In this paper we show the adequacy of tense logic with unary operators for dealing with finite trees. We prove that models on finite trees can be characterized by tense formulas, and describe an effective method to find an axiomatization of the theory of a given finite tree in tense logic. The strength of the characterization is shown by proving that adding the binary operators "Until" and "Since" to the language does not result in a better description than that given (...) by unary tense logic; although the greater expressive power of "Until" and "Since" can be exploited by using the semantics of e-frames instead of traditional Kripke semantics. (shrink)
A large body of literature agrees that persons with schizophrenia suffer from a Theory of Mind deficit. However, most empirical studies have focused on third-person, egocentric ToM, underestimating other facets of this complex cognitive skill. Aim of this research is to examine the ToM of schizophrenic persons considering its various aspects, to determine whether some components are more impaired than others. We developed a Theory of Mind Assessment Scale and administered it to 22 persons with a DSM-IV diagnosis of schizophrenia (...) and a matching control group. Th.o.m.a.s. is a semi-structured interview which allows a multi-component measurement of ToM. Both groups were also administered a few existing ToM tasks and the schizophrenic subjects were administered the Positive and Negative Symptoms Scale and the WAIS-R. The schizophrenic persons performed worse than control at all the ToM measurements; however, these deficits appeared to be differently distributed among different components of ToM. Our conclusion is that ToM deficits are not unitary in schizophrenia, which also testifies to the importance of a complete and articulated investigation of ToM. (shrink)
In this paper we investigate whether, and how, corporate management strategically uses disclosure to manage the perceptions of different organizational audiences. In particular, we examine the interactions between the FIAT Group and three of its key organizational audiences—the local press, the international press, and the financial analysts, which are characterized by different levels of salience for the company. We focus on both how management reacts to the optimism level existing within each audience and how the narrative disclosure tone adopted by (...) FIAT influences the ex-post optimism in the local and international press or in the financial analyst community. We investigate the disclosure of the FIAT Group over a 6-year period , during which 70 price-sensitive press releases were published. On the basis of 1,887 news articles published in Italian newspapers and 411 analyst reports, we report evidence of different strategic patterns in the interaction processes between FIAT and its audiences. Our findings also indicate some differences in the way FIAT is affected by, and in turn, affects the sentiment of each audience, thus highlighting that the salience of the stakeholder is an important driver of the adoption of impression management techniques. Taken together, our findings point to issues related to setting the “tone at the top” and potential ethical matters. (shrink)
Background: The rapid pace of progress in medical research, the consequent need for the timely transfer of new knowledge into practice, and the increasing need for ethics support, is making the work of Ethics Committees (ECs) ever more complex and demanding. As a response, ECs in many countries exhibit large variation in number, mandate, organization and member competences. This cross-sectional study aims to give an overview of the different types of activities of Italian ECs and favour discussion at a European (...) level.Methods: A questionnaire was emailed to all Italian Ethics Committees contained in the national Registry of the Ministry of Health, enquiring whether the EC was conducting, or planning to conduct, 4 specific activities. A telephone interview was conducted to determine reasons for failure to respond.Results: Response rate was 53% (101 respondents out of 191). 20% of ECs restrict their responsibilities to research protocol review, 25% also offer ethical consultation to institutions, support on individual health care decisions and promotes educational initiatives, while the remaining 50% conduct a few of the examined activities to varying degrees. Large variation was observed across different types of hosting institutions and geographical locations.Conclusions: A common European model should be developed, defining EC functions, member selection modalities, necessary member competences, decision-making criteria and measures for work verification. In the absence of sound empirical evidence, it would be interesting to study the effectiveness and efficiency of the different existing models. (shrink)
A large body of literature agrees that persons with schizophrenia suffer from a Theory of Mind deficit. However, most empirical studies have focused on third-person, egocentric ToM, underestimating other facets of this complex cognitive skill. Aim of this research is to examine the ToM of schizophrenic persons considering its various aspects, to determine whether some components are more impaired than others.We developed a Theory of Mind Assessment Scale and administered it to 22 persons with a DSM-IV diagnosis of schizophrenia and (...) a matching control group. Th.o.m.a.s. is a semi-structured interview which allows a multi-component measurement of ToM. Both groups were also administered a few existing ToM tasks and the schizophrenic subjects were administered the Positive and Negative Symptoms Scale and the WAIS-R.The schizophrenic persons performed worse than control at all the ToM measurements; however, these deficits appeared to be differently distributed among different components of ToM.Our conclusion is that ToM deficits are not unitary in schizophrenia, which also testifies to the importance of a complete and articulated investigation of ToM. (shrink)
À partir du thème élaboré par Hobbes de la nécessité d'un passage de la multitude au peuple pour fonder l' État absolu, Giorgio Agamben se demande si l'on peut penser la puissance humaine à partir de la seule « gloire » de Dieu, c'est-à-dire de l'affirmation absolue de son impuissance. L'originalité d' Agamben est de faire de cette notion théologique un paradigme politique dérivé des notions juridiques d'Homo sacer et de sacratio. Starting from the theme elaborated by Hobbes of the (...) necessity of a passage from the multitudes to a people to permit the foundation of an Absolute state, Giorgio Agamben wonders whether one may establish human power from the starting point of God's "glory" alone, i.e. the absolute affirmation of His powerlessness. Agamben 's originality rests in turning such a theological notion into a political paradigm derived from the legal notions of both Homo sacer and sacratio. (shrink)
Husserl develops his reflection on ethics mainly in his lecture courses. These lectures can be divided into two parts, according to a principle that is both chronological and pertaining to content, and following thus the respective editions in the Gesammelte Werke.1 The common aspect of the two different phases of Husserl’s research can be detected in the critical confrontation with Kant’s practical philosophy, starting with the question concerning the formality.
We consider the problem of finding, in the ambit of modal logic, a minimal characterization for finite Kripke frames, i.e., a formula which, given a frame, axiomatizes its theory employing the lowest possible number of variables and implies the other axiomatizations. We show that every finite transitive frame admits a minimal characterization over K4, and that this result can not be extended to K.
On peut trouver dans l’œuvre de Lévy-Bruhl des traces de la présence de Spinoza, en particulier de sa conception de la connaissance du troisième genre, ou « science intuitive ». Il apparaît que Lévy-Bruhl a travaillé à une « new science of metaphysics », aussi bien dans ses œuvres d’histoire de la philosophie que dans ses ouvrages ethnologiques.One may find in Lévy-Bruhl’s works traces of Spinoza’s presence, in particular of his conception of « knowledge of the third kind », i.e. (...) « intuitive science ». It thus appears that Lévy-Bruhl worked on a « new science of metaphysics » both in his historical researches and in his ethnological works. (shrink)
The quantum Zeno effect is often studied and understood in term of nonunitary evolutions, involving projections à la von Neumann (measurements). We propose a dynamical explanation of this effect, which involves only unitary operators. The limit of infinitely frequent measurements is critically discussed: it is unphysical, yet interesting and peculiar.
Decoherence is one of the most serious drawback in quantum mechanical applications. We discuss the effects of noise in superconducting devices (Josephson junctions) and suggest a decoherence-control strategy based on the quantum Zeno effect.
The many-Hilbert-spaces approach to the measurement problem in quantum mechanics is reviewed, and the notion of wave function collapse by measurement is formulated as a dephasing process between the two branch waves of an interfering particle. Following the approach originally proposed in Ref. 1, we introduce a “decoherence parameter,” which yields aquantitative description of the degree of coherence between the two branch waves of an interfering particle. By discussing the difference between the wave function collapse and the orthogonality of the (...) apparatus' wave functions, we analyze critically two proposals, recently appeared in the literature, (2, 3) and argue that neither one describes a dephasing process. We conclude that the concept of “wave function collapse,” according to the conventional Copenhagen interpretation, is to be replaced by that of a statisticallydefined dephasing process. (shrink)
Nelle Summulae del salmantino Domingo de Soto, la teoria della proposizione sembra rivelare un’irrisolta tensione tra l’opzione per la prospettiva terministica, la quale considera il significato della proposizione come il risultato dell’analisi semantica dei suoi componenti, e l’opzione per la prospettiva ‘dictistica’, che si concentra sul riferimento e sul senso globale della proposizione. La struttura della proposizione mentale, pur determinata in maniera ‘causale’ dalle sue componenti, il nome e il verbo, viene d’altronde a costituirsi in maniera ‘uni-qualitativa’, ossia per mezzo (...) di un unico atto mentale, con il quale si designa uno stato di cose esterno . Il ‘valore di verità’ della proposizione, espresso sintatticamente mediante l’unione o la separazione di un termine da un altro, viene a denotare la conformità a un modo d’essere delle cose nella realtà. (shrink)
We define the concepts of minimal p-morphic image and basic p-morphism for transitive Kripke frames. These concepts are used to determine effectively the least number of variables necessary to axiomatize a tabular extension of K4, and to describe the covers and co-covers of such a logic in the lattice of the extensions of K4.
La ricognizione delle teorie medievali dell’analogia e dell’univocità consente di rilevare l’ineludibile valenza logico-linguistica che le caratterizza fin dagli esordi. Le teorie dell’analogia riguardano innanzitutto una teorizzazione dei rapporti di denominazione, specialmente del termine ‘ens’ e degli altri nomi divini. Solo quando la discussione filosofica, a partire dal XIV secolo, si arricchisce della distinzione tra concetto formale e concetto oggettivo, esse subiscono una revisione e una sistematizzazione nel senso di una prospettiva più marcatamente teologico-ontologica. Il confronto serrato delle tesi tomiste (...) con le posizioni univociste ed equivociste sollecita progressivamente una puntualizzazione della nozione e delle divisioni dell’analogia, fino alla ‘contaminazione’ scotistica più o meno esplicita che si ravvisa in alcuni tomisti del Tardo Rinascimento spagnolo e che ormai prelude all’età cartesiana. (shrink)
The theory of the conatus is a major presupposition of Spinozist philosophy. The principles and concepts involved therein are well known to specialists and interpreters of Spinoza’s philosophy, but unndoubtedly are much less well known or used by economists and sociologists. In his book La politique du capital, Frédéric Lordon, an economist, uses the principles of Spinoza’s theory of the conatus to interpret a financial event and attempt to derive from it the analytic criteria which are necessary to understand it. (...) Which financial event is this? The conflict that opposed the BNP to the Société Générale and Paribas, from January to August 1999. What does this series of events imply for French capitalism ? What are the laws and principle governing the financial struggle for the control of banks I Why does he speak, regarding such events, of a « politics of capital » ? As he tries to answer these questions, Lordon shows that the relations between the « subjects,) of capital are not founded on a « pure economic nature » but rather, more profoundly, on a dynamics of power making use of relations that are « mediated by mercantile exchange ». The politics of capital then turns out to be, in essence, a matter of « sovereignty », that is, a necessity of persevering in its being in the midst of the confrontation with the power of another. What is at stake in this conflict is nothing other than the « life » or better, the « survival » of capital. (shrink)
The study of pairs of modules (over a Dedekind domain) arises from two different perspectives, as a starting step in the analysis of tuples of submodules of a given module, or also as a particular case in the analysis of Abelian structures made by two modules and a morphism between them. We discuss how these two perspectives converge to pairs of modules, and we follow the latter one to obtain an alternative approach to the classification of pairs of torsionfree objects. (...) Then we restrict our attention to pairs of free modules. Our main results are that the theory of pairs of free Abelian groups is co-recursively enumerable, and that a few remarkable extensions of this theory are decidable. (shrink)
It seems worth while giving some account of this MS., because in recent years it has been said to contain certain pieces of the Moralia which it does not, and not to contain others which it does. At the foot of the first page of the text the MS. carries the pontifical shield with the arms of the Medici, and from this it is reasonable to suppose that there was a time when it belonged either to Leo X., who was (...) Pope from 1513 to 1521, or to Clement VII., who was Pope from 1523 to 1534. This being so, 1534 is established as the terminus ante quem of its writing. Towards the end of this century, about 1598, it was acquired by the Spanish Cardinal Saverio de Zelada. In 1801 the Cardinal Archbishop Antonio de Lorenzana bought in Rome a certain number of Greek and Oriental manuscripts which had formerly been in the collection of Cardinal Saverio de Zelada, and placed them in the Chapter Library at Toledo. Included with these was this MS. of the Moralia, which remains there to this day. (shrink)