I argue that, although it is probably not possible to construct a thoroughly consistent interpretation of Kantian metaphors, there is a perspective in Kant’s later writings which provides a framework for selecting and sorting central metaphors. Following a discussion of the work or Lakoff and Johnson on metaphor, I provide an examination of Kant’s distinction between noumenon and phenomenon as an example of a metaphor grounded upon spatio-temporal experience, and conclude with suggestions concerning the role of metaphor in Kant’s account (...) of personhood and community. (shrink)
Este texto tem a intenção de percorrer panoramicamente alguns pontos de referência importantes no debate contemporâneo sobre o problema da motivação moral no contexto da discussão entre posições cognitivistas e não-cognitivistas em ética. A idéia básica é a de que o não-cognitivismo encontrou tradicionalmente um apoio importante nos argumentos internalistas, os quais, por sua vez, retiram sua força da percepção comum de que as considerações morais não são inertes, ou seja, possuem, em algum sentido, uma capacidade motivadora que dificilmente podemos (...) ignorar. Se, agora, quisermos confrontar a posição não-cognitivista, inevitavelmente seremos levados a confrontar-nos também com os argumentos internalistas. O que tentamos fazer aqui foi simplesmente apresentar panoramicamente os problemas e as alternativas que podemos encontrar ao longo desses enfrentamentos. (shrink)
L'ouvrage regroupe plusieurs chapitres et les notices et photographies de 170 statues et objets présentés lors de trois expositions dans des musées américains, à Yale en 1996, San Antonio et Raleigh en 1997. Après un premier chapitre sur le « genre » (Gender theory in roman art, N.B. Kampen), concept moderne, fruit de plusieurs décades de travail sur la théorie féministe, qui est un chapitre de réflexions sur l'organisation sociale hiérarchisée, fondée sur les différences sexuelles, ..
The philosophy of John Smith is not a dispassionate subject for me. He was my teacher from my sophomore year in college through the PhD, which he mentored. I worked in his office nearly every day during that time. He became my intellectual father and framed the way I took up philosophy. He performed my wedding and twenty-five years later taught my two daughters. We worked together philosophically and in the politics of the academy from my first day as his (...) undergraduate typist, when I was utterly naïve about both topics, until the day he died, when I had no innocence left. His daughter Diana informed me of his death by responding to an e-mail I had sent him that afternoon. I preached his funeral, threw frozen dirt .. (shrink)
Este artigo baseia-se na ideia de que em qualquer tipo de diálogo os interlocutores estão marcados pela sua própria cultura/identidade. E também assim é no caso do diálogo inter-religioso. A cultura/identidade é o contexto existencial básico a partir do qual as pessoas entendem, questionam e interpretam as suas vidas, pelo que não pode ser ignorado. A necessidade de trabalhar no desenvolvimento das competências interculturais e na sensibilidade cultural surge como um ponto de partida fundamental para avançar neste tipo de diálogo. (...) This article is based on the idea that in any kind of dialogue the partners are marked by their own culture/identity. This is also the case of inter-religious dialogue. Culture/identity is the basic existential context from which people understand, raise questions and interpret their lives, can't be ignored. There is a need to work on developing cultural sensitivity and intercultural competencies as a fundamental starting point to advance in this type of dialogue. (shrink)
Philosophers of music (and also music theorists) have recognized for a long time that research in the sciences, especially psychology, might have import for their own work. (Langer 1941 and Meyer 1956 are good examples.) However, while scientists had been interested in music as a subject of research (e.g., Helmholtz 1912, Seashore 1938), the discipline known as psychology of music, or more broadly cognitive science of music, came into its own only around 1980 with the publication of several landmark works. (...) Among the most important of these were The Psychol- ogy of Music (1980), a collection of papers edited by the psychologist Diana Deutsch, and A Generative Theory of Tonal Music (1983) by music theorist and composer Fred Lerdahl and linguist Ray Jackendoff. These works and others made possible the first attempts to apply scientific research to philosophical issues concerning music (e.g., Raffman 1993, DeBellis 1995). Since the 1980’s, of course, a great deal of research has been done in cognitive science, philosophy, and music. For philosophers, there are perhaps three topics with respect to which findings in the cognitive sciences are most likely to be germane—the nature of musical understanding, the role of emotions or feelings in music, and the evaluation of musical works. This brief overview will describe some of the scientific research that has been done on these topics, and then indicate how it might be philosophically significant. (shrink)
Peroxisomal matrix proteins are synthesized on cytosolic ribosomes and rapidly transported into the organelle by a complex machinery. The data gathered in recent years suggest that this machinery operates through a syringe-like mechanism, in which the shuttling receptor PEX5 − the “plunger” − pushes a newly synthesized protein all the way through a peroxisomal transmembrane protein complex − the “barrel” − into the matrix of the organelle. Notably, insertion of cargo-loaded receptor into the “barrel” is an ATP-independent process, whereas extraction (...) of the receptor back into the cytosol requires its monoubiquitination and the action of ATP-dependent mechanoenzymes. Here, we review the main data behind this model. The peroxin PEX5 is the peroxisomal matrix protein receptor. It shuttles between the cytosol and the organelle membrane, where it gets inserted into the docking/translocation module, thus pushing the cargo-protein into the peroxisome lumen. Resetting the system involves PEX5 monoubiquitination and its extraction from the membrane by the AAA-ATPases, PEX1/PEX6. (shrink)