About this topic
Summary Philosophical study of Ecology and Conservation Biology is a growing part of Philosophy of Science. Ecology and Conservation Biology are closely-related branches of biology. Ecology studies interactions between groups of organisms and among those groups and their environments. The questions of Conservation Biology arise from efforts to preserve groups of organisms or other biological units like ecosystems. Many of the questions in this area arise from more general questions in philosophy of science like the role of laws, the structure of explanations, the challenges of representation. The specific kinds of complexity arising from the interactions of so many and such different living organisms as are typical of ecological research make Ecology and Conservation Biology fruitful terrain for examining how scientists can represent complexity in a manageable way. Moreover, these biological disciplines are also appealed to in decision making, at scales from the management of a wetland to the development of international climate-change agreements. Some philosophers of science address biologists' capacities to answer the questions arising in these contexts, given the achievements and limitations of these complex sciences.
Key works An early monograph connecting ecology and conservation was Shrader-Frechette 1993. Cooper 2003 was the first monograph in philosophy of science focused on ecology.
Introductions Justus 2013 is an introduction to problems and debates in Philosophy of Ecology written for Biology instructors and other educators, but more generally useful for non-specialists. Colyvan et al 2009 surveys major issues in Philosophy of Ecology. Justus 2002 discusses prominent problems in Conservation Biology, and Sarkar 2004 is an introductory encyclopedia article on the same.
  Show all references
Related categories
Subcategories:
1615 found
Search inside:
(import / add options)   Order:
1 — 50 / 1615
Material to categorize
  1. L. Arenilla & J. Ferguson (1978). Ecology: A Different Perspective. Diogenes 26 (104):1-22.
    Remove from this list   Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  2. Mark Edward Battersby (1978). Ecology and Freedom. Dissertation, The University of British Columbia (Canada)
    Remove from this list  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  3. Liliane Bodson (1982). L'apport de la Tradition Greco-Latine a la Connaissance du Coucou Gris (Cuculus Canorus L.). History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 4 (1):99 - 123.
    Few birds, if any, of the European species display as puzzling a behaviour as the Grey Cuckoo (Cuculus canorus L.). For centuries, its appearance, and migratory and reproductive patterns have been scrutinized and investigated, with varying degrees of success. Even the most sophisticated research methods have not yet provided the final account on this bird's « unconventional lifestyle » (Wyllie, 1981). The first collection of data and the first synthesis ever attempted on the Cuckoo's behaviour are preserved in the biological (...)
    Remove from this list  
    Translate
      Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  4. P. J. Boer (1968). Spreading of Risk and Stabilization of Animal Numbers. Acta Biotheoretica 18 (1-4).
    Remove from this list   Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   1 citation  
  5. J. Bogaert, R. Ceulemans, I. Impens & I. Nijs (2002). Towards a Quantification of Ecological Theory: The Importance of Multivariate Analysis and of an Accurate Diversity Measurement. Acta Biotheoretica 50 (1):57-61.
    Remove from this list   Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  6. J. Bogaert, D. Salvador-Van Eysenrode, P. Van Hecke, I. Impens & R. Ceulemans (2001). Land-Cover Change: Quantification Metrics for Perforation Using 2-D Gap Features. Acta Biotheoretica 49 (3):161-169.
    Perforation or gap formation in a vegetation is a major process in landscape transformation. The occurrence of gaps profoundly alters the microclimatical conditions in a vegetation. A method is proposed to quantify perforation by using the three main 2-D characteristics of the gaps: area, number and boundary length. New measures are developed by normalizing the observed values to the reference status of minimum and maximum perforation. As minimum perforation status, the presence of one single gap with area equal to the (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  7. J. Bogaert, P. Van Hecke & I. Impens (1999). A Reference Value for the Interior-to-Edge Ratio of Isolated Habitats. Acta Biotheoretica 47 (1):67-77.
    Isolated habitats, the consequence of the fragmentation process, are the object of external disturbance. This divides the patch area into two zones: interior and edge. The interior-to-edge ratio quantifies the potential disturbance impact. A method is presented to calculate a reference value for the interior-to-edge ratio, based upon the minimum edge for a given interior. The method is based on pixel geometry features and mathematical morphology. A corrected interior-to-edge ratio is defined using the reference value. The method is illustrated for (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   1 citation  
  8. Carl Boggs (2012). Ecology and Revolution: Global Crisis and the Political Challenge. Palgrave Macmillan.
    Ecology and Revolution: Global Crisis and the Political Challenge is an in-depth exploration and analysis of the global ecological crisis (going far beyond the issue of global warming) in the larger context of historical conditions and ...
    Remove from this list   Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  9. Ronald Bogue (2009). A Thousand Ecologies. In Bernd Herzogenrath (ed.), Deleuze/Guattari & Ecology. Palgrave Macmillan 42--56.
  10. C. S. Boiling (1976). Resilience and Stability of Ecosystems. In Erich Jantsch (ed.), Evolution and Consciousness: Human Systems in Transition. Reading Ma: Addison-Wesley 73.
    Remove from this list  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  11. Eric Bonabeau (1997). Flexibility at the Edge of Chaos: A Clear Example From Foraging in Ants. Acta Biotheoretica 45 (1):29-50.
    Starting from a clear, experimentally verified, example of a flexible biological system -- an ant colony --, it is hypothesized that adaptability is enhanced at the "edge of chaos ", that is, in the vicinity of a point of instability. An ant colony exhibiting an appropriate combination of group and mass recruitment can adaptively switch to a newly introduced food source if it is richer: this is precisely the case of some species, such as Tetramorium caespitum, whose behavioral parameters are (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  12. Murray Bookchin (forthcoming). What is Social Ecology. Environmental Philosophy: From Animal Rights.
    Remove from this list   Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   1 citation  
  13. Murray Bookchin (2005). The Ecology of Freedom: The Emergence and Dissolution of Hierarchy. Oakland, Ca ;Ak Press.
    " With this succinct formulation, Murray Bookchin launches his most ambitious work, The Ecology of Freedom.
    Remove from this list   Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   4 citations  
  14. Murray Bookchin (1994). Which Way for the Ecology Movement? Ak Press.
    This collection of essays by one of the world's most respected ecologists calls for a critical social standpoint that transcends both 'biocentrism' and ...
    Remove from this list   Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   1 citation  
  15. Murray Bookchin (1990). The Philosophy of Social Ecology Essays on Dialectical Naturalism.
    Remove from this list  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   1 citation  
  16. Mark E. Borrello (2010). The Farmer, the Hunter, and the Census Taker: Three Distinct Views of Animal Behavior. History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 32 (1).
  17. Catherine Frances Botha (2003). Heidegger, Technology and Ecology. South African Journal of Philosophy 22 (2):157-172.
    This article investigates Heidegger's views on technology, specifically focussing on whether it is possible to fit Heidegger's ideas into an ecologically minded framework. The author concludes that the question of what we should do in the wake of the technological crisis we face is inappropriate in terms of Heidegger's philosophy, since he proposes that we should first tackle the question “What should we think?”. The question whether Heidegger's ideas on technology provide us with new paths of action, specifically in terms (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  18. Paul Bouissac (2008). Ecology of Semiotic Space. American Journal of Semiotics 10 (3/4):145-165.
    Remove from this list   Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  19. Paul Bouissac (2001). On Signs, Memes and MEMS. Sign Systems Studies 29 (2):627-644.
    The first issue raised by this paper is whether semiotics can bring any added value to ecology. A brief examination of the epistemological status of semiotics in its current forms suggests that semiotics' phenomenological macroconcepts (which are inherited from various theological and philosophical traditions) are incommensurate with the complexity of the sciences comprising ecology and are too reductive to usefully map the microprocesses through which organisms evolve and interact. However, there are at least two grounds on which interfacing semiotics with (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   1 citation  
  20. Donald Boulter (1985). The New Agriculture. Genetic Engineering of Plants: Agricultural Research Opportunities and Policy Concerns. National Academic Press, 1984. Pp. 83. Paperback $9.50. [REVIEW] Bioessays 3 (4):190-190.
    Remove from this list   Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  21. Deron Boyles (2012). Dewey, Ecology, and Education: Historical and Contemporary Debates Over Dewey's Naturalism and (Transactional) Realism. Educational Theory 62 (2):143-161.
    In the early 1970s, Thomas Colwell argued for an “ecological basis [for] human community.” He suggested that “naturalistic transactionalism” was being put forward by some ecologists and some philosophers of education, but independently of each other. He suspected that ecologists were working on their own versions of naturalistic transactionalism independently of John Dewey. In this essay, Deron Boyles examines Colwell's central claim as well as his lament as a starting point for a larger inquiry into Dewey's thought. Boyles explores the (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (7 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   1 citation  
  22. Joseph A. Bracken (2012). Whiteheadian Societies as Open-Ended Systems and Open-Ended Systems as Whiteheadian Societies. Process Studies 41 (1):64-85.
    In this essay I defend two interrelated theses. The first is that Whiteheadian structured societies are best understood as open-ended systems akin to those currently being proposed in the natural and social sciences by Stuart Kauff­man, David Sloan Wilson, and Niklas Luhmann. The second is that an open-ended system is best understood in terms of an ongoing interplay of subjectivity and objectivity, which I derive from a modest rethinking of the workings of a Whiteheadian structured society.
    Remove from this list   Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  23. Ben Bradley (2001). The Value of Endangered Species. Journal of Value Inquiry 35 (1):43-58.
    Remove from this list   Direct download (6 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   3 citations  
  24. Emily Brady (2007). Introduction to 'Environmental and Land Art': A Special Issue of Ethics, Place and Environment. Ethics, Place and Environment 10 (3):257 – 261.
    Remove from this list   Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  25. Walter Brandt (1938). Biotypology II. Growth as Factor of Development of the Individual Types and of the Ecological Types of Man. Acta Biotheoretica 4 (2):119-132.
  26. Andrew T. Brei (2013). Rights & Nature. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 26 (2):393-408.
    Due to the significant and often careless human impact on the natural environment, there are serious problems facing the people of today and of future generations. To date, ethical, aesthetic, religious, and economic arguments for the conservation and protection of the natural environment have made relatively little headway. Another approach, one capable of garnering attention and motivating action, would be welcome. There is another approach, one that I will call a rights approach. Speaking generally, this approach is an attempt to (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (8 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  27. Adam Briggle (2005). Inventing Nature: Ecological Restoration by Public Experiments. Environmental Ethics 27 (3):333-334.
    Remove from this list   Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  28. Brisco Stefano Di (2010). Second Nature and Animal Life. Between the Species: An Electronic Journal for the Study of Philosophy and Animals 13 (10).
    I am concerned in this paper with McDowell's account of human uniqueness in nature in terms of a fundamental difference between humans and animals. I try to show that the concept of that difference is relevant for a Wittgensteinian understanding of the place of rationality in nature. I then develop an internal criticism of McDowell's transcendental way of approaching this topic by using Diamond's insights about the importance of the details for a realistic philosophical account of human mindedness. My aim (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  29. Jennifer A. Brisson & David L. Stern (2006). The Pea Aphid, Acyrthosiphon Pisum: An Emerging Genomic Model System for Ecological, Developmental and Evolutionary Studies. Bioessays 28 (7):747-755.
  30. Dev T. Britto & Herbert J. Kronzucker (2004). Bioengineering Nitrogen Acquisition in Rice: Can Novel Initiatives in Rice Genomics and Physiology Contribute to Global Food Security? Bioessays 26 (6):683-692.
  31. Dejan Brkić (2009). Are Fossil Fuels The Main Cause of Today's Global Warming? Facta Universitatis 6 (1):29-38.
    Gas will increasingly be seen as the fossil fuel of choice, especially when considering environmental impacts. Natural gas is the chance for Serbia for sustainable development and with its intensive consumption in the XXI century to conciliate the 4Es (Energy, Economy, Efficiency and Environment). In this paper we will compare the impact of different fossil fuels used for domestic heating with a special emphasis on natural gas. Some other causes of climate changes will be also discussed such as the Milanković (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  32. Donald Broom (2011). A History of Animal Welfare Science. Acta Biotheoretica 59 (2):121-137.
    Human attitudes to animals have changed as non-humans have become more widely incorporated in the category of moral agents who deserve some respect. Parallels between the functioning of humans and non-humans have been made for thousands of years but the idea that the animals that we keep can suffer has spread recently. An improved understanding of motivation, cognition and the complexity of social behaviour in animals has led in the last 30 years to the rapid development of animal welfare science. (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   3 citations  
  33. Bryson Brown (2011). Ecology as Historical Science. In Kevin deLaplante, Bryson Brown & Kent A. Peacock (eds.), Philosophy of Ecology. North-Holland 11--251.
    Remove from this list   Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   1 citation  
  34. Luis Emilio Bruni (2001). Biosemiotics and Ecological Monitoring. Sign Systems Studies 29 (1):293-311.
    During the recent decades, a global culrural-institutional network has gradually grown lip to project, implement, and use an enormous technological web that is supposed to observe, monitor, communicate, inventory, and assess our environment and its biodiversity in order to implement sustainable management models. The majority of "knowledge tools" that have been incorporated in the mainstream of this "techno-web" are amply based on a combination of mechanistic biology, genetic reductionism, economical determinism and neo-Darwinian cultural and biological perspectives. These approaches leave aside (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   1 citation  
  35. D. Bryce-Smith (1977). Ecology, Theology, and Humanism. Zygon 12 (3):212-231.
  36. Cameron Buckner (2013). In Search of Balance: A Review of Povinelli's World Without Weight. [REVIEW] Biology and Philosophy 28 (1):145-152.
    Povinelli and colleagues ask whether chimpanzees can understand the concept of weight, answering with a resounding ‘‘no’’. They justify their answer by appeal to over thirty previously unpublished experiments. I here evaluate in detail Povinelli’s arguments against his targets, questioning the assumption that such comparative questions will be resolved with an unequivocal ‘‘yes’’ or ‘‘no’’.
    Remove from this list   Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  37. Douglas J. Buege (1996). An Ecologically-Informed Ontology for Environmental Ethics. Biology and Philosophy 12 (1):1-20.
    Since the inception of their subject as a distinct area of study in philosophy, environmental ethicists have quarreled over the choice of entities with which an environmental ethic should be concerned. A dichotomous ontology has arisen with the ethical atomists, e.g., Singer and Taylor, arguing for moral consideration of individual organisms and the holists, e.g., Rolston and Callicott, focussing on moral consideration of systems. This dichotomous view is ecologically misinformed and should be abandoned. In this paper, I argue that the (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   1 citation  
  38. Alicia Irene Bugallo (2007). Ecología Profunda y conservacíon de la naturaleza. The Proceedings of the Twenty-First World Congress of Philosophy 3:227-234.
    Norwegian ecosopher Arne Naess distinguished 'deep' from 'shallow' or merely technical approaches to ecological issues. The first proposal of the Deep Ecology movement (1973) was rooted in a monistic gestalt ontology. Deep Ecology is a tool for enabling systematic discussion of total views, of how norms and consequences interact. We need a deep spiritual change of attitude. Responsible ways of living are more conducive to truly human goals than the present destructive lifestyles. The movement has an inseparable ecopolitical aspect. The (...)
    Remove from this list  
    Translate
      Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  39. Joseph Bulbulia (2012). Spreading Order: Religion, Cooperative Niche Construction, and Risky Coordination Problems. Biology and Philosophy 27 (1):1-27.
    Adaptationists explain the evolution of religion from the cooperative effects of religious commitments, but which cooperation problem does religion evolve to solve? I focus on a class of symmetrical coordination problems for which there are two pure Nash equilibriums: (1) ALL COOPERATE, which is efficient but relies on full cooperation; (2) ALL DEFECT, which is inefficient but pays regardless of what others choose. Formal and experimental studies reveal that for such risky coordination problems, only the defection equilibrium is evolutionarily stable. (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   2 citations  
  40. John A. Bumpus & Steven D. Aust (1987). Biodegradation of Environmental Pollutants by the White Rot Fungus Phanerochaete Chrysosporium: Involvement of the Lignin Degrading System. Bioessays 6 (4):166-170.
    Remove from this list   Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  41. Gordon M. Burghardt (2013). Beyond Suffering: Commentary on" What (If Anything) Do We Owe Wild Animals" by Clare Palmer. Between the Species: An Electronic Journal for the Study of Philosophy and Animals 16 (1).
    Remove from this list   Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  42. Paul Burkett (2001). Ecology and Historical Materialism. Historical Materialism 8 (1):443-459.
    Remove from this list   Direct download (6 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  43. Paul Burkett (1996). Value, Capital and Nature: Some Ecological Implications of Marx's Critique of Political Economy. Science and Society 60 (3):332 - 359.
    Marx's critique of political economy is interpreted in terms of the contradiction between: (1) the necessary role of nature, along with labor, as a source of use value; (2) value's representation of wealth by the abstract labor time objectified in commodities. Capitalism's tendency to despoil its natural environment is constituted in the basic relation of capitalist exploitation and the corresponding value form of the products of labor and nature. Marx's analysis thus provides the basis for a coherent historical specification of (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  44. Guy Burneko (2010). Contemplative Ecology: Guan · for a More-Than-Sustainable Future. Journal of Chinese Philosophy 37 (1):116-130.
  45. Timo Busch & Volker H. Hoffmann (2009). Ecology-Driven Real Options: An Investment Framework for Incorporating Uncertainties in the Context of the Natural Environment. Journal of Business Ethics 90 (2):295-310.
    The role of uncertainty within an organization’s environment features prominently in the business ethics and management literature, but how corporate investment decisions should proceed in the face of uncertainties relating to the natural environment is less discussed. From the perspective of ecological economics, the salience of ecology-induced issues challenges management to address new types of uncertainties. These pertain to constraints within the natural environment as well as to institutional action aimed at conserving the natural environment. We derive six areas of (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  46. Brian E. Butler (2007). Seeing Ecology and Seeing as Ecology: On Brereton's Hollywood Utopia and the Anderson's Moving Image Theory. Film-Philosophy 11 (1):61-69.
    Joseph D. Anderson & Barbara Fisher Anderson Moving Image Theory: Ecological ConsiderationsCarbondale: Southern Illinois University Press.ISBN 0 8093 2599 3253pp.Pat Brereton Hollywood Utopia: Ecology in Contemporary American CinemaBristol: Intellect.ISBN 1 84150117 4270pp.
    Remove from this list   Direct download (6 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  47. Colin D. Butler (2008). Environmental Change, Injustice and Sustainability. Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 5 (1):11-19.
    This paper argues that a combination of increasing inequality, hypocrisy, population growth and adverse global environmental change imperils our civilisation. Selected examples of existing inequality and the immoral treatment of human beings are provided from countries of the Asia Pacific. There is also limited discussion of the global eco-social crisis, stressing the links between environmental scarcity and the human responses of resentment, conflict, terrorism and ill-governance. The essay contends that just as the lives of unborn humans similar to us are (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography   1 citation  
  48. Patrick A. Cabe (2001). Absolutist Array Specification and Species Survival: An Ecological Perspective on Ecological Perception. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 24 (2):217-217.
    Stoffregen & Bardy propose an absolutist transmodal array structure model, intended to displace models of specification in all existing perceptual theories. Absolute specification of world structure in array structures, either unimodal or transmodal, may not be provable, but might be falsifiable. Absolute specification, moreover, may not be a necessary postulate in an ecological approach to understanding perception-action.
    Remove from this list   Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  49. Isidro Rimarachín Cabrera, Emma Zapata Martelo & Verónica Vázquez García (2001). Gender, Rural Households, and Biodiversity in Native Mexico. Agriculture and Human Values 18 (1):85-93.
    Knowledge about maize varieties is the key to rural households' survival in native Mexico. Native peoples relate to nature in particular ways and they play a crucial role in maintaining biodiversity. This paper discusses the relationship between native women's accumulated knowledge on maize varieties and the laboratory analysis of the species that they manage. Fieldwork was conducted in an Otomí community, San Pablo Arriba, located in the state of Mexico.
    Remove from this list   Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
  50. J. Baird Callicott (2010). Toward an Earth Ethic. Dialogue and Universalism 20 (11-12):21-32.
    Aldo Leopold's 1949 Land Ethic is seminal in academic environmental ethics and the environmental-ethic-of-choice among professional conservationists and environmentalists. After sixty years, the sciences (evolutionary biology and ecology) that inform the land ethic have undergone much change. The land ethic can be revised to accommodate changes in its scientific foundations, but it cannot be scaled up to meet the challenge of global climate change. Fortunately, given the prominent place of Leopold in all circles environmental, he also faintly sketched an Earth (...)
    Remove from this list   Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    My bibliography  
1 — 50 / 1615