Sales Ethics

Edited by Muhammad Mustafa Rashid (University of Detroit Mercy, University of California, Davis)
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  1. Level of Agreement Between Sales Managers and Salespeople on the Need for Internal Virtue Ethics and a Direct Path From Satisfaction with Manager to Turnover Intent.Kevin J. Shanahan & Christopher D. Hopkins - 2019 - Journal of Business Ethics 159 (3):837-848.
    The nature of the sales manager/salesperson relationship is examined. Our study investigates the level of agreement between sales managers and salespeople on the importance of the salesperson having specific internal virtues in order to do their job properly. Unlike external virtues that can be codified into codes of conduct, internal virtues are traits that cannot be codified but rather are part of the spiritual makeup of the person. Findings suggest that the level of agreement between sales managers and salespeople in (...)
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  2. The Methodology in Empirical Sales Ethics Research: 1980–2010.Nicholas McClaren - 2015 - Journal of Business Ethics 127 (1):121-147.
    The study examines the research methodology of more than 200 empirical investigations of ethics in personal selling and sales management between 1980 and 2010. The review discusses the sources and authorship of the sales ethics research. To better understand the drivers of empirical sales ethics research, the foundations used in business, marketing, and sales ethics are compared. The use of hypotheses, operationalization, measurement, population and sampling decisions, research design, and statistical analysis techniques were examined as part of theory development and (...)
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  3. Factor Affecting Customer Service in Supply Chain Management of Small and Medium Enterprises: An Empirical Study of Jammu Region.Sanjeev Lalhotra & Prof B. C. Sharma - 2014 - SOCRATES 2 (JUNE 2014):149-165.
    Factor Affecting Customer Service in Supply Chain Management of Small and Medium Enterprises: An Empirical Study of Jammu Region -/- Author / Authors : Sanjeev Lalhotra and Prof. B.C Sharma Page no.149-165 Discipline : Applied Economics/ Management/ Commerce Script/language : Roman/English Category : Research paper Keywords: Customer services, Supply Chain Management, Small and Medium Enterprises.
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  4. FACTORS INFLUENCING E-CRM IN AIRLINES IN J& K.Jyoti Sharma - 2014 - SOCRATES 2 (1):134-145.
    Today every organization is acting in a dynamic environment and in a world characterised by turbulent change and fierce competition due to technological advancement and the knowledge based economy, an organization must always ready to adapt and transform themselves so as to be able to confront the shifting needs of the new environment, more demanding customers, smarter workers, anticipating ability to changes, accelerating the development of new products, processes and services, changing technologies and customer expectations, businesses have realised the importance (...)
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  5. The Personal Selling and Sales Management Ethics Research: Managerial Implications and Research Directions From a Comprehensive Review of the Empirical Literature. [REVIEW]Nicholas McClaren - 2013 - Journal of Business Ethics 112 (1):101-125.
    Research into ethics in personal selling and sales management has increased substantially over the preceding decade by investigating complex dimensions of ethical decision-making in greater depth and with more analytical sophistication. This review of the recent conceptual and empirical literature provides insight into the extent and the direction of this knowledge, recommends managerial action, and discusses areas for future exploration. Future direction is also provided through research propositions. The type of sales practitioner investigated, the main variables examined, and the key (...)
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  6. A Three-Country Study of Unethical Sales Behaviors.Ning Li & William H. Murphy - 2012 - Journal of Business Ethics 111 (2):219-235.
    A major challenge in global sales research is helping managers understand sales ethics across countries. Addressing this challenge, our research investigates whether a few demographic variables and psychographic variables reduce unethical sales behaviors (USBs) in Canada, Mexico, and the USA. Further, using literatures associated with business ethics, national culture, and customer orientation advocacy, we hypothesize why sales managers should expect similarities and differences in USBs between countries. We tested hypotheses using a sales contest scenario and six USBs, examining survey responses (...)
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  7. Organ Sales Needn't Be Exploitative (but It Matters If They Are).Rob Lawlor - 2011 - Bioethics 25 (5):250-259.
    This paper considers two arguments that are common in the literature on organ sales. First, organ sales are exploitative and therefore should not be permitted. Second, it doesn't matter whether organ sales are exploitative or not; the only thing that matters is that we do what is in the interests of those who need to be protected.In this paper, I argue that both of these arguments are too simplistic. My intention, however, is not to argue for or against organ sales. (...)
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  8. Efficiency, Equity, and Price Gouging: A Response to Zwolinski.Jeremy Snyder - 2009 - Business Ethics Quarterly 19 (2):303-306.
    In this response, I reiterate my argument that price gouging undercuts the goal of equity in access to essential goods whereas Zwolinski emphasizes the importance of the efficient provision of essential goods above all other goals. I agree that the efficient provision of essential goods is important as I argue for the goal of equitable access to sufficient of the goods essential to living a minimally flourishing human life. However, efficiency is a means to this goal rather than the end (...)
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  9. What’s the Matter with Price Gouging?Jeremy Snyder - 2009 - Business Ethics Quarterly 19 (2):275-293.
    When prices for basic commodities increase following a disaster, these price increases are often condemned as ‘price gouging.’ In this paper, I discuss what moral wrongs, if any, are most reasonably ascribed to accusations of price gouging. This discussion keeps in mind both practical and moral defenses of price increase following disasters. I first examine existing anti-gouging legislation for commonalities in their definitions of gouging and then present arguments in favor of the permissibility of gouging, focusing on the economic benefits (...)
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  10. Price Gouging, Non-Worseness, and Distributive Justice.Matt Zwolinski - 2009 - Business Ethics Quarterly 19 (2):295-306.
    This paper develops my position on the ethics of price gouging in response to Jeremy Snyder's article, "What's the Matter with Price Gouging." First, it explains how the "nonworseness claim" supports the moral permissibility of price gouging, even if it does not show that price gougers are morally virtuous agents. Second, it argues that questions about price gouging and distributive justice must be answered in light of the relevant possible institutional alternatives, and that Snyder's proposed alternatives to price gouging fare (...)
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  11. Challenges for Corporate Ethics in Marketing Genetic Tests.Bryn Williams-Jones & Vural Ozdemir - 2008 - Journal of Business Ethics 77 (1):33 - 44.
    Public discussions of ethical issues related to the biotechnology industry tend to treat “biotechnology” as a single, undifferentiated technology. Similarly, the pros and cons associated with this entire sector tend to get lumped together, such that individuals and groups often situate themselves as either “pro-” or “anti-” biotechnology as a whole. But different biotechnologies and their particular application context pose very different challenges for ethical corporate decision-making. Even within a single product category, different specialty products can pose strikingly different ethical (...)
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  12. Supervising the Unethical Selling Behavior of Top Sales Performers: Assessing the Impact of Social Desirability Bias.Joseph A. Bellizzi & Terry Bristol - 2005 - Journal of Business Ethics 57 (4):377-388.
    . This study measures social desirability bias (SD bias) by comparing the level of discipline sales managers believe they would administer when supervising unethical selling behavior with the level of discipline they perceive other sales managers would select. Results indicate the presence of SD bias; the sales manager respondents consistently claimed that they would be stricter while their peers would be more lenient. Using an analytical technique that takes social desirability bias into account, it appears that sales managers use of (...)
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  13. Information Requirements and the Characteristics of Sales Situations.Norman Mooradian - 2004 - Business Ethics Quarterly 14 (1):123-139.
    The focus of this paper is the ethics of information giving in the context of complex sales. It is argued that, while current theoriesprovide a broad framework for describing the responsibilities of sales agents, they lack adequate descriptions of the conditionscharacteristic of complex sales situations. Without an adequate model of complex sales, ethical theories will fail to provide guidanceto sales agents facing issues that arise from features of sales situations not accounted for in the theories. To motivate this claim,I develop (...)
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  14. Thomas L. Carson.The Ethics of Sales 112 - 2003 - In William H. Shaw (ed.), Ethics at Work: Basic Readings in Business Ethics. Oxford University Press.
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  15. Supervising Unethical Sales Force Behavior: How Strong Is the Tendency to Treat Top Sales Performers Leniently? [REVIEW]Joseph A. Bellizzi & Ronald W. Hasty - 2003 - Journal of Business Ethics 43 (4):337 - 351.
    Findings from prior research show that there is a general tendency to discipline top sales performers more leniently than poor sales performers for engaging in identical forms of unethical selling behavior. In this study, the authors attempt to uncover moderating factors that could override this general tendency and bring about more equal discipline for top sales performers and poor sales performers. Surprisingly, none were found. A company policy stating that the behavior in question was unacceptable nor a repeated pattern of (...)
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  16. Supervising Unethical Sales Force Behavior: Do Men and Women Managers Discipline Men and Women Subordinates Uniformly? [REVIEW]Joseph A. Bellizzi & Ronald W. Hasty - 2002 - Journal of Business Ethics 40 (2):155 - 166.
    Using practicing sales managers as subjects, the results indicate that personal characteristics of gender may be used in making disciplinary judgments following episodes of a particular type of unacceptable work behavior, an unethical selling act. As hypothesized, saleswomen were disciplined less severely while salesmen were disciplined more severely. However, female sales managers did not administer discriminatory discipline. The discipline administered by female sales managers to salesmen and to saleswomen was quite uniform. Furthermore, the discipline administered by female sales managers to (...)
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  17. Business and Marketing Ethics as Professional Ethics. Concepts, Approaches and Typologies.Johannes Brinkmann - 2002 - Journal of Business Ethics 41 (1-2):159 - 177.
    Marketing ethics is normally marketed as a sub-specialization of business ethics. In this paper, marketing ethics serves as an umbrella term for advertising, PR and sales ethics and as an example of professional ethics. To structure the paper, four approaches are distinguished, with a focus on typical professional conflicts, codes, roles or climates respectively. Since the moral climate approachis more inclusive than the other approaches, the last part of the paper deals mainly with moral climates, within the above-mentioned marketing sub-professions.
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  18. Revisiting Gender Role Stereotyping in the Sales Profession.Nikala Lane & Andrew Crane - 2002 - Journal of Business Ethics 40 (2):121 - 132.
    This paper revisits the issue of gender stereotypes in sales professions given new views of what makes for effective sales performance and sales management. Women's continued disadvantaged position in the sales profession is documented, and the role of gender role stereotypes in sustaining this situation in the profession is examined. The paper then turns to the newly emerging, ostensibly "pro-female", view of sales. This emphasises the importance of building and sustaining relationships – qualities that women have traditionally been stereotyped as (...)
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  19. Ethics Codes and Sales Professionals' Perceptions of Their Organizations' Ethical Values.Sean Valentine & Tim Barnett - 2002 - Journal of Business Ethics 40 (3):191 - 200.
    Most large companies and many smaller ones have adopted ethics codes, but the evidence is mixed as to whether they have a positive impact on the behavior of employees. We suggest that one way that ethics codes could contribute to ethical behavior is by influencing the perceptions that employees have about the ethical values of organizations. We examine whether a group of sales professionals in organizations with ethics codes perceive that their organizational context is more supportive of ethical behavior than (...)
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  20. Ethics in Personal Selling and Sales Management: A Review of the Literature Focusing on Empirical Findings and Conceptual Foundations. [REVIEW]Nicholas McClaren - 2000 - Journal of Business Ethics 27 (3):285 - 303.
    Research into the ethics of personal selling and sales management has continued to increase in volume and importance. Because there is now a diversity of opinions and findings in this literature, an assessment of the status of existing knowledge is needed to provide focus and clarity. There have been no comprehensive reviews of the studies of ethics and salespeople, sales managers or sales management, despite recent attention from researchers, practitioners and the general public. The purpose of this review is to (...)
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  21. The Ethics of Slotting: Is This Bribery, Facilitation Marketing or Just Plain Competition? [REVIEW]Robert J. Aalberts & Marianne M. Jennings - 1999 - Journal of Business Ethics 20 (3):207 - 215.
    The practice of manufacturers' payments of fees to retailers for the display and sale of their products has become a common practice. In the grocery retail business, the fees paid by manufacturers are called slotting fees, or a payment made for a slot on the shelf. The same practice is used now in the retail book industry. Large book chains command high fees from publishers for the prominent display of books. Entrepreneur's products are often precluded from stores and markets because (...)
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  22. The Paradox of Machiavellianism: Machiavellianism May Make for Productive Sales but Poor Management Reviews. [REVIEW]James Ricks & John Fraedrich - 1999 - Journal of Business Ethics 20 (3):197 - 205.
    This article investigates the effects of Machiavellianism (MACH) on sales performance. Results indicate that those who possess high Machiavellian traits are more productive but received lower overall managerial ratings. Findings suggest that Machiavellianism may in certain circumstances, be somewhat advantageous for long-term sales performance.
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  23. Ethical Issues in Sales: Two Case Studies.Thomas L. Carson - 1998 - Journal of Business Ethics 17 (7):725-728.
    Ethical issues in sales are an important and neglected topic in business ethics. Roughly 9% of the U.S. work force is involved in sales of one sort or another. But very little has been written about ethical issues in sales.
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  24. A Cross-National Comparison of University Students' Perceptions Regarding the Ethics and Acceptability of Sales Practices.Thomas H. Stevenson & Charles D. Bodkin - 1998 - Journal of Business Ethics 17 (1):45 - 55.
    This scenario-based study examines the perceptions of university students in the United States and Australia regarding the ethics and acceptability of various sales practices. Study results indicate several significant differences between U.S. and Australian university students regarding the perceptions of ethical and acceptable sales practices. These differences centered on company-salesperson and salesperson-customer relationships. The findings are significant for the employer, and have consequences for customers and competitors. They also have implications for recruiters and managers of salespeople, academics with an interest (...)
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  25. Saying of St. Francis de Sales Concerning the Need for Christian Cheerfulness in Everyday Life.St Francis de Sales - 1997 - The Chesterton Review 23 (3):391-391.
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  26. The Influence of Deontological and Teleological Considerations and Ethical Climate on Sales Managers' Intentions to Reward or Punish Sales Force Behavior.James B. DeConinck & William F. Lewis - 1997 - Journal of Business Ethics 16 (5):497-506.
    This study examined how sales managers react to ethical and unethical acts by their salespeople. Deontological considerations and, to a much lesser extent, teleological considerations predicted sales managers' ethical judgments. Sales managers' intentions to reward or discipline ethical or unethical sales force behavior were primarily determined by their ethical judgments. An organization's perceived ethical work climate was not a significant predictor of sales managers' intentions to intervene when ethical and unethical sales force behavior was encountered.
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  27. Improving Sales Performance Through Ethics: The Relationship Between Salesperson Moral Judgment and Job Performance. [REVIEW]Charles H. Schwepker & Thomas N. Ingram - 1996 - Journal of Business Ethics 15 (11):1151 - 1160.
    This study examines the relationship between salespeople's moral judgment and their job performance. Results indicate a positive relationship between moral judgment and job performance when certain characteristics are present. Implications for sales managers and sales researchers are provided. Additionally, directions for future research are given.
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  28. Sales Agents and Clients: Ethics, Incentives, and a Modified Theory of Planned Behavior.Nancy B. Kurland - 1994 - Business and Society 33 (1):140-141.
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  29. Moral and Ethical Dilemmas in a Personal Sales IndustryThe Soul of the Salesman: The Moral Ethos of Personal Sales.E. Doyle McCarthy & Guy Oakes - 1993 - Business Ethics Quarterly 3 (4):445.
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  30. Institutional Constraints on the Ethics of Expert Testimony.Bruce Sales & Leonore Simon - 1993 - Ethics and Behavior 3 (3 & 4):231 – 249.
    We examined the dilemmas posed by the involvement of expert witnesses in court cases and the institutional constraints on the ethics of expert testimony. The causes for the incorporation of bad science into legal decisions, potential solutions to this dilemma, and the limitations of these solutions are considered. We concluded that law, science, and experts must respond to the problems posed by expert witnessing.
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  31. Institutional Constraints on the Ethics of Expert Testimony.Bruce Sales & Leonore Simon - 1993 - Ethics and Behavior 3 (3-4):231-249.
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  32. How Sales Managers Control Unethical Sales Force Behavior.James B. Coninck - 1992 - Journal of Business Ethics 11 (10):789-798.
    Researchers have studied marketing ethics from several perspectives. Few studies, however, have analyzed supervisory reactions to unethical behavior by salespeople. The results of this study using a 2 × 3 factorial design showed that the performance level of the salesperson and the consequences of the salesperson''s actions influenced some types of discipline used by a sample of 246 sales managers. The findings both support and contradict prior research on how sales managers respond to unethical sales force behavior.
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  33. How Sales Managers Control Unethical Sales Force Behavior.James B. De Coninck - 1992 - Journal of Business Ethics 11 (10):789 - 798.
    Researchers have studied marketing ethics from several perspectives. Few studies, however, have analyzed supervisory reactions to unethical behavior by salespeople. The results of this study using a 2 × 3 factorial design showed that the performance level of the salesperson and the consequences of the salesperson's actions influenced some types of discipline used by a sample of 246 sales managers. The findings both support and contradict prior research on how sales managers respond to unethical sales force behavior.
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  34. Corporate Codes of Ethics and Sales Force Behavior: A Case Study. [REVIEW]William A. Weeks & Jacques Nantel - 1992 - Journal of Business Ethics 11 (10):753 - 760.
    A growing public concern regarding ethical business conduct has stimulated marketing research in the ethics area. This study is the first empirical research to investigate the relationship between a code of ethics and sales force behavior. The findings present preliminary evidence that a well communicated code of ethics may be related to ethical sales force behavior. Furthermore, it appears that a sales force that is employed in such an environment can be profiled as being relatively high in job performance and (...)
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  35. Real Estate Sales Agents and the Code of Ethics: A Voice Stress Analysis. [REVIEW]Dean E. Allmon & James Grant - 1990 - Journal of Business Ethics 9 (10):807 - 812.
    This study evaluates responses to the Real Estate Ethical Code. Voice Stress Analysis (VSA) is used to evaluate the responses of real estate sales people to ethically-based questions. The process and the responses given enabled the authors to gain insight into pressure-causing ethical situations and to explore new uses of VSA. Some respondents were stressed while following the ethical code guidelines. Others showed no stress about breaking the formal code. The study reaffirms that the presence of formal ethical guidelines does (...)
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  36. The Sales Process and the Paradoxes of Trust.G. Oakes - 1990 - Journal of Business Ethics 9 (8):671 - 679.
    This essay explores a major ethical variable in personal sales: trust. By analyzing data drawn from life insurance sales, the essay supports the thesis that the role of the agent and the exigencies of personal sales create certain antinomies of trust that compromise the sales process. As a result, trust occupies a problematic and apparently paradoxical position in the sales process. On the one hand, success in personal sales is held to depend upon trust. On the other hand, because the (...)
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  37. Perceptual Differences of Sales Practitioners and Students Concerning Ethical Behavior.J. B. DeConinck & D. J. Good - 1989 - Journal of Business Ethics 8 (9):667 - 676.
    This study investigates specific behavioral perceptual differences of ethics between practitioners and students enrolled in sales classes. Respondents were asked to indicate their beliefs to issues related to ethics in sales. A highly significant difference was found between mean responses of students and sales personnel. Managers indicated a greater concern for ethical behavior and less attention to sales than did the students. Students indicated a strong desire for success regardless of ethical constraints violated.
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  38. L'istanza del concreto nel pensiero di Franco Lombardi.Sales Sales - 1961 - Giornale di Metafisica 16:402.
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