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Introductions Justus 2013 is an introduction to problems and debates in Philosophy of Ecology written for Biology instructors and other educators, but more generally useful for non-specialists. Colyvan et al 2009 surveys major issues in Philosophy of Ecology. Justus 2002 discusses prominent problems in Conservation Biology, and Sarkar 2004 is an introductory encyclopedia article on the same.
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  1. Aldo Rd Accardi (2012). Open-Air Conservation of Ruins and the Concept of “Non-Dislocation”. Asian Culture and History 4 (2):p109.
    Most of the on-going debate is about “how” to protect archaeological ruins, whilst at the same time allowing the general public to enjoy them. Today it is clear how important it is, from the actual planning stages of excavations, to interact with experts from other disciplines, who are working on their own findings and offering them up for collective enjoyment. Whatever might be feasible for an indoor museum is not always feasible with an architectonic ruin, as regards both presenting objects (...)
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  2. Pascal Acot (1994). La Maãitrise du Milieu. Monograph Collection (Matt - Pseudo).
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  3. Michael Allaby (1989). Green Facts the Greenhouse Effect and Other Key Issues.
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  4. Timothy F. H. Allen, Thomas W. Hoekstra & Frank N. Egerton (1995). Toward a Unified Ecology. History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 17 (1):173.
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  5. James A. Anderson (2003). An Ecology of Communication. American Journal of Semiotics 19 (1/4):35-67.
    Written from a post-modern perspective, this article makes use of the concepts of obligation, subject position, line of action, discursive form, sentient agent, exchange, mediating technology, intentionality, improvisational performance, and communicative routines to produce an overarching theory of communication and its processes. The work of the article is to develop the linkages among these concepts and founds this analysis in ethnographic research. It concludes that the process of communication occurs inside a nexus of obligation from relational subject positions within some (...)
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  6. Lennart Andersson (1990). The Driving Force: Species Concepts and Ecology. Taxon 39 (3):375-382.
    In both folk taxonomy and science, the idea of species is based on the observation that phenotypic variation is discrete and not continuous. The definition of the species category, the "what," must therefore be restricted to these empirically demonstrable facts. To avoid circularity, concepts about the biological nature of species, the "whys," must be kept separate from the criteria by which individual species are circumscribed. Such ideas are models and can only be judged in terms of their capacity to bring (...)
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  7. John N. Andrews (1992). The Ecological Self. Cogito 6 (2):104-106.
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  8. Peder Johan Anker (1999). The Ecology of Nations: British Imperial Sciences of Nature, 1895-1945. Dissertation, Harvard University
    This thesis focuses on the expansion of ecological research from botanical studies of sand dunes to human ecology within the British Empire. It argues that the correlation between nature's and society's imperial economy---the ecology of nations---was a crucial step in the conceptual and social development of ecological research. Elements of technology, psychology, epistemology, sociology, geography and historiography, as well as the natural sciences, constituted the broad methodological base of ecology. The result was a new ecological order of these 'sciences of (...)
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  9. Matthew Antolick, Deep Ecology and Heideggerian Phenomenology.
    This thesis examines the connections between Arne Naess's Deep Ecology and Martin Heidegger's Phenomenology. The latter provides a philosophical basis for the former. Martin Heidegger's critique of traditional metaphysics and his call for an "event" ontology that is deeper than the traditional substance ontology opens a philosophical space in which a different conception of what it is to be emerges. Heidegger's view of humans also provides a basis for the wider and deeper conception of self Arne Naess seeks: one that (...)
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  10. L. Arenilla & J. Ferguson (1978). Ecology: A Different Perspective. Diogenes 26 (104):1-22.
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  11. Robin Attfield (2003). Global Warming, Justice and Future Generations. Philosophy of Management 3 (1):17-23.
    The phenomenon of global warming, the anthropogenic theory of its genesis and some of the implications of that theory are introduced as a case-study of a global environmental problem involving issues of equity between peoples, generations and species. In particular, recognition of the view that the absorptive capacities of the atmosphere comprise an instance of the Common Heritage of Humankind would have a key bearing on negotiations downstream from the Kyoto Protocol, suggesting the proportioning of emission quotas to population, and (...)
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  12. Pierre M. Auger & Bruno Faivre (1993). Effects of Individual Activity Sequences on Prey-Predator Models. Acta Biotheoretica 41 (1-2):13-22.
    We study the influence of the individual behaviour of animals on predator-prey models. Populations of preys and predators are divided into sub-populations corresponding to different activity classes. The animals are assumed to do many activities all day long such as searching for food of different types. The preys are more vulnerable when doing some activities during which they are very exposed to predators attacks rather than for others during which they are hidden. We study activity sequences of the animals and (...)
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  13. Pierre M. Auger & Robert Roussarie (1994). Complex Ecological Models with Simple Dynamics: From Individuals to Populations. Acta Biotheoretica 42 (2-3):111-136.
    The aim of this work is to study complex ecological models exhibiting simple dynamics. We consider large scale systems which can be decomposed into weakly coupled subsystems. Perturbation Theory is used in order to get a reduced set of differential equations governing slow time varying global variables. As examples, we study the influence of the individual behaviour of animals in competition and predator-prey models. The animals are assumed to do many activities all day long such as searching for food of (...)
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  14. Pierre Auger & Bruno Faivre (1995). A Spatial Model of Interspecific Competition and Selective Predation: The Case of the Two Hippolais. Acta Biotheoretica 43 (1-2):41-52.
    Mutual exclusion between congeneric species has been observed such as the case of the grey and red squirrels in Great Britain and the case of the twoHippolais warbler speciesHippolais icterina andH. polyglotta in Europe. This process can lead to the formation of an extinction wave which propagates. Two main assumptions are tested, competition and selective predation. The aim of this work is to present spatial models of these two processes. The animals of two species are assumed to move on a (...)
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  15. K. August, Building Beauty: Kantian Aesthetics in a Time of Dark Ecology.
    In the aftermath of a normalized Foucaultian world with an all encompassing web of biopower, one remaining hope is to cultivate nimbleness. Nimbleness is an embodied aesthetic sensitivity to the material presence. Cultivating nimbleness is a particular style of cultivation; it is to willfully gather together one’s self in the wake of a formative force far richer than the derivative web of living power relationships of human embeddness within a horizon of social, economical, political and historical subjectivating power relations; which (...)
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  16. Robert Aunger & Valerie Curtis (2013). The Anatomy of Motivation: An Evolutionary-Ecological Approach. [REVIEW] Biological Theory 8 (1):49-63.
    There have been few attempts to bring evolutionary theory to the study of human motivation. From this perspective motives can be considered psychological mechanisms to produce behavior that solves evolutionarily important tasks in the human niche. From the dimensions of the human niche we deduce eight human needs: optimize the number and survival of gene copies; maintain bodily integrity; avoid external threats; optimize sexual, environmental, and social capital; and acquire reproductive and survival skills. These needs then serve as the foundation (...)
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  17. Melvin Avrami (1941). Geometry and Dynamics of Populations. Philosophy of Science 8 (1):115-132.
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  18. Archie J. Bahm (1979). Marx and Engels on Ecology. Environmental Ethics 1 (3):283-285.
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  19. Robert C. Bailey, Mark R. Jenike, Peter T. Ellison, Gillian R. Bentley, Alisa M. Harrigan & Nadine R. Peacock (1992). The Ecology of Birth Seasonality Among Agriculturalists in Central Africa. Journal of Biosocial Science 24 (3):393-412.
    The Lese are subsistence farmers living in the Ituri Forest of north-east Zaïre. They exhibit significant birth seasonality, with lowest frequencies of conception when food production is least, nutritional status is low and ovarian function, as measured by salivary steroid hormone levels, is reduced. Efe pygmy foragers, who live in the same geographical area but are less dependent on cultivated foods and have a more flexible life style, do not exhibit frequent fluctuations in nutritional status nor significant birth seasonality. These (...)
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  20. J. Baird Callicott (2013). Ecology and Moral Ontology. Boston Studies in the Philosophy of Science 296:101-116.
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  21. J. Baird Callicott (1987). Tertium Organum and Mankind's Role in Future Evolution. Philosophica 39.
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  22. Kathleen Baker (2000). Ecological Possibilities and Political Constraints : Adjustments of Farming to Protracted Drought by Women and Men in the Western Division of the Gambia. In Philip Anthony Stott & Sian Sullivan (eds.), Political Ecology: Science, Myth and Power. Oxford University Press 157--178.
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  23. Karen Baker-Fletcher (2007). Ecohopes : Enactments, Poetics, Liturgics. Ethics and Ecology : A priMary Challenge of the Dialogue of Civilizations / Mary Evelyn Tucker ; Religion and the Earth on the Ground : The Experience of Greenfaith in New Jersey / Fletcher Harper ; Cries of Creation, Ground for Hope : Faith, Justice, and the Earth Interfaith Worship Service / Jane Ellen Nickell and Lawrence Troster ; the Firm Ground for Hope : A Ritual for Planting Humans and Trees / Heather Murray Elkins, with Assistance From David Wood ; Musings From White Rock Lake : Poems. In Laurel Kearns & Catherine Keller (eds.), Ecospirit: Religions and Philosophies for the Earth. Fordham University Press
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  24. Uma Balakrishnan, Tim Duvall & Patrick Primeaux (2003). Rewriting the Bases of Capitalism: Reflexive Modernity and Ecological Sustainability as the Foundations of a New Normative Framework. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 47 (4):299 - 314.
    The debate on sustainable globalized development rests on two clearly stated economic assumptions: that "development" proceeds, solely and inevitably, through industrialization and the proliferation of capital intensive high-technology, towards the creation of service sector economies; and that globalization, based on a neoliberal, capitalist, free market ideology, provides the only vehicle for such development. Sustainability, according to the proponents of globalized development, is merely a function of market forces, which will generate the solutions for all problems including the environmental dilemmas that (...)
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  25. Dirk Baltzly (2003). Stoic Pantheism. Sophia 42 (2):3-33.
    This essay argues the Stoics are rightly regarded as pantheists. Their view differs from many forms of pantheism by accepting the notion of a personal god who exercises divine providence. Moreover, Stoic pantheism is utterly inimical to a deep ecology ethic. I argue that these features are nonetheless consistent with the claim that they are pantheists. The essay also considers the arguments offered by the Stoics. They thought that their pantheistic conclusion was an extension of the best science of their (...)
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  26. Diana Barnes (2010). 'Waxing Ecological' [Review of] Diane Kelsey McColley: Poetry and Ecology in the Age of Milton and Marvell. Ashgate, Aldershot, 2007, 252 Pp, UK£55.00 HB. [REVIEW] Metascience 19 (2):255-257.
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  27. R. Barnett (2011). Toward an Ecological Professional. In Ciaran Sugrue & Tone Solbrekke (eds.), Professional Responsibility: New Horizons of Praxis. Routledge 29--41.
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  28. Frank Barron (1972). Towards an Ecology of Consciousness. Inquiry 15 (1-4):95 – 113.
    Forms characteristic of the earth itself are inherent in the design of man. Man's being emerged out of a cosmic matrix whose morphic aspects man himself expresses. These forms and their functional interrelationships are the very conditions of consciousness. This paper proposes that the relationship between human consciousness and its complete environment should be the subject matter of an emerging discipline, the ecology of consciousness. Constructs useful in the ecology of plants and animals should be coordinated to psychological constructs. These (...)
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  29. Mark V. Barrow Jr (2005). Book Reviews: Stephen Moss, A Bird in the Bush: A Social History of Birdwatching (London: Aurum Press, 2004), 375 Pp., Illus, £16.99. [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Biology 38 (2):392-392.
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  30. Mark V. Barrow Jr (1997). David Elliston Allen, The Naturalist in Britain: A Social History. [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Biology 30 (3):493-494.
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  31. Mark V. Barrow (2005). Book Review: John T. Coleman, Vicious: Wolves and Men in America , Vx+270 Pp., Illus., $28.00. [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Biology 38 (1):181-182.
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  32. Mark V. Barrow (2004). Book Review: William Sargent,Crab Wars: A Tale of Horseshoe Crabs, Bioterrorism, and Human Health. [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Biology 37 (3):608-609.
  33. John Basl (2010). Restitutive Restoration. Environmental Ethics 32 (2):135-147.
    Our environmental wrongdoings result in a moral debt that requires restitution. One component of restitution is reparative and another is remediative. The remediative component requires that we remediate our characters in ways that alter or eliminate the character traits that tend to lead, in their expression, to environmental wrongdoing. Restitutive restoration is a way of engaging in ecological restoration that helps to meet the remediative requirement that accompanies environmental wrongdoing. This account of restoration provides a new motivation and justification for (...)
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  34. Amitrajeet A. Batabyal (1999). Richard Peet and Michael Watts (Eds.), Liberation Ecologies: Environment, Development, Social Movements. [REVIEW] Agriculture and Human Values 16 (1):87-88.
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  35. Amitrajeet A. Batabyal (1998). Ecology and Economics of the Great Plains by Daniel S. Licht. Agriculture and Human Values 15 (3):283-284.
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  36. Mark Edward Battersby (1978). Ecology and Freedom. Dissertation, The University of British Columbia (Canada)
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  37. Johann Baumgärtner & Josef Hartmann (2001). The Design and Implementation of Sustainable Plant Diversity Conservation Program for Alpine Meadows and Pastures. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 14 (1):67-83.
    The paper describes the design and implementation of a plant biodiversity conservation program that was developed under funding and time constraints for diverse ecological, social, and institutional environments. The biodiversity program for alpine meadows and pastures located in the Swiss Canton of the Grisons is used as an example. The design of the sustainable program relied on existing legislation, accounted for limited ecological knowledge and expertise, and considered biodiversity as a common-pool resource. The trend to intensified cultivation of restricted areas (...)
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  38. Jason Bausher (2005). Greening" James L. Marsh's "Philosophy After Catonsville. Proceedings of the American Catholic Philosophical Association 79:131-143.
    American Catholic Philosophical Association President James Marsh is calling for a “Philosophy after Catonsville.” This paper begins by examining Catonsvilleas specifically American, Catholic, and philosophical. “Wildness” is then presented as it has emerged recently as a category in environmental philosophy andis shown to necessitate a social ecology for Catonsville. Finally, Marsh’s problematic relationship to ecology will be presented and resolved by discussing the necessary entailment of social ecology by his trilogy of Post-Cartesian Meditations, Critique, Action, and Liberation, and Process, Praxis, (...)
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  39. Brian H. Baxter (1996). Ecocentrism and Persons. Environmental Values 5 (3):205 - 219.
    Ecocentrism has to establish an intrinsic connection between its basic value postulate of the non-instrumental value of the nonhuman world and a conception of human flourishing, on pain of failure to motivate acceptance of its social and political prescriptions. This paper explores some ideas recently canvassed by ecocentrists such as Robyn Eckersley, designed to establish this connection – transpersonal ecology, autopoietic value theory and ecofeminism – and finds them open to objection. An alternative approach is developed which concentrates on the (...)
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  40. John Beatty (1988). Ecology and Evolutionary Biology in the War and Postwar Years: Questions and Comments. Journal of the History of Biology 21 (2):245 - 263.
    Of all the scientists discussed by Mitman, Keller, and Taylor, Odum stands out most as the technocrat, the social engineer. But less obvious candidates, like Allee, also fancied themselves in this capacity: “Our task as biologists and as citizens of a civilized country, is a practical engineering job.” Allee had in mind the establishment of an international cooperative order based on his biological principles. He apparently did not recognize the extent to which his principles were themselves an engineering feat: he (...)
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  41. L. G. M. Baas Becking (1957). The Role of Hydrogen and Oxygen in the Inorganic Environment. Acta Biotheoretica 12 (2):71-80.
    Exploration préliminaire de la litérature a indiqué que plusieurs oxydations inorganiques produisent de l'hydrogène, tandis que les réductions inorganiques peuvent produire de l'oxygène.Le milieu inorganique reduit, comme source d'hydrogène, peut servir les autotrophes chimosynthetiques et établit un „dénominateur commun“ dans leur anabolisme. Les conditions pour la production de l'hydrogène et de l'oxygène sont calculées avec l'aide de thermodynamique simple.Les conséquences de la théorie proposée sont multiples. Il y suit que, probablement, il n'existent pas des anaerobies strictes dans un milieu inorganique.Ein (...)
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  42. Mark Bedau, Dynamics of the Environment for Adaptation in Static Resource Models.
    We measure the environment that is relevant to a population's adaptation as the information-theoretic uncertainty of the distribution of local environmental states that the adapting population experiences. Then we observe the dynamics of this quantity in simple models of sensory-motor evolution, in which an evolving population of agents live, reproduce, and die in a two-dimensional world while competing for resources. Although the distribution of resources is static, the agents' evolution creates a dynamic environment for adaptation.
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  43. Randal Beeman (1995). Friends of the Land and the Rise of Environmentalism, 1940–1954. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 8 (1):1-16.
    The rise of the postwar environmental movement is rooted in the development of ecological consciousness within intellectual circles as well as the general public. Though many commentators cite the 1960s as the focal point of the new environmentalism, the ecological ethic had actually evolved by the 1930s in the writings and speeches of both scientists and public commentators. Agricultural conservationists led the way in broadcasting the message of ecology. Friends of the Land, an agriculturally-oriented conservation organization formed in 1940 and (...)
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  44. Jonathan Beever (2013). Baudrillard's Simulated Ecology. Sign Systems Studies 41 (1):82-92.
    Jean Baudrillard, the scholar and critic of postmodernity, struggled with questions of postmodern ontology: representation of the real through the semioticprocess of signification is threatened with the rise of simulacra, the simulated real. With this rise, seductive semiotic relationships between signs replace any traditional ontological representamen. This struggle has implications for environmentalism since the problems of contemporary environmental philosophy are rooted in problems with ontology. Hence the question of postmodern ecology: can the natural survive postmodern simulation? Baudrillard’s communicative analysis of (...)
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  45. Jonathan Beever (2007). Baudrillard, Simulated Ecology, and Recovering Remainders of the Real. Semiotics:10-19.
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  46. Ruth Beilin (2011). Paige West, Conservation is Our Government Now: The Politics of Ecology in Papua New Guinea. [REVIEW] Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 24 (1):75-85.
    Paige West, Conservation is our Government Now: The Politics of Ecology in Papua New Guinea Content Type Journal Article Pages 1-11 DOI 10.1007/s10806-010-9239-5 Authors Ruth Beilin, University of Melbourne Department of Resource Management and Geography, Melbourne School of Land and Environment Melbourne 3010 Australia Journal Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics Online ISSN 1573-322X Print ISSN 1187-7863 Journal Volume Volume Journal Issue Volume.
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  47. Marc Bekoff (forthcoming). Compassionate Conservation and the Ethics of Species Research and Preservation: Hamsters, Black-Footed Ferrets, and a Response to Rob Irvine: Comment on" Ethics of Species Research and Preservation" by Rob Irvine. Journal of Bioethical Inquiry.
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  48. Marc Bekoff (2013). Compassionate Conservation and the Ethics of Species Research and Preservation: Hamsters, Black-Footed Ferrets, and a Response to Rob Irvine. [REVIEW] Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 10 (4):527-529.
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  49. Jeremy Bendik-Keymer (2003). The Idea of an Ecological Orientation. Social Philosophy Today 19:55-63.
    In this paper, I do two things. First, I interpret a cultural shift in our understanding of what it is to be human. I focus on the self-understanding in three international documents: (1) The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948), (2) The Rio Charter on Sustainable Development (1992), and (3) The Earth Charter (2002). These documents are symptomatic: what it is to be human shifts from not considering environmental issues as central to our humanity to understanding respect for the environment (...)
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  50. Brett M. Bennett (2011). A Global History of Australian Trees. Journal of the History of Biology 44 (1):125 - 145.
    Scholars studying the globalization of Australian trees have previously emphasized the rapid natural propagation of Australian trees outside of their native habitats, believing their success to be a reversal of "ecological imperialism" from the "new world" to the "old world." This article argues that the expansion of Australian trees should not be viewed as a biological phenomenon, but as the result of a long-term attempt by powerful states and state-sponsored scientists to select and breed Australian species that could grow in (...)
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