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Mark R. Wicclair [37]Mark Robert Wicclair [1]
  1.  91
    Conscientious Objection in Health Care: An Ethical Analysis.Mark R. Wicclair - 2011 - Cambridge University Press.
    Historically associated with military service, conscientious objection has become a significant phenomenon in health care. Mark Wicclair offers a comprehensive ethical analysis of conscientious objection in three representative health care professions: medicine, nursing and pharmacy. He critically examines two extreme positions: the 'incompatibility thesis', that it is contrary to the professional obligations of practitioners to refuse provision of any service within the scope of their professional competence; and 'conscience absolutism', that they should be exempted from performing any action contrary to (...)
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  2. Conscientious Objection in Medicine.Mark R. Wicclair - 2000 - Bioethics 14 (3):205–227.
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  3. Is Conscientious Objection Incompatible with a Physician’s Professional Obligations.Mark R. Wicclair - 2008 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 29 (3):171--185.
    In response to physicians who refuse to provide medical services that are contrary to their ethical and/or religious beliefs, it is sometimes asserted that anyone who is not willing to provide legally and professionally permitted medical services should choose another profession. This article critically examines the underlying assumption that conscientious objection is incompatible with a physician’s professional obligations (the “incompatibility thesis”). Several accounts of the professional obligations of physicians are explored: general ethical theories (consequentialism, contractarianism, and rights-based theories), internal morality (...)
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  4.  9
    Conscientious Objection, Moral Integrity, and Professional Obligations.Mark R. Wicclair - 2019 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 62 (3):543-559.
    Typically, a refusal to provide a medical service is an instance of conscientious objection only when the medical service is legal, professionally accepted, and clinically appropriate. That is, conscientious objection typically occurs only when practitioners reject prevailing norms or practices. Insofar as refusing to provide antibiotics for a viral infection does not violate prevailing clinical norms, there is no need for the physician in Case 1 to justify his refusal to provide antibiotics by appealing to his conscience.1 By contrast, insofar (...)
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  5.  29
    Managing Conscientious Objection in Health Care Institutions.Mark R. Wicclair - 2014 - HEC Forum 26 (3):267-283.
    It is argued that the primary aim of institutional management is to protect the moral integrity of health professionals without significantly compromising other important values and interests. Institutional policies are recommended as a means to promote fair, consistent, and transparent management of conscience-based refusals. It is further recommended that those policies include the following four requirements: (1) Conscience-based refusals will be accommodated only if a requested accommodation will not impede a patient’s/surrogate’s timely access to information, counseling, and referral. (2) Conscience-based (...)
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  6.  41
    Patient Decision-Making Capacity and Risk.Mark R. Wicclair - 1991 - Bioethics 5 (2):91–104.
  7.  84
    Pharmacies, Pharmacists, and Conscientious Objection.Mark R. Wicclair - 2006 - Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 16 (3):225-250.
    : This paper examines the obligations of pharmacy licensees and pharmacists in the context of conscience-based objections to filling lawful prescriptions for certain types of medications—e.g., standard and emergency contraceptives. Claims of conscience are analyzed as means to preserve or maintain an individual's moral integrity. It is argued that pharmacy licensees have an obligation to dispense prescription medications that satisfy the health needs of the populations they serve, and this obligation can override claims of conscience. Although efforts should be made (...)
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  8.  80
    Negative and Positive Claims of Conscience.Mark R. Wicclair - 2009 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 18 (1):14.
    Discussions of appeals to conscience by healthcare professionals typically focus on situations in which they object to providing a legal and professionally permitted service, such as abortion, sterilization, prescribing or dispensing emergency contraception, and organ retrieval pursuant to donation after cardiac death. “Negative claims of conscience” will designate such appeals to conscience. When healthcare professionals advance a negative claim of conscience, they do so to secure an exemption from ethical, professional, institutional, and/or legal obligations or requirements to provide a healthcare (...)
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  9.  66
    Caring for Frail Elderly Parents: Past Parental Sacrifices and the Obligations of Adult Children.Mark R. Wicclair - 1990 - Social Theory and Practice 16 (2):163-189.
  10.  38
    Ethics and Research with Deceased Patients.Mark R. Wicclair - 2008 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 17 (1):87-97.
    In a provocative 1974 article entitled “Harvesting the Dead,” Willard Gaylin explored potential uses of “neomorts,” or what are currently referred to as “heart-beating cadavers”—that is, humans determined to be dead by neurological criteria and whose cardiopulmonary function is medically maintained by ventilators, vasopressors, and so forth. Medical research was one of the potential uses Gaylin identified. He pointed out that tests of drugs and medical procedures that would have unacceptable health risks if performed on living human subjects could be (...)
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  11.  42
    The Moral Significance of Claims of Conscience in Healthcare.Mark R. Wicclair - 2007 - American Journal of Bioethics 7 (12):30 – 31.
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  12.  4
    Preventing conscientious objection in medicine from running amok: a defense of reasonable accommodation.Mark R. Wicclair - 2019 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 40 (6):539-564.
    A US Department of Health and Human Services Final Rule, Protecting Statutory Conscience Rights in Health Care, and a proposed bill in the British House of Lords, the Conscientious Objection Bill, may well warrant a concern that—to borrow a phrase Daniel Callahan applied to self-determination—conscientious objection in health care has “run amok.” Insofar as there are no significant constraints or limitations on accommodation, both rules endorse an approach that is aptly designated “conscience absolutism.” There are two common strategies to counter (...)
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  13.  49
    The Pedagogical Value of House, M.D. —Can a Fictional Unethical Physician Be Used to Teach Ethics?Mark R. Wicclair - 2008 - American Journal of Bioethics 8 (12):16 – 17.
  14.  60
    Informed Consent and Research Involving the Newly Dead.Mark R. Wicclair - 2002 - Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 12 (4):351-372.
    : This paper examines informed consent in relation to research involving the newly dead. Reasons are presented for facilitating advance decision making in relation to postmortem research, and it is argued that the informed consent of family members should be sought when the deceased have not made a premortem decision. Regardless of whether the dead can be harmed, there are two important respects in which family consent can serve to protect the dead: (1) protecting the deceased's body from being used (...)
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  15.  6
    Patient Decision‐Making Capacity and Risk.Mark R. Wicclair - 1991 - Bioethics 5 (2):91-104.
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  16.  7
    Justifying Conscience Clauses.Mark R. Wicclair - 2018 - Hastings Center Report 48 (5):22-25.
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  17.  35
    The Continuing Debate Over Risk-Related Standards of Competence.Mark R. Wicclair - 1999 - Bioethics 13 (2):149–153.
  18.  22
    Reasons and Healthcare Professionals' Claims of Conscience.Mark R. Wicclair - 2007 - American Journal of Bioethics 7 (6):21 – 22.
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  19.  54
    Conscience-Based Exemptions for Medical Students.Mark R. Wicclair - 2010 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 19 (1):38.
    Just as physicians can object to providing services due to their ethical and/or religious beliefs, medical students can have conscience-based objections to participating in educational activities. In 1996, the Medical Student Section of the American Medical Association introduced a resolution calling on the AMA to adopt a policy in support of exemptions for students with ethical or religious objections. In that report, students identified abortion, sterilization, and procedures performed on animals as examples of activities that might prompt requests for conscience-based (...)
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  20.  54
    Oversight of Research Involving the Dead.Mark R. Wicclair & Michael DeVita - 2004 - Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 14 (2):143-164.
    : Research involving the dead, especially heart-beating cadavers, may facilitate the testing of potentially revolutionary and life-saving medical treatments. However, to ensure that such research is conducted ethically, it is essential to: (1) identify appropriate standards for this research and (2) assign institutional responsibility and a mechanism for oversight. Protocols for research involving the dead should be reviewed by a special committee and assessed according to nine standards intended to ensure scientific merit, to protect deceased patients and their families, and (...)
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  21.  36
    The Abortion Controversy and the Claim That This Body Is Mine.Mark R. Wicclair - 1981 - Social Theory and Practice 7 (3):337-346.
  22.  19
    Surgeons, Intensivists, and Discretion to Refuse Requested Treatments.Mark R. Wicclair & Douglas B. White - 2014 - Hastings Center Report 44 (5):33-42.
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  23.  27
    The Consortium Ethics Program: An Approach to Establishing a Permanent Regional Ethics Network. [REVIEW]Rosa Lynn Pinkus, Gretchen M. Aumann, Mark G. Kuczewski, Anne Medsger, Alan Meisel, Lisa S. Parker & Mark R. Wicclair - 1995 - HEC Forum 7 (1):13-32.
    This paper describes the first three-year experience of the Consortium Ethics Program (CEP-1) of the University of Pittsburgh Center for Medical Ethics, and also outlines plans for the second three-year phase (CEP-2) of this experiment in continuing ethics education. In existence since 1990, the CEP has the primary goal of creating a cost-effective, permanent ethics resource network, by utilizing the educational resources of a university bioethics center and the practical expertise of a regional hospital council. The CEP's conception and specific (...)
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  24.  43
    Conscientious Refusals by Hospitals and Emergency Contraception.Mark R. Wicclair - 2011 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 20 (1):130-138.
    Hospitals sometimes refuse to provide goods and services or honor patients’ decisions to forgo life-sustaining treatment for reasons that appear to resemble appeals to conscience. For example, based on the Ethical and Religious Directives for Catholic Health Care Services , Catholic hospitals have refused to forgo medically provided nutrition and hydration , and Catholic hospitals have refused to provide emergency contraception and perform abortions or sterilization procedures. I consider whether it is justified to refuse to offer EC to victims of (...)
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  25.  24
    Film Theory and Hugo Münsterberg's "The Film: A Psychological Study"Film Theory and Hugo Munsterberg's "The Film: A Psychological Study".Mark R. Wicclair - 1978 - Journal of Aesthetic Education 12 (3):33.
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  26.  14
    A Shield Right for Reporters Vs. The Administration of Justice and the Right to a Fair Trial: Is There a Conflict?Mark R. Wicclair - 1985 - Business and Professional Ethics Journal 4 (2):1-14.
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  27.  6
    A Response to Brock and SKENE.Mark R. Wicclair - 1991 - Bioethics 5 (2):118-122.
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  28. Death in the Clinic.David Barnard, Celia Berdes, James L. Bernat, Linda Emanuel, Robert Fogerty, Linda Ganzini, Elizabeth R. Goy, David J. Mayo, John Paris, Michael D. Schreiber, J. David Velleman & Mark R. Wicclair - 2005 - Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
    Death in the Clinic fills a gap in contemporary medical education by explicitly addressing the concrete clinical realities about death with which practitioners, patients, and their families continue to wrestle. Visit our website for sample chapters!
     
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  29.  16
    A Response to Brock and SKENE.Mark R. Wicclair - 1991 - Bioethics 5 (2):118–122.
  30.  29
    A Shield Privilege for Reporters V. The Administration of Justice and the Right to a Fair Trial.Mark R. Wicclair - 1985 - Business and Professional Ethics Journal 4 (2):1-14.
  31.  10
    A Shield Privilege for Reporters V. The Administration of Justice and the Right to a Fair Trial: Is There a Conflict? [With Commentary].Mark R. Wicclair & Richard P. Cunningham - 1985 - Business and Professional Ethics Journal 4 (2):1 - 17.
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  32.  8
    Conscience.Mark R. Wicclair - 2013 - In Hugh LaFollette (ed.), The International Encyclopedia of Ethics. Wiley-Blackwell.
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  33.  26
    Commentary: Rights, Professional Obligations, and Moral Disapproval.Mark R. Wicclair - 2011 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 20 (1):144-147.
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  34.  16
    Ethics, Community and the Elderly.Mark R. Wicclair - 1999 - In Michael Parker (ed.), Ethics and Community in the Health Care Professions. Routledge. pp. 135.
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  35.  16
    Professionalism, Religion and Shared Decision-Making.Mark R. Wicclair - 2007 - American Journal of Bioethics 7 (7):29 – 31.
  36.  8
    Robots as Imagined in the Television Series Humans.Mark R. Wicclair - 2018 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 27 (3):497-510.
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  37.  5
    Second Thoughts About ‘Second Thoughts’.Mark R. Wicclair - 2017 - Journal of Medical Ethics 43 (5):303-304.
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