Jean-Marc Coicaud's article begins by stressing the contemporary importance and the current trend of political apology. Recent political apologies offered in Australia and Canada to their indigenous populations form a significant part of this story. He then analyzes a number of intriguing paradoxes at the core of the dynamics of apology. These paradoxes give meaning to apology but also make the very idea of apology extremely challenging. They have to do with the relationships of apology with time, law (...) and the unforgivable. The most intriguing of these paradoxes concerns apology and the unforgivable. Indeed, the greater the wrong, the more valuable the apology. But, then, the more difficult it becomes to issue and to accept an apology. This latter paradox is namely examined in the context of mass crimes, taken from Europe, Africa and Asia. As a whole these paradoxes are all the more intriguing considering what apology in a political context aims to accomplish, for the actor who issues the apology, for the one who receives it, for their relationship, and for the social environment in which this takes place. Jean-Marc Coicaud concludes his article by outlining what the rise of apology means for contemporary political culture. (shrink)
This paper proposes a synthetic presentation of the proof construction paradigm, which underlies most of the research and development in the so-called “logic programming” area. Two essential aspects of this paradigm are discussed here: true non-determinism and partial information. A new formulation of Focussing, the basic property used to deal with non-determinism in proof construction, is presented. This formulation is then used to introduce a general constraint-based technique capable of dealing with partial information in proof construction. One of the baselines (...) of the paper is to avoid to rely on syntax to describe the key mechanisms of the paradigm. In fact, the bipolar decomposition of formulas captures their main structure, which can then be directly mapped into a sequent system that uses only atoms. This system thus completely “dissolves” the syntax of the formulas and retains only their behavioural content as far as proof construction is concerned. One step further is taken with the so-called “abstract” proofs, which dissolves in a similar way the specific tree-like syntax of the proofs themselves and retains only what is relevant to proof construction. (shrink)
Jean-Marc Moschetta | Résumé : Phénoménologie de la transcendance, publié par Sophie Nordmann, propose une réflexion sur certains concepts classiques de la théologie : création, rédemption, transcendance, etc. La thèse principale de l’ouvrage est que le monde est insuffisant à rendre compte de lui-même et que cette incomplétude est elle-même indéductible du monde. D’où le caractère authentiquement créé du monde. La création du monde, entendue strictement sur le mode de « l’insuffisance ontologique à soi », apparaît alors comme (...) un concept délié du don originel et permet de faire l’économie d’un Dieu créateur. Cet article met en regard cette analyse et celle qui est issue de la tradition théologique. En particulier, même si la construction de la thèse principale de l’ouvrage est contestée sur la base des contre-exemples fournis par les sciences contemporaines de la nature, la conclusion de l’ouvrage qui proclame le lien entre création et rédemption d’un monde en voie d’achèvement peut être reçue comme une confirmation de la légitimité de la théologie naturelle contemporaine. |: Phénoménologie de la transcendance, published by Sophie Nordmann, offers a philosophical thought on some classical concepts of theology such as : creation, redemption, transcendence, etc. The main thesis of the book is that the world is insufficient to account for itself. Moreover, the world incompleteness cannot be inferred from the world. Hence the world as a genuine created entity. The creation of the world, strictly understood as the “ontological self-insufficiency” appears as a concept independent of the original gift and allows to consider God the Creator as unnecessary. The present article compares Ms. Nordmann’s analysis with the one inherited from the theological tradition. The main book thesis is disputed on the basis of counter-examples issued from contemporary natural sciences. Yet, the conclusion proclaims a connection between creation and redemption of a world in the process of accomplishment. That conclusion may be regarded as confirming the legitimacy of contemporary natural theology. (shrink)
The article focuses on how emotions and passions are addressed in the field of international relations. As such it makes three main points. First, the article argues that, although presupposed in mainstream international relations, because of the influence of positivism emotions and passions have tended to be overlooked. Second, it makes the point that in recent years scholars with constructivist leanings have been increasingly interested in taking emotions and passions seriously as an academic area of research. Third, and finally, the (...) article concludes that despite the progress made in the 2000s on the understanding of emotions and passions in international relations, more work remains to be done. As such it outlines future directions of research. (shrink)
The point of view put forth in the following pages differs greatly from the common perspective according to which the treatises 30 to 33 constitute a single work, a Großschrift, and this single work, Plotinus essential response to the ...
This book reveals the French scientific contribution to the mathematical theory of nonlinear oscillations and its development. The work offers a critical examination of sources with a focus on the twentieth century, especially the period between the wars. Readers will see that, contrary to what is often written, France's role has been significant. Important contributions were made through both the work of French scholars from within diverse disciplines, and through the geographical crossroads that France provided to scientific communication at the (...) time. This study includes an examination of the period before the First World War which is vital to understanding the work of the later period. By examining literature sources such as periodicals on the topic of electricity from that era, the author has unearthed a very important text by Henri Poincaré, dating from 1908. In this work Poincaré applied the concept of limit cycle to study the stability of the oscillations of a device for radio engineering. The “discovery” of this text means that the classical perspective of the historiography of this mathematical theory must be modified. Credit was hitherto attributed to the Russian mathematician Andronov, from correspondence dating to 1929. In the newly discovered Poincaré text there appears to be a strong interaction between science and technology or, more precisely, between mathematical analysis and radio engineering. This feature is one of the main components of the process of developing the theory of nonlinear oscillations. Indeed it is a feature of many of the texts referred to in these chapters, as they trace the significant developments to which France contributed. Scholars in the fields of the history of mathematics and the history of science, and anyone with an interest in the philosophical underpinnings of science will find this a particularly engaging account of scientific discovery and scholarly communication from an era full of exciting developments. (shrink)
The favourable reception of the analytic philosophy of language plays a central role in the composition of Ricœur’s literary hermeneutics. Following a brief description of the historical and methodological context of this reception, we show how Ricœur intends to link up phenomenology and analytic philosophy of language. Then we examine the role allocated to the analytic philosophy of language in establishing the idea of metaphor as a “more fundamental mode of reference” in The Rule of Metaphor . But once again (...) Ricœur situates this semantic interpretation of metaphor within the context of an ontology. The result is methodological difficulties that mark the limits of Ricœur’s reception of the analytic philosophy of language. Keywords: Semantics, Metaphor, Ontology, Structuralism, Poetics. Résumé La réception de la philosophie analytique du langage joue un rôle central dans la constitution de l’herméneutique littéraire de Ricœur. Après avoir tracé le cadre historique et systématique dans lequel s’inscrit cette réception, on montre comment Ricœur se propose d’articuler phénoménologie et philosophie analytique du langage. On étudie ensuite le rôle assigné à la philosophie analytique du langage pour la mise en place de la conception de la métaphore comme “mode plus fondamental de la référence” dans La métaphore vive . Mais Ricœur situe encore une fois cette interprétation sémantique de la métaphore dans un cadre ontologique. Il en résulte des difficultés systématiques qui marquent les limites de la réception de la philosophie analytique du langage par Ricœur. Mots-clés: Sémantique, Métaphore, Ontologie, Structuralisme, Poétique. (shrink)
This article focuses on the relationship between emotions and passions, on the one hand, and values, needs and rights, on the other. This relationship is indeed central to the social dimension of international politics. In this perspective, the article examines how emotions and passions can be at the same time effects and causes of the extent to which actors feel that their needs and rights are fulfilled or not. In the process, the article also explores the negative and positive features (...) of emotions and passions, and their impact on the nature and dynamics of change in international affairs. Beyond this general approach to emotions and passions in connection with the social dimension of international politics and the questions of values, needs, and rights of actors and change, it concludes with the idea that there is also a contextual dimension to the generic argument developed in the article. This will have to be factored in for future research on case studies. (shrink)
The idea that some day robots may have emotions has captured the imagination of many and has been dramatized by robots and androids in such famous movies as 2001 Space Odyssey's HAL or Star Trek's Data. By contrast, the editors of this book have assembled a panel of experts in neuroscience and artificial intelligence who have dared to tackle the issue of whether robots can have emotions from a purely scientific point of view. The study of the brain now usefully (...) informs study of the social, communicative, adaptive, regulatory, and experimental aspects of emotion and offers support for the idea that we exploit our own psychological responses in order to feel others' emotions. The contributors show the many ways in which the brain can be analyzed to shed light on emotions. Fear, reward, and punishment provide structuring concepts for a number of investigations. Neurochemistry reveals the ways in which different "neuromodulators" such as serotonin, dopamine, and opioids can affect the emotional valence of the brain. And studies of different regions such as the amygdala and orbitofrontal cortex provide a view of the brain as a network of interacting subsystems. Related studies in artificial intelligence and robotics are discussed and new multi-level architectures are proposed that make it possible for emotions to be implemented. It is now an accepted task in robotics to build robots that perceive human expressions of emotion and can "express" simulated emotions to ease interactions with humans. Looking towards future innovations, some scientists posit roles for emotion with our fellow humans. All of these issues are covered in this timely and stimulating book which is written for researchers and graduated students in neuroscience, cognitive science, psychology, robotics, and artificial intelligence. (shrink)
Quand on a renoncé à démontrer l'existence de Dieu ou l'immortalité de l'âme, est-il encore rationnel de postuler que Dieu existe ou que l'âme est immortelle? Peut-on croire rationnellement dans l'incertitude la plus totale? Jean-Marc Ferry montre précisément en quoi la religion réflexive le permet. Celui qui s'y engage ne se prévaut d'aucun accès privilégié à la vérité. Au départ, cet engagement procède moins d'une croyance que d'une résolution. Il s'agit, en effet, d'un acte de pure liberté, dépourvu (...) d'assise, acte risqué qui fait que l'on accorde ou non sa confiance au réel. Ensuite seulement, entre l'athée et le croyant, les expériences pourront être confrontées ; et c'est quand l'un et l'autre assument pleinement leur absolue ignorance métaphysique que raison et religion peuvent enfin être conciliées. (shrink)
The hypothesis that the particular linear tracks appearing in the measurement of a spherically-emitting radioactive source in a cloud chamber are determined by the positions of atoms or molecules inside the chamber is further explored in the framework of a recently established one-dimensional model. In this model, meshes of localized spins 1/2 play the role of the cloud-chamber atoms and the spherical wave is replaced by a linear superposition of two wave packets moving from the origin to the left and (...) to the right, evolving deterministically according to the Schrödinger equation. We first revisit these results using a time-dependent approach, where the wave packets impinge on a symmetric two-sided detector. We discuss the evolution of the wave function in the configuration space and stress the interest of a non-symmetric detector in a quantum-measurement perspective. Next we use a time-independent approach to study the scattering of a plane wave on a single-sided detector. Preliminary results are obtained, analytically for the single-spin case and numerically for up to 8 spins. They show that the spin-excitation probabilities are sometimes very sensitive to the parameters of the model, which corroborates the idea that the measurement result could be determined by the atom positions. The possible origin of decoherence and entropy increase in future models is finally discussed. (shrink)
Perspectives on emotion -- Epistemological and methodological perspectives -- method, research question and hypotheses -- The independent variables -- Results: self-perceived competence in oral and written language -- Results: communicating feelings (in general) -- Results: communicating anger and swearing -- Results: attitudes towards languages and perception of emotionality of swearwords -- Results: foreign language anxiety -- Results: code-switching and emotion. -- Concluding remarks.
We address the issue of belief revision in a multi-agent setting. We represent agents' beliefs in a semantic manner, through a Kripke structure, and model a communication process by which agents communicate their beliefs to one another. We define a revision rule that can be applied even when agents have contradictory beliefs. We study its properties and show that agents need not agree after communicating their beliefs. We finally address the dynamics of revision and show that the order of communication (...) may affect the resulting belief structure. (shrink)
Taking as a starting point a crucial passage of Aristotle’s Poetics where poetical technique is declared to be different from all other disciplines in human knowledge, I try to determine in what sense and up to what point poetry can be seen as an autonomous or sui generis creative activity. On this path, I come across the so-called “likely and necessary” rule mentioned many times in Aristotle’s essay, which might be seen as a limitation of the poet’s literary freedom. I (...) then endeavour to show that this rule of consistency does not preclude the many means by which the poet can astonish his or her audience, bring them into error, introduce exaggerations and embellishments on the one hand, have the characters change their conduct along the way, etc. For Aristotle, the poetic art—and artistic activities in general—is concerned not with what in fact is or what should be, but simply with what might be. Accordingly, one can see him as historically the very first theorist fiction, not only because he states that poetry relates freely to the possible, but also because he explains why poetry is justified in doing so. (shrink)
Pour parler de la chute ou de la déclinaison de l’Âme dans le cadre des récits cosmogoniques gnostiques, Plotin a recours, en sus du terme νεῦσις, au substantif σφάλμα, comme s’il s’agissait d’un synonyme de νεῦσις. L’enquête que nous avons menée montre le bien-fondé de cet usage, puisque le terme σφάλμα est, de fait, utilisé par les hérésiologues pour décrire, dans un langage hérité du néo-pythagorisme et donc rythmé par le nombre, la chute de Sophia, laquelle incarne le douzième éon (...) de la Dodécade en même temps que le trentième et dernier éon de l’ensemble du Plérôme. Rapporté à la métaphysique pythagoricienne dont il relève, le récit gnostique perd toute apparence d’arbitraire et révèle enfin sa véritable structure, commandée de bout en bout par le nombre. Il est raisonnable de penser que l’arithmologie rivale du traité 34 de Plotin est là pour y couper court. When speaking of the fall or decline of the Soul within the context of the Gnostic cosmogonic narratives, Plotinus, in addition to the term νεῦσις, resorts to the substantive σφάλμα, as if it were a synonym of νεῦσις. The following investigation demonstrates the validity of this usage, as the term σφάλμα is, in fact, used by the heresiologists to describe, in a language inherited from Neopythagoreanism, and therefore structured by number, the fall of Sophia, which embodies both the twelfth aeon of the Dodecade as well as the thirtieth and final aeon of the entire Pleroma. Related back to the Pythagorean metaphysics whence it is stems, the Gnostic narrative loses any appearance of arbitrariness and finally reveals its true structure, ordered from start to finish by number. It is reasonable to think that the rival arithmology of Plotinus’ Treatise 34 was created in order to undermine this very narrative. (shrink)