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  1. Andrew Abelson (1979). Population Structure in the Western Pyrenees: I. Population Density, Social Class Composition, and Migration, 1850–1915. Journal of Biosocial Science 11 (3):353-362.
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  2. Thomas R. Alley (1985). Organism-Environment Mutuality Epistemics, and the Concept of an Ecological Niche. Synthese 65 (3):411 - 444.
    The concept of an ecological niche (econiche) has been used in a variety of ways, some of which are incompatible with a relational or functional interpretation of the term. This essay seeks to standardize usage by limiting the concept to functional relations between organisms and their surroundings, and to revise the concept to include epistemic relations. For most organisms, epistemics are a vital aspect of their functional relationships to their surroundings and, hence, a major determinant of their econiche. Rejecting the (...)
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  3. Larry D. Barnett (1974). Zero Population Growth, Inc.: A Second Study. Journal of Biosocial Science 6 (1):1.
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  4. Larry D. Barnett (1973). A Study of the Relationship Between Attitudes Towards World Population Growth and USA Population Growth. Journal of Biosocial Science 5 (1):61.
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  5. Larry D. Barnett (1971). Zero Population Growth, Inc. BioScience 21 (14):759-765.
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  6. Bradley C. Bennett (1985). Plants, Population, and Ecology. BioScience 35 (5):318-319.
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  7. Ángel Blasco, Luis Sanz, Pierre Auger & Rafael Bravo de la Parra (2002). Linear Discrete Population Models with Two Time Scales in Fast Changing Environments II: Non-Autonomous Case. Acta Biotheoretica 50 (1):15-38.
    As the result of the complexity inherent in nature, mathematical models employed in ecology are often governed by a large number of variables. For instance, in the study of population dynamics we often deal with models for structured populations in which individuals are classified regarding their age, size, activity or location, and this structuring of the population leads to high dimensional systems. In many instances, the dynamics of the system is controlled by processes whose time scales are very different from (...)
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  8. Jorge Paulo Cancela & Kimon Hadjibiros (1977). Le Modele Matriciel Deterministe de Leslie Et Ses Applications En Dynamique Des Populations. Acta Biotheoretica 26 (4).
    The Leslie matrix model (Leslie, 1945) for discrete population growth has been modified and used several times in population dynamics. A review is given of the basic model (n t + 1 = An t) and of its principal modifications. The modifications relating to the influences of internal or external factors to the population are studied with greater detail. The same applies to models where the population is divided in stages rather than in age classes.In the same line, Hadjibiros (1975, (...)
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  9. S. Charles, R. Bravo de la Parra, J. P. Mallet, H. Persat & P. Auger (1998). Population Dynamics Modelling in an Hierarchical Arborescent River Network: An Attempt with Salmo Trutta. Acta Biotheoretica 46 (3):223-234.
    The balance between births and deaths in an age-structured population is strongly influenced by the spatial distribution of sub-populations. Our aim was to describe the demographic process of a fish population in an hierarchical dendritic river network, by taking into account the possible movements of individuals. We tried also to quantify the effect of river network changes (damming or channelling) on the global fish population dynamics. The Salmo trutta life pattern was taken as an example for.We proposed a model which (...)
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  10. M. Young Christabel (1972). A Cohort Approach to the Study of Population Growth in Australia. Journal of Biosocial Science 4 (1).
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  11. Mark Colyvan (2013). Idealisations in Normative Models. Synthese 190 (8):1337-1350.
    In this paper I discuss the kinds of idealisations invoked in normative theories—logic, epistemology, and decision theory. I argue that very often the so-called norms of rationality are in fact mere idealisations invoked to make life easier. As such, these idealisations are not too different from various idealisations employed in scientific modelling. Examples of the latter include: fluids are incompressible (in fluid mechanics), growth rates are constant (in population ecology), and the gravitational influence of distant bodies can be ignored (in (...)
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  12. Mark Colyvan & Lev R. Ginzburg (2003). The Galilean Turn in Population Ecology. Biology and Philosophy 18 (3):401-414.
    The standard mathematical models in population ecology assume that a population's growth rate is a function of its environment. In this paper we investigate an alternative proposal according to which the rate of change of the growth rate is a function of the environment and of environmental change. We focus on the philosophical issues involved in such a fundamental shift in theoretical assumptions, as well as on the explanations the two theories offer for some of (...)
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  13. Gregory Cooper (2001). Must There Be a Balance of Nature? Biology and Philosophy 16 (4):481-506.
    The balance of nature concept is an old idea that manifests itself in anumber of forms in population and community ecology. This paper focuseson population ecology, where controversy surrounding the balance ofnature takes the form of perennial debates over the significance ofdensity dependence, population regulation, and species interactions suchas competition. One of the most striking features of these debates, overthe course of the previous century in ecology, is the tendency to arguethe case on largely conceptual grounds. This paper explores twoquestions. (...)
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  14. Kim Cuddington (2001). The “Balance of Nature” Metaphor and Equilibrium in Population Ecology. Biology and Philosophy 16 (4):463-479.
    I claim that the balance of nature metaphoris shorthand for a paradigmatic view of natureas a beneficent force. I trace the historicalorigins of this concept and demonstrate that itoperates today in the discipline of populationecology. Although it might be suspected thatthis metaphor is a pre-theoretic description ofthe more precisely defined notion ofequilibrium, I demonstrate that balance ofnature has constricted the meaning ofmathematical equilibrium in population ecology.As well as influencing the meaning ofequilibrium, the metaphor has also loaded themathematical term with values.Environmentalists (...)
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  15. Kevin deLaplante, Bryson Brown & Kent A. Peacock (eds.) (2011). Philosophy of Ecology. North-Holland.
    The most pressing problems facing humanity today - over-population, energy shortages, climate change, soil erosion, species extinctions, the risk of epidemic disease, the threat of warfare that could destroy all the hard-won gains of civilization, and even the recent fibrillations of the stock market - are all ecological or have a large ecological component. in this volume philosophers turn their attention to understanding the science of ecology and its huge implications for the human project. To get the application of ecology (...)
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  16. E. M. Dickson (1970). Model for Zero Population Growth. BioScience 20 (23):1245-1246.
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  17. Denise E. Dollimore (2014). Untangling the Conceptual Issues Raised in Reydon and Scholz's Critique of Organizational Ecology and Darwinian Populations. Philosophy of the Social Sciences 44 (3):282-315.
    Reydon and Scholz raise doubts about the Darwinian status of organizational ecology by arguing that Darwinian principles are not applicable to organizational populations. Although their critique of organizational ecology’s typological essentialism is correct, they go on to reject the Darwinian status of organizational populations. This paper claims that the replicator-interactor distinction raised in modern philosophy of biology but overlooked for discussion by Reydon and Scholz provides a way forward. It is possible to conceptualize evolving Darwinian populations providing that the inheritance (...)
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  18. John M. Drake (2004). Lande, R., S. Engen and B.-E. Sæther (2003). Stochastic Population Dynamics in Ecology and Conservation. Acta Biotheoretica 52 (3):219-220.
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  19. Frank N. Egerton (1968). Studies of Animal Populations From Lamarck to Darwin. Journal of the History of Biology 1 (2):225 - 259.
    Darwin's theory of evolution brought to an end the static view of nature. It was no longer possible to think of species as immortal, with secure places in nature. Fluctuation of population could no longer be thought of as occurring within definite limits which had been set at the time of creation. Nor was it any longer possible to generalize from the differential reproductive potentials, or from a few cases of mutualism between species, that everything in nature was “fitted to (...)
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  20. Paul R. Ehrlich & John P. Holdren (2010). 56 Impact of Population Growth. Environmental Ethics: The Big Questions 171:426.
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  21. A. Falek & M. J. Konner (1999). World Population Prospects: The Impact of Ecological and Genetic Factors on Human Population Growth in the 21st Century. Global Bioethics 12 (1-4):31-41.
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  22. Vagn Flyger (1970). Population Decline Peregrine Falcon Populations J. H. Hickey. BioScience 20 (1):59-60.
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  23. James P. Gibbs (1997). Transcending Local Population Dynamics. BioScience 47 (8):544-546.
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  24. Peter Gildenhuys (2012). Darwinian Populations and Natural Selection. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 90 (1):192-195.
    Australasian Journal of Philosophy, Volume 90, Issue 1, Page 192-195, March 2012.
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  25. Lev Ginzburg & Mark Colyvan, Ecological Orbits: How Planets Move and Populations Grow.
    The main focus of the book is the presentation of the 'inertial' view of population growth. This view provides a rather simple model for complex population dynamics, and is achieved at the level of the single species without invoking species interactions. An important part of this account is the maternal effect. Investment of mothers in the quality of their daughters makes the rate of reproduction of the current generation depend not only on the current environment, but also on the environment (...)
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  26. D. V. Glass (1937). Sex Ratio and Population Growth. The Eugenics Review 29 (3):223.
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  27. Johan Grasman, Willem B. E. Van Deventer & Vincent van Laar (2012). Estimation of Parameters in a Bertalanffy Type of Temperature Dependent Growth Model Using Data on Juvenile Stone Loach (Barbatula Barbatula). Acta Biotheoretica 60 (4):393-405.
    Parameters of a Bertalanffy type of temperature dependent growth model are fitted using data from a population of stone loach ( Barbatula barbatula ). Over two periods respectively in 1990 and 2010 length data of this population has been collected at a lowland stream in the central part of the Netherlands. The estimation of the maximum length of a fully grown individual is given special attention because it is in fact found as the result of an extrapolation over a large (...)
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  28. Hans-Rolf Gregorius (1996). Differentiation Between Populations and its Measurement. Acta Biotheoretica 44 (1):23-36.
    When applied to a family of sets, the term differentiation designates a measure of the totality of those members which appear in only one of the sets. This basic set theoretic concept involves the formation of intersections, unions, and complements of sets. However, populations as special kinds of sets may share types, but they do not share the carriers of these types; intersections of different populations are thus always empty. The resulting conceptual dilemma is resolved by considering the joint representation (...)
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  29. Christian Haak (2002). The History of Models. Does It Matter? Mind and Society 3 (1):33-41.
    This paper investigates the justification of the concept of a balance of nature in population ecology as a case of model based reasoning. The ecologist A.J. Nicholson understood balance as an outcome of intraspecific competition in populations. His models implied density dependent growth of populations oscillating around an equilibrium state. Today the assumption of density dependence is tested statistically by using models that represent certain data dynamics. This however, does not test for density dependence in the sense suggested by Nicholson. (...)
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  30. Maurice Halbwachs (1935). Les facteurs biologiques et la population. Revue Philosophique de la France Et de l'Etranger 119 (5/6):285 - 303.
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  31. Alan Hastings (2011). Single Species Population Dynamics and its Theoretical Underpinnings. In Samuel M. Scheiner & Michael R. Willig (eds.), The Theory of Ecology. The University of Chicago Press. 109-123.
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  32. Christoph Hauert, Arne Traulsen, Hannelore Brandt, Martin A. Nowak & Karl Sigmund (2008). Public Goods with Punishment and Abstaining in Finite and Infinite Populations. Biological Theory 3 (2):114.
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  33. Rob Hengeveld (2002). Methodology Going Astray in Population Biology. Acta Biotheoretica 50 (2):77-93.
    This paper analyses the broad methodological structure of population-biological theorising. In it, I show that the distinction between initial exploratory, hypothesis-generating research and the subsequent process-reconstructing, hypothesis-testing type of research is not being made. Rather, the hypotheses generated in population biology are elaborated in such detail that students confound the initial research phase with the subsequent hypotheses-testing phase of research. In this context, I therefore analyse some testing procedures within the exploration phase and show that, as an extreme form of (...)
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  34. Marc Jarry, Patrick Davaine & Edward Beall (1998). A Matrix Model to Study the Colonization by Brown Trout of a Virgin Ecosystem in the Kerguelen Islands. Acta Biotheoretica 46 (3):253-272.
    We present a matrix model for the study of the population dynamics of brown trout Salmo trutta L., introduced in the '60s in the virgin aquatic ecosystems of the Kerguelen Islands. This species clearly acclimatized very well: a portion of the population became migratory and spent a part of its life cycle in the sea, which allowed the rapid colonization of two rivers close to the stream of origin in the same bay (Baie Norvégienne).These migratory trout can become a smolt (...)
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  35. Marc Jarry, Mohamed Khaladi, Martine Hossaert-McKey & Doyle McKey (1995). Modeling the Population Dynamics of Annual Plants with Seed Bank and Density Dependent Effects. Acta Biotheoretica 43 (1-2):53-65.
    A model is proposed for the population dynamics of an annual plant (Sesbania vesicaria) with a seed bank (i.e. in which a proportion of seeds remain dormant for at least one year). A simple linear matrix model is deduced from the life cycle graph. The dominant eigenvalue of the projection matrix is estimated from demographic parameters derived from field studies. The estimated values for population growth rate () indicates that the study population should be experiencing a rapid exponential increase, but (...)
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  36. Timothy H. Keitt (1997). Population Dynamics in Ecological Space and Time. Complexity 3 (1):58-58.
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  37. John Maynard Keynes (forthcoming). The Economic Effects of a Declining Population. Eugenics Review.
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  38. Mohamed Khaladi, Jean-Dominique Lebreton & Abdelaziz Khermjioui (2012). The Evolution of Dispersal in Random Environment. Acta Biotheoretica 60 (1-2):155-165.
    In this paper we introduce a stochastic model for a population living and migrating between s sites without distinction in the states between residents and immigrants. The evolutionary stable strategies is characterized by the maximization of a stochastic growth rate. We obtain that the expectation of reproductive values, normalized by some random quantity, are constant on all sites and that the expectation of the normalized vector population structure is proportional to eigenvector of the dispersion matrix associated to eigenvalue one, which (...)
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  39. Sharon E. Kingsland (1986). Mathematical Figments, Biological Facts: Population Ecology in the Thirties. [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Biology 19 (2):235 - 256.
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  40. Chris Klok, Remko Holtkamp, Rob van Apeldoorn, Marcel E. Visser & Lia Hemerik (2006). Analysing Population Numbers of the House Sparrow in the Netherlands with a Matrix Model and Suggestions for Conservation Measures. Acta Biotheoretica 54 (3).
    The House Sparrow (Passer domesticus), formerly a common bird species, has shown a rapid decline in Western Europe over recent decades. In The Netherlands, its decline is apparent from 1990 onwards. Many causes for this decline have been suggested that all decrease the vital rates, i.e. survival and reproduction, but their actual impact remains unknown. Although the House Sparrow has been dominant in The Netherlands, data on life history characteristics for this bird species are scarce: data on reproduction are non-existent, (...)
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  41. Francois Lafitte (1941). The Economic Effects of a Declining Population. The Eugenics Review 32 (4):121.
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  42. Abdesslam Boutayeb Mansour Serghini, Najib Charouki Pierre Auger, Omar Ettahiri Azeddine Ramzi & Maurice Tchuente (2009). Multiregional Periodic Matrix for Modeling the Population Dynamics of Sardine ( Sardina Pilchardus ) Along the Moroccan Atlantic Coast: Management Elements for Fisheries. Acta Biotheoretica 57 (4).
    In this paper, we present a deterministic time discrete mathematical model based on multiregional periodic matrices to describe the dynamics of Sardina pilchardus in the Central Atlantic area of the Moroccan coast. This model deals with two stages (immature and mature) and three spatial zones where sardines are supposed to migrate from one zone to another. The population dynamics is described by an autonomous recurrence equation N ( t + 1) = A . N ( t ), where A is (...)
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  43. John Matthewson (2011). Trade-Offs in Model-Building: A More Target-Oriented Approach. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science 42 (2):324-333.
    In his 1966 paper "The Strategy of model-building in Population Biology", Richard Levins argues that no single model in population biology can be maximally realistic, precise and general at the same time. This is because these desirable model properties trade-off against one another. Recently, philosophers have developed Levins' claims, arguing that trade-offs between these desiderata are generated by practical limitations on scientists, or due to formal aspects of models and how they represent the world. However this project is not complete. (...)
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  44. Slimane Ben Miled, Amira Kebir & Moulay Hbid (2010). Individual Based Model for Grouper Populations. Acta Biotheoretica 58 (2):247-264.
    Dusky groupers ( Epinephelus marginatus ) are characterized by a complex sex allocation strategies and overexploitation of bigger individuals. We developed an individual based model to investigate the long-term effects of density dependence on grouper population dynamics and to analyze the variabilities of extinction probabilities as a result of interacting mortalities at different life stages. We conduct several simulations with different forms of sex allocation functions and different combinations of mortality rates. The model was parametrized using data on dusky grouper (...)
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  45. Roberta L. Millstein (2013). Exploring the Status of Population Genetics: The Role of Ecology. Biological Theory 7 (4):346-357.
    The status of population genetics has become hotly debated among biologists and philosophers of biology. Many seem to view population genetics as relatively unchanged since the Modern Synthesis and have argued that subjects such as development were left out of the Synthesis. Some have called for an extended evolutionary synthesis or for recognizing the insignificance of population genetics. Yet others such as Michael Lynch have defended population genetics, declaring "nothing in evolution makes sense except in the light of population genetics" (...)
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  46. Roberta L. Millstein (2010). The Concepts of Population and Metapopulation in Evolutionary Biology and Ecology. In M. A. Bell, D. J. Futuyma, W. F. Eanes & J. S. Levinton (eds.), Evolution Since Darwin: The First 150 Years. Sinauer.
    This paper aims to illustrate one of the primary goals of the philosophy of biology⎯namely, the examination of central concepts in biological theory and practice⎯through an analysis of the concepts of population and metapopulation in evolutionary biology and ecology. I will first provide a brief background for my analysis, followed by a characterization of my proposed concepts: the causal interactionist concepts of population and metapopulation. I will then illustrate how the concepts apply to six cases that differ in their population (...)
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  47. Bertram G. Murray (2011). What Were They Thinking?: Is Population Ecology a Science?: Papers, Critiques, Rebuttals and Philosophy. Infinity Publishing.
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  48. Jay Odenbaugh, The “Structure” of Population Ecology: Philosophical Reflections on Unstructured and Structured Models.
    In 1974, John Maynard Smith wrote in his little book Models in Ecology, A theory of ecology must make statements about ecosystems as a whole, as well as about particular species at particular times, and it must make statements that are true for many species and not just for one… For the discovery of general ideas in ecology, therefore, different kinds of mathematical description, which may be called models, are called for. Whereas a good simulation should include as much detail (...)
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  49. Jay Odenbaugh (2003). Complex Systems, Trade‐Offs, and Theoretical Population Biology: Richard Levin's “Strategy of Model Building in Population Biology” Revisited. Philosophy of Science 70 (5):1496-1507.
    Ecologist Richard Levins argues population biologists must trade‐off the generality, realism, and precision of their models since biological systems are complex and our limitations are severe. Steven Orzack and Elliott Sober argue that there are cases where these model properties cannot be varied independently of one another. If this is correct, then Levins's thesis that there is a necessary trade‐off between generality, precision, and realism in mathematical models in biology is false. I argue that Orzack and Sober's arguments fail since (...)
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  50. Jay Odenbaugh (2003). Complex Systems, Trade-Offs, and Theoretical Population Biology: Richard Levin's "Strategy of Model Building in Population Biology" Revisited. Philosophy of Science 70 (5):1496-1507.
    Ecologist Richard Levins (1966, 1968) argues population biologists must trade-off the generality, realism and precision of their models since biological systems are complex and our limitations are severe. Elliott Sober and Steven Orzack (1993) argue that there are cases where these model properties cannot be varied independently of one another. If this is correct, then Levins` thesis that there is a necessary trade-off between generality, precision, and realism in mathematical models in biology is false. I argue that Sober and Orzack`s (...)
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