As scientific research moves increasingly to the private sector, the social organization of science undergoes important transformations. Focusing on the production of ignorance, agnotology has been a fruitful approach to understanding the social and epistemic consequences of the recent commercialization of scientific research. Despite their important contributions, scholars working on agnotology seem to hold implicit normative commitments that are in tension with their descriptive accounts of ignorance-constructive practices. The main aim of this article is to uncover these commitments and to (...) expose the emerging tensions. Thus, this article begins an exploration into normative aspects of the studies of ignorance. In particular, it shows that agnotology still needs the support of a well-articulated normative approach capable of identifying and evaluating the epistemic and social concerns raised by the private funding and performance of science. (shrink)
El estudio evalúa el rol de las prácticas de servicio comunitario donde la reflexión intencional acompaña el programa. Mediante un diseño cuali-cuantitativo, se revelan los efectos de las prácticas reflexivas sobre el desarrollo reflexivo de los alumnos y asimismo pone de manifiesto el impacto de es..
Cet ouvrage riche et complexe de Manuela Martini, nourri d'une vaste exploitation archivistique et d'une bibliographie solide, vient combler une lacune historiographique. Malgré la multiplication durant ces deux dernières décennies des études d'histoire de la famille, les recherches centrées sur les familles de l'élite bolognaise de l'ancien régime et de l'époque contemporaine restent peu nombreuses et centrées sur leurs dynamiques de classes les plus globales. L'ouvrage, qui fait part..
Nous remercions chaleureusement Manuela Ivone Cunha et la revue Terrain. Revue d'ethnologie de l'Europe de nous avoir autorisés à reproduire ce texte. Celui-ci a déjà paru dans Terrain, N° 29, 1997, p. 59-68 et été mis en ligne ici. Résumé : Le temps est une référence omniprésente de la vie en prison, l'un et l'autre étant parfois assimilés. L'emprisonnement entraîne un changement du rapport à un temps qui devient plus objectivé. Multiforme, ce rapport varie selon les diverses périodisations mises (...) en œuvres - Anthropologie – Nouvel article. (shrink)
Manuela Ivone P. da Cunha est professeur à l'Universidade do Minho, CRIA-UM et chercheur associé à l'IDEMEC. Nous la remercions de nous avoir autorisé à reproduire ce texte déjà paru dans S. Humbert, N. Derasse & J.-P. Royer, La prison, du temps passé au temps dépassé, Paris, L'Harmattan, 2012, p. 143-153. Nous avons souvent tendance, notamment dans les rencontres scientifiques qui font du temps leur protagoniste, à parler de différents types de temps – le temps de la - Anthropologie (...) – Nouvel article. (shrink)
Nous remercions chaleureusement Manuela Ivone Cunha de nous avoir autorisé à reproduire ce texte. Cette étude renvoie à une étude plus ancienne que l'on trouvera ici. Elle a déjà paru dans RENGLONES 58-59, Noviembre de 2004-Abril de 2005. Alfred Gell defendía que “time is always one and the same, [but it is in] manifold ways that time becomes salient in human affairs”. La prisión es un contexto en donde se evidencia la exactitud de esta precisión. El tiempo en la (...) cárcel no es de una especie - Anthropologie – Nouvel article. (shrink)
All humans share a universal, evolutionarily ancient approximate number system (ANS) that estimates and combines the numbers of objects in sets with ratio-limited precision. Interindividual variability in the acuity of the ANS correlates with mathematical achievement, but the causes of this correlation have never been established. We acquired psychophysical measures of ANS acuity in child and adult members of an indigene group in the Amazon, the Mundurucú, who have a very restricted numerical lexicon and highly variable access to mathematics education. (...) By comparing Mundurucú subjects with and without access to schooling, we found that education significantly enhances the acuity with which sets of concrete objects are estimated. These results indicate that culture and education have an important effect on basic number perception. We hypothesize that symbolic and nonsymbolic numerical thinking mutually enhance one another over the course of mathematics instruction. (shrink)
This article claims that Freire’s work offers an important ground for a potential theory of intercultural ethics and, for that purpose, examines his ideas at different levels: the ontological; the ideological; the political; languages and languaging; and cultural identity and diversity. Freire never used the word ‘intercultural’, although it is suggested here that this is due to the fact that terminology related to cultural diversity has changed over time and in his day this term was not yet common currency. Moreover, (...) Freire uses more often the term ‘multiculturalidade’ rather than ‘multiculturalismo’ since the former suffix ‘-dad’ has a different meaning which refers to the ontological nature of the condition and is more usual in both Portuguese and Spanish. This article also argues for the relevance of a theory of intercultural ethics in the contemporary world that imprints cultural flexibility on the current hermeneutics of ethics while preventing excessive abuses on behalf of relativism, dogmatism, essentialism and fundamentalism. (shrink)
At least since Kuhn’s Structure, philosophers have studied the influence of social factors in science’s pursuit of truth and knowledge. More recently, formal models and computer simulations have allowed philosophers of science and social epistemologists to dig deeper into the detailed dynamics of scientific research and experimentation, and to develop very seemingly realistic models of the social organization of science. These models purport to be predictive of the optimal allocations of factors, such as diversity of methods used in science, size (...) of groups, and communication channels among researchers. In this paper we argue that the current research faces an empirical challenge. The challenge is to connect simulation models with data. We present possible scenarios about how the challenge may unfold. (shrink)
A layoff is a threatening yet common event which employees might face at some point in their working lives. In two scenario-based experiments, we investigated which actions of a layoff agent during a dismissal notification meeting may contribute to laid-off employees’ fairness judgments and negative attitudes toward the employer. In general, the extent to which layoff victims were treated with respect was consistently found to increase perceptions of interpersonal and procedural fairness and to mitigate negative attitudes toward the employer. Further (...) results showed that layoff victims preferred to be given an adequate explanation of the reasons for the layoff and to receive notice from the direct supervisor. Relationships between the layoff agent’s actions and layoff victims’ negative attitudes toward the employer were mediated by perceptions of procedural fairness. In addition, delegating the layoff agent’s task to an external consultant increased perceived psychological contract breach. Our findings have important implications for organizational justice research and for the managerial practice of implementing fair layoffs. In particular, small actions, such as treating employees with respect, might be of benefit both to humans and organizations. (shrink)
Expanding on recent philosophical contributions to the conceptual and normative framework of scientific imperialism, I examine whether the economics approach to social epistemology can be considered a case of economics imperialism and determine whether economics’ explanatory expansionism appropriately contributes to this philosophical subfield or not. I argue first that the economics approach to social epistemology counts as a case of economics imperialism under a broad conception of the term, and second that we have good reasons to doubt the appropriateness of (...) the incursion of economics into social epistemology, insofar as economics’ attempt at explanatory unification fails to express significant human interests. (shrink)
In the present paper we give a description of the free algebra over an arbitrary set of generators in the variety of nilpotent minimum algebras. Such description is given in terms of a weak Boolean product of directly indecomposable algebras over the Boolean space corresponding to the Boolean subalgebra of the free NM-algebra.