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Carson Strong [58]C. A. Strong [53]C. Strong [16]Charles A. Strong [10]
Charles Augustus Strong [4]Charles Strong [3]C. F. Strong [2]Clinton H. Strong [1]

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  1. A Critique of “the Best Secular Argument Against Abortion”.C. Strong - 2008 - Journal of Medical Ethics 34 (10):727-731.
    Don Marquis has put forward a non-religious argument against abortion based on what he claims is a morally relevant similarity between killing adult human beings and killing fetuses. He asserts that killing adults is wrong because it deprives them of their valuable futures. He points out that a fetus’s future includes everything that is in an adult’s future, given that fetuses naturally develop into adults. Thus, according to Marquis, killing a fetus deprives it of the same sort of valuable future (...)
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  2.  93
    Specified Principlism: What is It, and Does It Really Resolve Cases Better Than Casuistry?Carson Strong - 2000 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 25 (3):323 – 341.
    Principlism has been advocated as an approach to resolving concrete cases and issues in bioethics, but critics have pointed out that a main problem for principlism is its lack of a method for assigning priorities to conflicting ethical principles. A version of principlism referred to as 'specified principlism' has been put forward in an attempt to overcome this problem. However, none of the advocates of specified principlism have attempted to demonstrate that the method actually works in resolving detailed clinical cases. (...)
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  3. Theoretical and Practical Problems with Wide Reflective Equilibrium in Bioethics.Carson Strong - 2010 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 31 (2):123-140.
    Various theories have been put forward in an attempt to explain what makes moral judgments justifiable. One of the main theories currently advocated in bioethics is a form of coherentism known as wide reflective equilibrium. In this paper, I argue that wide reflective equilibrium is not a satisfactory approach for justifying moral beliefs and propositions. A long-standing theoretical problem for reflective equilibrium has not been adequately resolved, and, as a result, the main arguments for wide reflective equilibrium are unsuccessful. Moreover, (...)
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  4.  42
    The Moral Status of Preembryos, Embryos, Fetuses, and Infants.C. Strong - 1997 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 22 (5):457-478.
    Some have argued that embryos and fetuses have the moral status of personhood because of certain criteria that are satisfied during gestation. However, these attempts to base personhood during gestation on intrinsic characteristics have uniformly been unsuccessful. Within a secular framework, another approach to establishing a moral standing for embryos and fetuses is to argue that we ought to confer some moral status upon them. There appear to be two main approaches to defending conferred moral standing; namely, consequentialist and contractarian (...)
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  5.  59
    Cloning and Infertility.Carson Strong - 1998 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 7 (3):279-293.
    Although there are important moral arguments against cloning human beings, it has been suggested that there might be exceptional cases in which cloning humans would be ethically permissible. One type of supposed exceptional case involves infertile couples who want to have children by cloning. This paper explores whether cloning would be ethically permissible in infertility cases and the separate question of whether we should have a policy allowing cloning in such cases. One caveat should be stated at the beginning, however. (...)
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  6.  31
    Harming by Conceiving: A Review of Misconceptions and a New Analysis. [REVIEW]Carson Strong - 2005 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 30 (5):491 – 516.
    An objection often is raised against the use of reproductive technology to create "nontraditional families," as in ovum donation for postmenopausal women or postmortem artificial insemination. The objection states that conceiving children in such circumstances is harmful to them because of adverse features of these nontraditional families. A similar objection is raised when parents, through negligence or willful disregard of risks, create children with serious genetic diseases or other developmental handicaps. It is claimed that such reproduction harms the children who (...)
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  7.  23
    Should We Be Putting a Good Face on Facial Transplantation?Carson Strong - 2004 - American Journal of Bioethics 4 (3):13 – 14.
  8.  77
    Justifying Group-Specific Common Morality.Carson Strong - 2008 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 29 (1):1-15.
    Some defenders of the view that there is a common morality have conceived such morality as being universal, in the sense of extending across all cultures and times. Those who deny the existence of such a common morality often argue that the universality claim is implausible. Defense of common morality must take account of the distinction between descriptive and normative claims that there is a common morality. This essay considers these claims separately and identifies the nature of the arguments for (...)
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  9.  69
    Critiques of Casuistry and Why They Are Mistaken.Carson Strong - 1999 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 20 (5):395-411.
    Casuistic methods of reasoning in medical ethics have been criticized by a number of authors. At least five main objections to casuistry have been put forward: (1) it requires a uniformity of views that is not present in contemporary pluralistic society; (2) it cannot achieve consensus on controversial issues; (3) it is unable to examine critically intuitions about cases; (4) it yields different conclusions about cases when alternative paradigms are chosen; and (5) it cannot articulate the grounds of its conclusions. (...)
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  10.  36
    Can't You Control Your Children?Carson Strong - 2001 - American Journal of Bioethics 1 (1):12 – 13.
  11.  51
    Reply to Di Nucci: Why the Counterexamples Succeed.C. Strong - 2009 - Journal of Medical Ethics 35 (5):326-327.
    In my essay, a critique of “the best secular argument against abortion” I reconstructed and criticised two versions of Don Marquis’s well-known argument against abortion. In critiquing the version I call the “essence argument”, I presented counterexamples to one of the premises in that argument. In this issue of the journal, Ezio Di Nucci takes note of the fact that I used the term “valuable future” in the premise but used the term “future like ours” in the counterexamples. Because the (...)
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  12.  27
    Lost in Translation: Religious Arguments Made Secular.Carson Strong - 2005 - American Journal of Bioethics 5 (3):29 – 31.
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  13.  26
    Kukla’s Argument Against Common Morality as a Set of Precepts.Carson Strong - 2014 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 23 (1):93-99.
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  14.  24
    Reproductive Cloning Combined with Genetic Modification.C. Strong - 2005 - Journal of Medical Ethics 31 (11):654-658.
    Although there is widespread opposition to reproductive cloning, some have argued that its use by infertile couples to have genetically related children would be ethically justifiable. Others have suggested that lesbian or gay couples might wish to use cloning to have genetically related children. Most of the main objections to human reproductive cloning are based on the child’s lack of unique nuclear DNA. In the future, it may be possible safely to create children using cloning combined with genetic modifications, so (...)
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  15.  25
    Moral Status and the Fetus: Continuation of a Dialogue.Carson Strong - 2011 - American Journal of Bioethics 11 (5):52-54.
  16.  23
    Ethical and Legal Aspects of Sperm Retrieval After Death or Persistent Vegetative State.Carson Strong - 1999 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 27 (4):347-358.
    Several methods have been reported for extracting sperm from a man after he dies or enters a persistent vegetative state. Although such sperm retrieval could be performed for nonprocreative purposes, such as research, in this paper I focus on cases involving procreative intent. Since 1980, more than ninety cases have occurred in which family members requested sperm retrieval from patients who died or were irreversibly unconscious, with the intent that a wife, girlfriend, or other woman would be inseminated. Recently, the (...)
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  17.  16
    Do Embryonic “Patients” Have Moral Interests?Carson Strong - 2008 - American Journal of Bioethics 8 (7):40 – 42.
  18.  63
    Fetal Tissue Transplantation: Can It Be Morally Insulated From Abortion?C. Strong - 1991 - Journal of Medical Ethics 17 (2):70-76.
    Ethical controversy over transplantation of human fetal tissue has arisen because the source of tissue is induced abortions. Opposition to such transplants has been based on various arguments, including the following: rightful informed consent cannot be obtained for use of fetal tissue from induced abortions, and fetal tissue transplantation might result in an increase in the number of abortions. These arguments were not accepted by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Human Fetal Tissue Transplantation Research Panel. The majority opinion of (...)
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  19.  68
    Preembryo Personhood: An Assessment of the President’s Council Arguments. [REVIEW]Carson Strong - 2006 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 27 (5):433-453.
    The President’s Council on Bioethics has addressed the moral status of human preembryos in its reports on stem cell research and human therapeutic cloning. Although the Council has been criticized for being hand-picked to favor the right-to-life viewpoint concerning human preembryos, it has embraced the idea that the right-to-life position should be defended in secular terms. This is an important feature of the Council’s work, and it demonstrates a recognition of the need for genuine engagement between opposing sides in the (...)
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  20.  6
    Ethical and Legal Aspects of Sperm Retrieval After Death or Persistent Vegetative State.Carson Strong - 1999 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 27 (4):347-358.
    Several methods have been reported for extracting sperm from a man after he dies or enters a persistent vegetative state. Although such sperm retrieval could be performed for nonprocreative purposes, such as research, in this paper I focus on cases involving procreative intent. Since 1980, more than ninety cases have occurred in which family members requested sperm retrieval from patients who died or were irreversibly unconscious, with the intent that a wife, girlfriend, or other woman would be inseminated. Recently, the (...)
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  21. Overview: A Framework for Reproductive Ethics.Carson Strong - 2002 - In Donna L. Dickenson (ed.), Ethical Issues in Maternal-Fetal Medicine. Cambridge University Press. pp. 17--36.
     
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  22.  27
    How Should IVF Programs Handle Initial Disclosure of Information to Prospective Ovum Donors?Carson Strong - 2001 - American Journal of Bioethics 1 (4):23 – 25.
    (2001). How Should IVF Programs Handle Initial Disclosure of Information to Prospective Ovum Donors? The American Journal of Bioethics: Vol. 1, No. 4, pp. 23-25.
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  23.  5
    Raters Interpret Positively and Negatively Worded Items Similarly in a Quality of Life Instrument for Children.Chung-Ying Lin, Carol Strong, Meng-Che Tsai & Chih-Ting Lee - 2017 - Inquiry: The Journal of Health Care Organization, Provision, and Financing 54:004695801769672.
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  24.  60
    Exploring Questions About Common Morality.Carson Strong - 2009 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 30 (1):1-9.
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  25.  20
    Conscientious Objection the Morning After.Carson Strong - 2007 - American Journal of Bioethics 7 (6):32 – 34.
  26.  17
    Why Public Policy on Embryo Research Should Not Be Based on Religion.Carson Strong - 2011 - American Journal of Bioethics 11 (3):33-35.
  27.  17
    The Limited Utility of Utilitarian Analysis.Carson Strong - 2006 - American Journal of Bioethics 6 (3):67-69.
  28.  78
    Reply to Marquis: How Things Stand with the 'Future Like Ours' Argument.Carson Strong - 2012 - Journal of Medical Ethics 38 (9):567-569.
    In an earlier essay in this journal I critiqued Don Marquis's well-known argument against abortion. I distinguished two versions of Marquis's argument, which I refer to as ‘the essence argument’ and ‘the sufficient condition argument’. I presented two counterexamples showing that the essence argument was mistaken, and I argued that the sufficient condition argument should be rejected because Marquis had not adequately responded to an important objection to it. In response to my critique, Marquis put forward in this journal a (...)
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  29.  15
    The Moral Status of the Near-Term Fetus.C. Strong & G. Anderson - 1989 - Journal of Medical Ethics 15 (1):25-27.
  30.  10
    Respecting the Health Care Decision-Making Capacity of Minors.Carson Strong - 1994 - Bioethics Forum 11 (4):7-12.
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  31.  57
    Why the Mind has a Body.C. A. Strong - 1928 - Mind 37 (146):262-263.
  32.  5
    The Premature Breech: Caesarean Section or Trial of Labour?G. Anderson & C. Strong - 1988 - Journal of Medical Ethics 14 (1):18-24.
    Obstetricians face difficult decisions when the interests of fetus and mother conflict. An example is the problem of choosing the delivery method when labour begins prematurely and the fetus is breech. Vaginal delivery involves risks for the breech fetus of brain damage or death caused by umbilical cord compression and head entrapment. Caesarean section might avoid these dangers but involves risks for the mother, including infection, haemorrhage and even death in a small percentage of cases. If a caesarean section is (...)
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  33.  15
    Lunch with Lilly: Who Pays?Carson Strong - 2003 - American Journal of Bioethics 3 (3):62-63.
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  34.  19
    How Should Risks and Benefits Be Balanced in Research Involving Pregnant Women and Fetuses?C. Strong - 2011 - IRB: Ethics & Human Research 33 (6):1-5.
    In research involving pregnant women and fetuses, a number of questions arise concerning the balancing of risks and benefits. In research that holds out a prospect of direct benefit for the woman, how much risk to the fetus is permissible? How should the principle of minimizing risks be applied when there are two subjects—pregnant woman and fetus? Should risks for each of them be minimized? What if minimizing risks for one increases risks for the other? These and other questions are (...)
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  35.  15
    Patients Should Not Always Come First in Treatment Decisions.Carson Strong - 1993 - Journal of Clinical Ethics 4 (1):63.
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  36.  12
    An Ethics Committee in a Reproductive Health Clinic for Mentally Handicapped Persons.Thomas E. Elkins, Carson Strong, Alan R. Wolfe & Douglas Brown - 1986 - Hastings Center Report 16 (3):20-22.
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  37.  23
    Why Academic Medical Centers Should Ban Drug Company Gifts to Individuals.Carson Strong - 2010 - American Journal of Bioethics 10 (1):13-15.
  38.  5
    Consciousness and Time.Charles A. Strong - 1896 - Psychological Review 3:149-57.
  39.  24
    Case Commentary: Parental Request for Life-Prolonging Interventions.Carson Strong - 2007 - HEC Forum 19 (4):377-380.
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  40.  19
    Gert's Theory of Common Morality.Carson Strong - 2007 - Metaphilosophy 38 (4):535-545.
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  41.  2
    Can Fluids and Electrolytes Be 'Extraordinary' Treatment?C. Strong - 1981 - Journal of Medical Ethics 7 (2):83-85.
  42.  52
    The Meaning of `Meaning'.C. A. Strong - 1921 - Mind 30 (119):313-316.
  43. Paternalism in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit.Carson Strong - 1984 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 5 (1).
    Two factors are discussed which have important implications for the issue of paternalism in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU): the physician's role as advocate for the patient; and the range of typical responses of parents who learn that their neonate has a serious illness. These factors are pertinent to the task of identifying those actions which are paternalistic, as well as to the question of whether paternalism is justified. It is argued that certain behavior by physicians which is often (...)
     
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  44.  45
    Has Mr. Moore Refuted Idealism?C. A. Strong - 1905 - Mind 14 (54):174-189.
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  45.  22
    Too Many Twins, Triplets, Quadruplets, and So On: A Call for New Priorities.Carson Strong - 2003 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 31 (2):272-282.
    Assisted reproductive technology has enabled thousands of infertile couples to experience the joys of parenthood. At various times, however, significant problems have come to light concerning the providing of infertility treatment in the United States. An early problem was misleading advertising by some infertility programs, particularly in regard to pregnancy success rates. This unacceptable activity suggested the need for more oversight of assisted reproductive technology and prompted the passage of a federal law requiring the reporting of success rates in a (...)
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  46.  6
    A Naturalistic Theory of the Reference of Thought to Reality.C. A. Strong - 1904 - Journal of Philosophy 1 (10):253.
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  47.  10
    Obtaining Stem Cells: Moving From Scylla Toward Charybdis.Carson Strong - 2005 - American Journal of Bioethics 5 (6):21 – 23.
  48.  20
    A Naturalistic Theory of the Reference of Thought to Reality.C. A. Strong - 1904 - Journal of Philosophy, Psychology and Scientific Methods 1 (10):253-260.
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  49.  16
    Dr. Munsterberg's Theory of Mind and Body and its Consequences.Charles A. Strong - 1892 - Philosophical Review 1 (2):179-195.
  50.  17
    Mr. Russell's Theory of the External World.C. A. Strong - 1922 - Mind 31 (123):307-320.
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