (...) influence which the requirement to study the effectiveness of psychotherapy in the natural science paradigm has on psychotherapeutic services. The arguments I put forward lead to the conclusion that the criteria of the compensation for psychotherapeutic services can change the psychotherapeutic relationship into a business relationship and, as a result, the therapist can start to treat the customer instrumentally. (shrink)
. The connection presented in this paper mirror-links two metamathematical structures, the finitary closure operators, and the compact consistency properties, in such a way that a specification of one structure induces a provably equivalent specification of the other.
By indirect-deduction theorems introduced in the present paper we mean the theorems that allow to formalize indirect reasonings occurring in deductive practice in general and in mathematics in particular. We discuss the relationship between the introduced theorems and some logical calculi being virtually confined to propositional calculi with implication and negation. It is worth to notice that the above theorems are very handy and effective in proving logical theses.
The method based on the idea of Galois connection is well known. It facilitates investigations into similarities between mathematical structures, including isomorphisms between these structures, the highest degree of similarity. This idea is employed here and adapted so as to get to the core of aspects of the relationship between some metamathematical structures. The focus is put on the relation between traditional methodological orthodoxy based on the idea of proof , on the one hand, and on some alternative methodological set-ups (...) based on other ideas such as consistency or some forms of maximality, on the other hand. (shrink)
The paper provides a method for a uniform complete Hilbert-style axiomatisation of Post's -conditionals and Post's negation, where m is the number of truth values and u is the number of designated truth values . The main feature of the technique which we employ in this proof generalises the well-known Kalmár Lemma which was used by its author in his completeness argument for the ordinary, two-valued logic.
the standard metalogical set-ups seem to be all based on the idea of consequence (or proof). However, metalogic can also be effectively constructed using some non-standard primmitive ideas. In this paper an outline is given to four metalogical frameworks, alternative to the standard set-ups. They are based, respectively, on the idea of consistency; on an omission (or separation) operator; on an extension operator (called in the paper a Lindenbaum operator); and on the idea of maximality. All these metalogics, including the (...) standard consequence-based one, are one-to-one and proof-preserving translatable, and, in this sense, are seen pairwise equivalent and „externally” consistent. (shrink)
The paper is on Katarzyna Kobro’s artistic achievements and theoretical writings which present the foreshadowing of a new understanding of the space, articulated later by philosophers. Her and her husband conception of avant-garde sculpture postulates new mechanisms of seeing reality. By eliminating borders between sculpture and space, Kobro initiated a true breakthrough in art. Her achievement should be recognized for its truly pioneering and visionary status. Kobro was one of the first artists who revealed the intimate relation between art (...) and its environment. (shrink)