These words are a collaborative effort to think across different practices of knowing and sensing. They don’t pretend to compose a complete article. They are simply an assemblage that wants to open spaces for dwelling, for connecting, for dissenting. As such it gravitates around the images of Daniel Brittany Chávez’s performance: “Quisieron Enterrarnos … ”, his artist statement and Rolando’s notes on precedence, trans* and the decolonial. In this conversation, we are allies and accomplices in thinking through trans* as a (...) prefix both of non-binary transgender identity and from Rolando Vázquez’s conceptions of trans* from decolonial thought at praxis. In conversation, we offer this assemblage not from a space of tension but from a space of mutually nurturing decolonial praxis. (shrink)
In spite of the considerable development of research in the fields of business ethics and family business, a comprehensive review and integration of the area where both disciplines intersect has not been undertaken so far. This paper aims at contributing to the call for more research on family business ethics by answering the following research questions: What is the status of the current research at the intersection of business ethics and family business? Why and how do family firms differ from (...) non-family firms regarding business ethics? And, what are the key directions for further research? To answer these questions, this study combines a systematic approach for the selection of articles, resulting in a sample of 31 articles over 35 years, with a narrative review to analyze the literature. This paper finds that research on family business ethics is scarce but increasing and that family firms are considerably different from non-family firms regarding ethical issues. Particular stakeholders, goals, relationships, and practices are found to be the forces behind the peculiarity of family business ethics. Ultimately, research development on family business ethics is encouraged and future research directions flowing from the key findings and reflections of this review are provided. (shrink)
Research misconduct has been thoroughly discussed in the literature, but mainly in terms of definitions and prescriptions for proper conduct. Even when case studies are cited, they are generally used as a repository of “lessons learned.” What has been lacking from this conversation is how the lessons of responsible conduct of research are imparted in the first place to graduate students, especially those in technical fields such as engineering. Nor has there been much conversation about who is responsible for what (...) in training students in Responsible Conduct of Research or in allocating blame in cases of misconduct. This paper explores three seemingly disparate cases of misconduct—the 2004 plagiarism scandal at Ohio University; the famous Robert Millikan article of 1913, in which his reported data selection did not match his notebooks; and the 1990 fabrication scandal in Dr. Leroy Hood’s research lab. Comparing these cases provides a way to look at the relationship between the graduate student (or trainee) and his/her advisor (a relationship that has been shown to be the most influential one for the student) as well as at possibly differential treatment for established researchers and researchers-in-training, in cases of misconduct. This paper reflects on the rights and responsibilities of research advisers and their students and offers suggestions for clarifying both those responsibilities and the particularly murky areas of research-conduct guidelines. (shrink)
Usage and limits of analogy and metaphor in Aristotle’s science could be confusing. In some passages Aristotle uses both elements in explanations, and their clarity is defended. However, in other texts the metaphor is excluded from science. In this article, I will analyze the difference between metaphor and analogy and examine in what context metaphor can be used. My thesis is that Aristotle uses the analogy as an argumentative resource understood by epagoge. On the case of metaphors, they should be (...) excluded from science, but is a valid strategy for some kind of speeches, and as a pedagogical element of explanations. Key words: metaphor, analogy, argumentation, science, language. (shrink)
The theme of the sickness of the soul is in the mind of late antique Christian philosopher, Evagrius of Pontus, a frontier topic between the two major thematic areas in which his work can be divided: the psycho-spiritual and metaphysics. Reflect and try to define the origin and status of disease in Evagrio implies, in effect, pay attention to a transversal topic of his work: the ignorance. The consideration of this psycho-spiritual condition, it is necessary to achieve a coherent conceptual (...) definition of the concept of disease in Evagrius. Similarly, understanding how the ignorance is the source of passionate disorder that operates in the states of mental imbalance, implies considering their causal link with immoderate love of self or philautia. In the scheme evagriano the philautia is, in turn, the common origin of evil and destabilizing thoughts that are the characteristic cognitive activity of the disease state and that Evagrius calls logismoi. (shrink)
We propose an analysis of the notion of model as crucially related to the notion of point of view. A model in this sense would always suggest a certain way of looking at a real system, a certain way of thinking about it and a certain way of acting upon it. We focus on System Dynamics as a paradigmatic case with respect to many of the features and problems we can find in the field of modelling and simulation. We analyse (...) in detail some of those features. All of them would be present in many other cases of construction and use of models. Furthermore, they would support the thesis that a model can be fruitfully understood as offering a point of view capable of improving our own points of view over a certain system. The point of view offered by the model could include both non-conceptual and conceptual contents, it would have a complex structure and behaviour, and it would have direct consequences on the decisions made by the subjects adopting that point of view. (shrink)
Alasdair MacIntyre asks, if all individuals are in fact potential authorities of natural law and agree on its fundamentals, how can we explain manifest moral disagreement? Contemporary Thomistic natural law theorists have not attempted to address this particular issue to a significant degree. MacIntyre, taking this large-scale rejection seriously, focuses on the communal factors that allow individuals to recognize their need for and commitment to Thomistic natural law. By doing so, he attempts to give reasons for why we should expect (...) natural law to be widely denied in contemporary society. In this paper, I argue that MacIntyre’s approach to natural law is capable of accounting for the seemingly paradoxical claim that these per se nota first principles of natural law might suffer apparent widespread rejection. Moreover, I will argue that MacIntyre’s account is also capable of explaining why we should actually expect such rejection to occur. (shrink)
Mente y mundo es un ensayo filosófico en el que se da respuesta al viejo problema de cómo se vinculan el lenguaje y el pensamiento con el mundo, pero desde una perspectiva enteramente nueva: la que en la actualidad nos proporcionan la psicología cognitiva y la neurología.
Many philosophers have challenged the problem of skepticism. I argue that none of them successfully dispute the system established by Sextus Empiricus. But not just that; the main thesis proposed is that this kind of skepticism is unsolvable. I maintain that there are two fundamental strategies in Sextus' Outlines of Phyrrhonism. One of them is that the basic description of skepticism has a paradoxical character. The other focuses on the Five Modes of Agrippa that comprise a system of dialectical moves (...) for suspending judgment. The modes have, as a system, the capacity to reposition in any circumstance, so it is impossible to justify to the skeptic why he needs to abandon his skepticism. I explain, in brief, why the most important objections to skepticism do not solve this challenge. In opposition to common view, I argue that Sextus' phyrrhonism is practicable, coherent and consistent. Although there is no possible solution to skepticism, there is at least a general way to answer it without contradiction, infinite regression or becoming a skeptic. (shrink)
In this paper, I analyze the "surprise exam paradox". I think that the paradox can be avoided and I am going to focus on three points: 1) A conflict arises between reasoning and the confidence in the person that makes the original statement. If we examine the situation by reasoning we conclude that the statement is not going to come true, because we trust the person that states it. However, if it is not possible to happen, it happens, and the (...) person told the truth; 2) There is a disjunction among the days of the week: “or it is the first day or it is the second day or … it is the last day” (or Monday or Tuesday or Wednesday or Thursday or Friday). If I still have not been given the exam by Friday, the only possible conclusion is that the exam will be given on Friday. On Thursday, however, thesituation is completely different; 3) It seems that this paradox is a case of contingent futures, which branching time logics usually solve. The truth-value of the sentences is only relative to the branch that takes place in the end. (shrink)
En este trabajo se plantea, en primer lugar, la conveniencia de distinguir en el proceso de la contrastación empirica de hipótesis y teorías entre observación cientifíca y percepción y, en segundo lugar, se muestra como el munda procesado a través de la percepción se erige en base o soporte empírico del conocimiento científico. Una de las consecuencias del trabajo es que Ia tesis de “la carga teórica" de Ia observación ha sido mal planteada, al dar par sentado que esa carga (...) teórica afecta tambien al procesamiento perceptivo de los outputs proporeionados al científico por el instrumental de observación.This paper first suggests that, in analyses of the empirical testing of hypotheses and theories, scientific observation should be distinguished from perception; and goes on to say that the world, as processed by perception, is the basis or empirical foundation of scientific knowledge. This thesis that observation is “theory-laden” has been flawed by its being articulated as applying not only to scientific observation but also to the perceptional processing of the output provided to the scientists by observational instruments. (shrink)
The paper discusses some recent suggestions offered by the so-called sensorimotor (or enactivist) theorists as to the problem of the explanatory gap, that is, the alleged impossibility of accounting for phenomenal consciousness in any scientific theory. We argue in the paper that, although some enactivist theorists’ suggestions appear fresh and eye-opening, the claim that the explanatory gap is (dis)solved is much overstated.
According to kin selection theory, indirect reproductive advantages may induce individuals to care for others with whom they share genes by common descent, and the amount of care, including self-sacrifice, will increase with the proportion of genes shared. Twins represent a natural situation in which this hypothesis can be tested. Twin pairs experience the same early environment because they were born and raised at the same time and in the same family but their genetic relatedness differs depending on zygosity. We (...) compared the degree of willingness to fight and sacrifice for the co-twin among monozygotic and dizygotic pairs in a sample of 1443 same-sex and opposite-sex twins. We also analyzed the effect of the subject’s gender and that of the co-twin on those altruistic behaviors. Results partly supported the postulated explanation. MZ twins were significantly more likely than DZ twins to self-sacrifice for their co-twins, but zygosity did not affect willingness to fight for him/her. The genders of the subject and of the co-twin, not genetic relatedness, were the best predictors of aggressive altruistic intentions. (shrink)
When a risk is exchanged, the exact value for the minimum price (positive or negative) that the purchaser (investor, or insurer) is willing to pay is given by the certainty equivalent wealth level, which in turn depends on his specific utility function. When this utility function is unknown, then only a sufficient condition on the price can ever be found. This paper provides methods for calculating such a sufficient condition, when only limited information on the utility function is known.
We describe the results of an experiment on decision making in an insurance context. The experiment was designed to test for the underlying rationality of insurance consumers, where rationality is understood in usual economic terms. In particular, using expected utility as the preference function, we test for positive marginal utility, risk aversion, and decreasing absolute risk aversion, all of which are normal postulates for any microeconomic decision context under uncertainty or risk. We find that there the discrepancy from rational decision (...) making increases with the sophistication of the rationality criteria, that irrationality concerning fair premium contracts is uncharacteristically high, and that the slope of absolute risk aversion seems to depend on the format of the insurance contract. (shrink)
Resumen La figura del Abba, central en el monacato cristiano primitivo, recibe en el pensamiento de Evagrio Póntico, primer sistematizador de la espiritualidad monástica, la significativa denominación de “Gnóstico” pues se trata del monje que ha alcanzado un cierto grado de ciencia espiritual -natural primero, sobrenatural después- luego de haber atravesado la Praktiké. Esta última constituye, en la comprensión evagriana del itinerario cristiano, la primera etapa del progreso espiritual caracterizada principalmente por el cumplimiento de los mandamientos con el fin de (...) obtener la virtud. Al cabo de la Praktiké, se alcanza la apátheia que constituye una condición propicia del alma para recibir la ciencia presente en las cosas y en los seres racionales. Evagrio llama “gnóstico” a quien ha recibido por lo menos las primicias de esta ciencia o gnosis. Sitúa así aquel “ministerio de la palabra” que el monacato asigna al Abba, en el marco de su esquema de la vida cristiana, atribuyéndole una función medicinal que encuentra en la figura - cara al cristianismo tardo antiguo- del Cristo médico su arquetipo, su especificidad y su raíz. Nos interesa examinar en esta ocasión el modo en que aparece esta figura del Cristo en la obra de Evagrio Póntico y cómo ella constituiría el modelo y la raíz del ministerio terapeútico que, en el pensamiento evagriano, puede ejercer el gnóstico.The Abba figure, central to early Christian monasticism, receives in the thought of Evagrius Ponticus the significant denomination of "Gnostic" because it is the monk who has attained a certain degree of spiritual science after having crossed the Praktiké. The latter constitutes, in the evagriana understanding of the Christian itinerary, the first stage of the spiritual progress characterized mainly by the fulfillment of the commandments in order to obtain the virtue. At the end of the Praktiké, the apátheia is reached, which constitutes a propitious condition of the soul to receive the science present in things and rational beings. Evagrius calls "gnostic" who has received at least the first fruits of this science or gnosis. The "ministry of the word" that monasticism assigns to the Abba, is, for Evagrius, within this framework of Christian life. Our Author attributes the gnostic a medicinal function which finds in the figure - very important for the Late Antique Christianity- of the “Christ Physician”, its archetype, its specificity and its root. We are interested in examining on this occasion how this figure of Christ appears in the work of Evagrius Ponticus and how it would constitute the model and root of the therapeutic ministry that, in Evagrian thought, can be exercised by the Gnostic. (shrink)
Mod ern cit i zen ship is ma te ri al ized by the con sti tu tional body of the XIX cen tury. With the na tional States, the na tion al ist no tion of cit i zens trans formed the ide al ized so ci ety of in di vid u - als into a com mu nity of iden ti cal be ings. It is dem on strated that,..
El artículo expone la contraposición entre dos posiciones filosóficas (deconstrucción y reconstrucción), dos autores (Jacques Derrida, Jean Luc Ferry) y dos libros (Apprendre à vivre enfin, Apprendre à vivre). En última instancia, dos formas de entender las relaciones entre filosofía y vida. Más allá del logocentrismo, objeto de la deconstrucción, el biocentrismo es el eje de la tarea de reconstrucción de una filosofía articulada como ontología o teoría de lo real, filosofía moral o teoría de la justicia y sabiduría o (...) teoría de la salvación. En suma, una forma renovada de asumir la necesidad de la filosofía. (shrink)
Resumen. En el presente análisis se exponen las bases del clásico debate entre Richard Clark y Robert Kozma, autores reconocidos en el campo de Tecnología Instruccional y la Educación a Distancia por la relevancia de sus aportaciones; a partir del argumento inicial presentado por Richard Clark en 1983 contenido en su artículo denominado Reconsidering research on learning from media; dónde describe evidencias suficientes que apoyan su opinión respecto a que los medios instruccionales no ejercen influencia alguna en el nivel de (...) aprovechamiento de los estudiantes durante el proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje.Palabras claves. Tecnología instruccional, educación a distancia, medios, aprendizaje, enseñanza.. This analysis sets out the basis of the classic debate between Richard Clark and Robert Kozma, known authors in the field of Instructional Technology and Distance Education for the relevance of their contributions, from the initial argument presented by Richard Clark in 1983 contained in his article entitled Reconsidering research on learning from media; in which he describes sufficient evidences supporting his opinion that instructional media have no influence on the level of student achievement in the teaching-learning process.Keywords. Instructional technology, distance education, media, learning, teaching. (shrink)
En el marco de los estudios contemporáneos acerca de la noción de acedia, y de esta en la obra de su primer sistematizador, el monje filósofo Evagrio Póntico, el presente trabajo se propone, primero, mostrar las múltiples coincidencias entre las manifestaciones fenomenológicas de la acedia evagriana y las de la denominada “caída” del sistema heideggeriano. En el marco de las manifestaciones de esta última se consideran, entre otras, la avidez de novedades, las habladurías, la carencia de morada y otras, y (...) se pone de manifiesto la tematización de idénticos fenómenos por parte de Evagrio Póntico en su conceptualización de la acedia. En segundo lugar, y avanzando ya en la condición vinculante de tales convergencias fenomenológicas, se analiza el rol que tiene la temática del cuidado de la muerte en la definición y configuración tanto de la acedia evagriana cuanto de la caída heidegerriana. In the frame of contemporary studies on the concept of acedia, and in the work of its first systematizer, the philosopher monk Evagrius Ponticus, this paper, firstly, proposes to show the many similarities between the phenomenological manifestations of acedia in Evagrius and those recognized as the “fall” in the Heidegger system. As part of the manifestations of the latter, the avidity of innovations, the gossip, the lack of lodging are considered; and we show the identical phenomena theming by Evagrius of Pontus in his conceptualization of acedia. Secondly, and moving into the binding capacity of such phenomenological convergences, we analyze the role of death care in the definition and configuration of both Evagrio’s acedia and Heidegger’s fall. (shrink)
El autor, en el contexto del debate sobre la relación entre la justicia constitucional y el proceso democrático, argumenta a favor de considerar al control jurisdiccional de constitucionalidad como un requisito necesario, pero no suficiente, para la existencia de un Estado democrático de derecho. Tras analizar las posturas y argumentos generales de ese debate, así como aspectos singulares del modo en que se viene desarrollando en Latinoamérica, abogará por un modelo de democracia débil, en el que una serie de derechos, (...) fundamentalmente civiles y políticos, estén atrincherados constitucionalmente y sean considerados precondiciones del proceso democrático. Por este último motivo, estos dos tipos de derechos podrían estar protegidos por la justicia constitucional, incluso frente al legislador mayoritario, sin merma de la dimensión democrática del sistema político. Respecto de los derechos sociales, dada su dimensión distributiva y su relación con el bienestar y las necesidades de la población, su garantía no debería de quedar exclusivamente en manos de los jueces, ya que difícilmente pueden ser considerados precondiciones de la democracia: esto no significa, afirma el autor, que no hayan de ser constitucionalizados ni tampoco que en su garantía por parte de los parlamentarios no participe, de algún modo, la justicia constitucional. (shrink)