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  1. added 2019-01-14
    History and Sociology of Science.Géraldine Delley & Sébastien Plutniak - 2018 - In Sandra L. López Varela (ed.), The Encyclopedia of Archaeological Sciences. Oxford:
    The relationship between archaeology and other sciences has only recently become a research topic for sociologists and historians of science. From the 1950s to the present day, different approaches have been taken and the aims of research studies have changed considerably. Besides methodological textbooks, which aim at advancing archaeological knowledge, historians of archaeology have tackled this question by exploring the development of archaeology as a scientific discipline. More recently, collaborations between archaeologists and other scientists have been examined as a general (...)
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  2. added 2019-01-08
    The Significance Of The Erosion Of The Prohibition Against Metabasis To The Success And Legacy Of The Copernican Revolution.Jason Aleksander - 2011 - Annales Philosophici 3:9-21.
    Although one would not wish to classify Copernicus’ own intentions as belonging to the late-medieval and Renaissance tradition of nominalist philosophy, if we are to turn our consideration to what was responsible for the eventual success of the Copernican Revolution, we must also attend to other features of the dialectical context in relation to which the views of Copernicus and his followers were articulated, interpreted, and evaluated. Accordingly, this paper discusses the significance of the erosion of the Aristotelian prohibition against (...)
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  3. added 2018-12-16
    Review: Cold War Social Science. [REVIEW]Mike Thicke - 2016 - Spontaneous Generations 8 (1):115-117.
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  4. added 2018-11-19
    Towards a Mutually Beneficial Integration of History and Philosophy of Science: The Case of Jean Perrin.Klodian Coko - manuscript
    Since the 1960s, there have been many efforts to defend the relevance of History of Science to Philosophy of Science, and vice versa. For the most part, these efforts have been limited to providing an abstract rationale for a closer integration between the two fields, as opposed to showing: (a) how such an integrated work is to be produced concretely, and (b) how it can lead us to a better understanding of past and/or present science than if historical and philosophical (...)
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  5. added 2018-11-19
    Descartes’s Epistemic Commitment to Telescopes and Microscopes.George J. Aulisio - forthcoming - Dialogue:1-33.
    In the Optics, Descartes claims that telescopes and microscopes lead to morally certain knowledge. It is unclear, however, that Descartes’s expressed confidence in these instruments is warranted. In this article, I show how a limited range of telescope and microscope observations could lead to morally certain knowledge for Descartes, and how observations beyond this range admit of enough reasonable doubt to undermine moral certainty. I also explain moral certainty as a form of knowledge in Descartes’s scientific practices, his epistemic commitment (...)
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  6. added 2018-11-01
    Sociological Knowledge and Colonial Power in Bombay Around the First World War.Henrik Aspengren - 2011 - British Journal for the History of Science 44 (4):533-548.
    By the turn of the twentieth century a distinct ‘social domain’ – along with its constituent parts, problems and internal dynamics – was turned into a political entity, and a concern for state bureaucracies existed across the industrializing world. Specific motivations for this trend may have varied from location to location, but included arguments for higher industrial productivity and less political discontent, often intertwined with a humanitarian impulse in calls for better housing, expanded public health or improved working conditions. As (...)
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  7. added 2018-10-27
    Refrain From Standards? French, Cavemen and Computers. A (Short) Story of Multidimensional Analysis in French Prehistoric Archaeology.Sébastien Plutniak - 2015 - In Oliver Schlaudt & Lara Huber (eds.), Standardization in Measurement. Philosophical and Sociological Issues. Londra, Regno Unito: pp. 39-52.
    Focusing on the history of prehistoric archaeology in the 20th century, this papers shows (1) that statistical multidimensional analyses were carried out by a new kind of actors who challenged the previous common language shared by prehistorians. This fundamental change was important, considering that (2) language is a fundamental point for the epistemology of archaeology. However, a comparison of multidimensional analyses applications over time shall make clear that (3) the differences are mostly a generational matter: the transmission processes between them (...)
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  8. added 2018-10-17
    Ernst Mach dal punto di vista storico-critico.Pietro Gori - 2018 - In Ernst Mach tra scienza e filosofia. Pisa: pp. 11-31.
    L'articolo si propone di accostarsi alla figura di Ernst Mach seguendo la stessa metodologia storico-critica da lui utilizzata. Essa permette di contestualizzarne la figura e l'opera in un momento significativo della storia della filosofia occidentale, ma anche di ridefinire alcuni concetti fondamentali del suo pensiero. Scopo ulteriore della ricerca è di osservare da una diversa prospettiva la questione relativa al valore filosofico del lavoro epistemologico di Mach, mostrando come esso possa essere affermato senza bisogno di uscire dai confini da lui (...)
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  9. added 2018-10-15
    Review of 'Theoretical Virtues in Science' by Samuel Schindler. [REVIEW]Darren Bradley - manuscript
  10. added 2018-10-11
    The First Mite: Insect Genealogy in Hooke’s Micrographia.Jeremy Robin Schneider - 2018 - Annals of Science 75 (3):165-200.
    What happens when you take the idea of the biblical Adam—the first human—and apply it to insects? You create an origin story for Nature’s tiniest creatures, one that gives them 'a Pedigree as ancient as the first creation'. This the naturalist Robert Hooke argued in his treatise, the Micrographia (1665). In what follows, I will retrace how Hooke endeavoured to show that insects—then widely believed to have arisen out of the dirt—were the products of an ancient lineage. These genealogies, while (...)
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  11. added 2018-09-28
    A Life in Science, Philosophy, and the Public Domain: Three Biographies of PoincaréJeremy J. Gray. Henri Poincaré: A Scientific Biography. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2013. Pp. Xii+592. $35.00/£24.95 .Ferdinand Verhulst. Henri Poincaré: Impatient Genius. New York: Springer, 2012. Pp. Xi+260. $49.95 ; $39.95 .Jean-Marc Ginoux and Christian Gerini. 2012. Henri Poincaré: Une Biographie au Quotidien. Paris: Ellipses, 2012. Pp. Iv+298. €24.00 . [Henri Poincaré: A Biography Through the Daily Papers. Singapore: World Scientific, 2013. Pp. 260. $29.00 ; $22.00 .]. [REVIEW]David J. Stump - 2016 - Hopos: The Journal of the International Society for the History of Philosophy of Science 6 (2):309-318.
  12. added 2018-09-20
    Essay Review. [REVIEW]Christopher Cullen - 2006 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 37 (3):515-525.
  13. added 2018-09-07
    Modelling with Words: Narrative and Natural Selection.Dominic K. Dimech - 2017 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 62:20-24.
    I argue that verbal models should be included in a philosophical account of the scientific practice of modelling. Weisberg (2013) has directly opposed this thesis on the grounds that verbal structures, if they are used in science, only merely describe models. I look at examples from Darwin's On the Origin of Species (1859) of verbally constructed narratives that I claim model the general phenomenon of evolution by natural selection. In each of the cases I look at, a particular scenario is (...)
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  14. added 2018-09-02
    The Worm and the Tumor: Reflections on Fibiger's Nobel Prize.William C. Campbell - 1997 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 40 (4):498-504.
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  15. added 2018-08-28
    Autorité rhétorique: Claude Bernard et Émile du Bois-Reymond.Gabriel Finkelstein - 2012 - In Jean-Gäel Barbara & Pierre Corvol (eds.), Les élèves de Claude Bernard: Les nouvelles disciplines bernardiennes au tournant du XXe siècle. Paris, France: pp. 173-192.
    Professeur Finkelstein avait posée la question, pourquoi, bien que leurs réalisations scientifiques et leur scientifique approche soient similaires, Bernard était beaucoup plus connu dans son pays, France, et à son époque, que Bois-Reymond en Allemagne? Une question similaire a été posée au sujet du pourquoi Darwin est connu pour la théorie de l'évolution, tandis que Wallace a été remis en arrière-fond dans leur temps et dans l'histoire. Selon Finkelstein, la cause de la differences entre Bois-Reymond et Bernard, peut être trouvée (...)
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  16. added 2018-08-28
    Headless in Kashgar.Gabriel Finkelstein - 1999 - Endeavour 23 (1):5-9.
    In 1854 the British East India Company, acting in co-operation with the Prussian Crown, commissioned Hermann, Adolph and Robert Schlagintweit to undertake a scientific expedition to India and High Asia. Despite the mission's outstanding achievements, all the brothers ended forgotten and miserable. This article will discuss (1) how three sons of a Munich eye surgeon attracted and lost so much high-level attention, and (2) what the Schlagintweits' successes and failures tell us about British and German science in the middle of (...)
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  17. added 2018-08-26
    Science for the Nation: Perspectives on the History of the Science Museum. [REVIEW]Richard Dunn - 2011 - British Journal for the History of Science 44 (1):152-153.
  18. added 2018-08-26
    Steven Shapin. The Scientific Life: A Moral History of a Late Modern Vocation.Michael Cournoyea - 2010 - Spontaneous Generations 4 (1):273-275.
    In The Scientific Life, Steven Shapin argues that people and their virtues matter in late modern science. While scientists struggle to remain objective and impersonal, it is the personal, familiar, and charismatic—the traits once swept aside as vices by the scientifically virtuous—that have come to embody the “truth-speakers” of late modernity. With an enormous and sometimes daunting wealth of primary sources (from technical commentaries to his own sociological fieldwork), Steven Shapin breathes life back into these quotidian virtues. The Scientific Life (...)
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  19. added 2018-08-26
    Holographic Visions: A History of New Science.Sean F. Johnston - 2006 - Oxford University Press UK.
    Holography exploded on the scientific world in 1964, but its slow fuse had been burning much longer. Over the next four decades, the echoes of that explosion reached scientists, engineers, artists and popular culture. Emerging from classified military research, holography evolved to represent the power of post-war physics, an aesthetic union of art and science, the countercultural meanderings of holism, a cottage industry for waves of would-be entrepreneurs and a fertile plot device for science fiction. New working cultures sprang up (...)
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  20. added 2018-08-26
    The Living Academies of Nature: Scientific Experiment in Learning and Communicating the New Skills of Early Nineteenth-Century Landscape Painting.B. Hartley - 1996 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 27 (2):149-180.
  21. added 2018-08-26
    Science and Social Responsibility: Incidents From the Lives of JBS Haldane and Otto Krayer.Krishna R. Dronamraju & Elliot S. Vesell - 1995 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 38 (3):422-432.
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  22. added 2018-08-26
    Agriculture in History of Science and Technology Curricula.Donald deB Beaver - 1985 - Agriculture and Human Values 2 (4):78-81.
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  23. added 2018-08-20
    The Hidden Corners of the Real: Where Photography Meets Ontology.Ryan Wittingslow - forthcoming - In Rasmus R. Simonsen & Geoffrey Bender (eds.), Promiscuous Entanglements: Photography, Referentiality, and the Objective Turn. Bloomsbury Academic.
    There is, it is claimed, a long-standing link between photography and the realist novel. Nancy Armstrong in particular argues that the pictorial veridicality of literary realism is at least partly premised upon the rapid propagation of photographic images through late 19th century culture. In doing so, Armstrong argues that photography and realist fiction were mutual participants in an epistemological project wherein the horizons of the ‘real world’—at least within the context of literary fiction—were continuously and unconsciously drawn and redrawn. Meanwhile, (...)
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  24. added 2018-07-29
    An Epoch-Making Change in the Development of Science? A Critique of the “Epochal-Break-Thesis”.Gregor Schiemann - 2011 - In M. Carrier & A. Nordmann (eds.), Science in the Context of Application. Springer. pp. 431--453.
    In recent decades, several authors have claimed that an epoch-making change in the development of science is taking place. A closer examination of this claim shows that these authors take different – and problematic – concepts of an epochal break as their points of departure. In order to facilitate an evaluation of the current development of science, I would like to propose a concept of an epochal change according to which it is not necessarily a discontinuous process that typically begins (...)
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  25. added 2018-05-16
    The Invisible World: Early Modern Philosophy and the Invention of the Microscope Catherine Wilson Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1995, X + 280 Pp., $39.50. [REVIEW]Margaret Atherton - 1998 - Dialogue 37 (3):650-.
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  26. added 2018-05-07
    Natural Kinds.Zdenka Brzović - 2018 - Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    A large part of our exploration of the world consists in categorizing or classifying the objects and processes we encounter, both in scientific and everyday contexts. There are various, perhaps innumerable, ways to sort objects into different kinds or categories, but it is commonly assumed that, among the countless possible types of classifications, one group is privileged. Philosophy refers to such categories as natural kinds. Standard examples of such kinds include fundamental physical particles, chemical elements, and biological species. The term (...)
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  27. added 2018-04-27
    "Goethe's Plant Morphology: The Seeds of Evolution".Tanya Kelley - 2007 - Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies 1 (1):1-15.
    It has long been debated whether the scientific writing of Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (1749-1832) provided the seeds for the theory of evolution. Scholars have argued both sides with equal passion. German biologist and philosopher, Ernst Haeckel (1834-1919) wrote, “Jean and Lamarck and Wolfgang Goethe stand at the head of all the great philosophers of nature who first established a theory of organic development, and who are the illustrious fellow workers of Darwin.”1 Taking the opposite stance was Chancellor of Berlin (...)
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  28. added 2018-03-30
    Fine-Structure Constant From Golden Ratio Geometry.Michael A. Sherbon - 2018 - International Journal of Mathematics and Physical Sciences Research 5 (2):89-100.
    After a brief review of the golden ratio in history and our previous exposition of the fine-structure constant and equations with the exponential function, the fine-structure constant is studied in the context of other research calculating the fine-structure constant from the golden ratio geometry of the hydrogen atom. This research is extended and the fine-structure constant is then calculated in powers of the golden ratio to an accuracy consistent with the most recent publications. The mathematical constants associated with the golden (...)
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  29. added 2018-02-23
    Structural Realism Beyond Physics.Dana Tulodziecki - 2016 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 59:106--114.
    The main purpose of this paper is to test structural realism against (one example from) the historical record. I begin by laying out an existing challenge to structural realism -- that of providing an example of a theory exhibiting successful structures that were abandoned -- and show that this challenge can be met by the miasma theory of disease. However, rather than concluding that this is an outright counterexample to structural realism, I use this case to show why it is (...)
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  30. added 2018-02-17
    Husserl and the Phenomenology of Science.Jeff Kochan - 2011 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 42 (3):467-471.
    This article critically reviews an outstanding collection of new essays addressing Edmund Husserl’s Crisis of European Sciences. In Science and the Life-World (Stanford, 2010), David Hyder and Hans-Jörg Rheinberger bring together an impressive range of first-rate philosophers and historians. The collection explicates key concepts in Husserl’s often obscure work, compares Husserl’s phenomenology of science to the parallel tradition of historical epistemology, and provocatively challenges Husserl’s views on science. The explications are uniformly clear and helpful, the comparative work intriguing, and the (...)
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  31. added 2018-02-17
    Sociologie des controverses scientifiques.Dominique Raynaud - 2003 - Paris: Presses universitaires de France.
    Brisant l’image idéale de la science consensuelle, les controverses scientifiques sont aujourd’hui devenues un sujet privilégié de la sociologie et de l’histoire des sciences. Elles sont par ailleurs impliquées au cœur des débats sur les méthodes des sciences sociales. Si l’analyse des controverses scientifiques doit beaucoup aux approches inaugurées par les courants relativistes et constructivistes des années 1970-1980, ce livre montre que les études contemporaines ont tout à gagner à réintroduire ce qui a été le principal tabou des trente dernières (...)
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  32. added 2018-02-16
    ¿Existen los descubrimientos científicos?Armando Aranda-Anzaldo - 1990 - Ciencia y Desarrollo 16 (93):85-97.
    Considerar un evento como descubrimiento científico es tarea compleja que, casi siempre, se ve influida por la sistematización de las investigaciones, la publicación de los hallazgos, o las ideas sobre la realidad del contexto donde se presenta.
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  33. added 2018-02-16
    Discours de la methode pour bien conduire sa raison & chercher la verité dans les sciences. Plus La dioptrique. Les meteores. Et La geometrie. Qui sont des essais de cete methode.René Descartes - 1637 - Leiden: Jan Maire.
  34. added 2018-01-16
    The Professionalisation of Science – Claim and Refusal: Discipline Building and Ideals of Scientific Autonomy in the Growth of Prehistoric Archaeology. The Case of Georges Laplace's Group of Typologie Analytique, 1950s–1990s.Sébastien Plutniak - 2017 - Organon 49:105-154.
    The majority of analyses investigating the professionalisation of scientific domains tend to assume the linear and general features of this transformation. These studies focus on the shift from a non-professionalised state to a professionalised state. This dual approach, however, crucially lacks some other aspects of the process of professionalisation. This issue is discussed within the context of the growth of prehistoric archaeology in France from the 1940s, by observing scientific societies, national research organisations and their social networks. Looking at the (...)
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  35. added 2018-01-16
    Is an Archaeological Contribution to the Theory of Social Science Possible? Archaeological Data and Concepts in the Dispute Between Jean-Claude Gardin and Jean-Claude Passeron.Sébastien Plutniak - 2017 - Palethnologie 9:7-21.
    The issue of the definition and position of archaeology as a discipline is examined in relation to the dispute which took place from 1980 to 2009 between the archaeologist Jean-Claude Gardin and the sociologist Jean-Claude Passeron. This case study enables us to explore the actual conceptual relationships between archaeology and the other sciences (as opposed to those wished for or prescribed). The contrasts between the positions declared by the two researchers and the rooting of their arguments in their disciplines are (...)
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  36. added 2018-01-03
    Black Feminist Archaeology.Whitney Battle-Baptiste - 2011 - Routledge.
    Black feminist thought has developed in various parts of the academy for over three decades, but has made only minor inroads into archaeological theory and practice. Whitney Battle-Baptiste outlines the basic tenets of Black feminist thought and research for archaeologists and shows how it can be used to improve contemporary historical archaeology. She demonstrates this using Andrew Jackson's Hermitage, the W. E. B. Du Bois Homesite in Massachusetts, and the Lucy Foster house in Andover, which represented the first archaeological excavation (...)
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  37. added 2018-01-03
    The Other From Within.Whitney Battle-Baptiste - 2007 - In John Jameson & Sherene Baugher (eds.), Past Meets Present. Springer. pp. 101-106.
  38. added 2017-12-13
    Book Review:From Mineralogy to Geology: The Foundations of a Science, 1650-1830 Rachel Laudan. [REVIEW]Henry Frankel - 1990 - Philosophy of Science 57 (2):340-.
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  39. added 2017-12-09
    Physically Similar Systems: A History of the Concept.Susan G. Sterrett - 2017 - In Lorenzo Magnani & Tommaso Wayne Bertolotti (eds.), Springer Handbook of Model-Based Science. Dordrecht Heidelberg London New York: Springer. pp. 377-412.
    The concept of similar systems arose in physics, and appears to have originated with Newton in the seventeenth century. This chapter provides a critical history of the concept of physically similar systems, the twentieth century concept into which it developed. The concept was used in the nineteenth century in various fields of engineering, theoretical physics and theoretical and experimental hydrodynamics. In 1914, it was articulated in terms of ideas developed in the eighteenth century and used in nineteenth century mathematics and (...)
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  40. added 2017-11-30
    BOOK REVIEW: Jimena Canales, The Physicist and the Philosopher: Einstein, Bergson and the Debate That Changed Our Understanding of Time. [REVIEW]Dimitris Kilakos - 2017 - Almagest (1):129-132.
    Einstein’s relativity and its reception is definitely a prominent option for a case-study aiming to highlight the impact of the socio-cultural environment to the formulation of the scientific image of the world and other aspects of the worldview of a given era. Indeed, Einstein’s relativity clearly marked the course of 20th-century science, changed our view and shaped our experience of time.
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  41. added 2017-11-22
    From West to East, From East to West? Early Science Between Civilizations.H. Floris Cohen - 2012 - Early Science and Medicine 17 (3):339-350.
  42. added 2017-10-27
    Pieter van Musschenbroek on Laws of Nature.Steffen Ducheyne & Pieter Present - 2017 - British Journal for the History of Science 50 (4):637-656.
    In this article, we discuss the development of the concept of a ‘law’ (of nature) in the work of the Dutch natural philosopher and experimenter Petrus van Musschenbroek (1692–1761). Since Van Musschenbroek is commonly described as one of the first ‘Newtonians’ on the Continent in the secondary literature, we focus more specifically on its relation to Newton’s views on this issue. Although he was certainly indebted to Newton for his thinking on laws (of nature), Van Musschenbroek’s views can be seen (...)
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  43. added 2017-10-26
    Paradigmatische Fälle. Konstruktion, Narration und Verallgemeinerung von Fall-Wissen in den Geistes- und Sozialwissenschaften.Katherina Kinzel & Ruben Hackler (eds.) - 2016 - Basel: Schwabe.
    Fallgeschichten werden seit dem 18. Jahrhundert zunehmend genutzt, um juristisches, psychologisches und medizinisches Wissen einer grösseren Öffentlichkeit zu vermitteln. In den letzten zehn Jahren haben sie auch in den Geistes- und Sozialwissenschaften mehr Aufmerksamkeit erfahren. Die Diskussion über paradigmatische Fälle in diesem Band zielt darauf ab, Fallgeschichten in ihrer Funktion als besonders anschauliche oder lehrreiche Beispiele in verschiedenen historischen Kontexten zu untersuchen und zu vergleichen. Die in diesem Heft versammelten Texte gehen der Frage nach, wie Fälle dazu beitragen, Debatten zu (...)
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  44. added 2017-10-23
    Can Kuhn’s Taxonomic Incommensurability Be an Image of Science?Seungbae Park - 2018 - In The Kuhnian Image of Science: Time for a Decisive Transformation? London:
    I criticize Kuhn’s (1962/1970) taxonomic incommensurability thesis as follows. (i) His argument for it is neither deductively sound nor inductively correct. (ii) It clashes with his account of scientific development that employs evolutionary theory. (iii) Even if two successive paradigms are taxonomically incommensurable, they have some overlapping theoretical claims, as selectivists point out. (iv) Since scientific revolutions were rare in the recent past, as historical optimists observe, they will also be rare in the future. Where scientific revolution is rare, taxonomic (...)
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  45. added 2017-09-18
    Vis Vim Vi: Declinations of Force in Leibniz’s Dynamics.Tzuchien Tho - 2017 - Basel: Springer International Publishing.
  46. added 2017-09-18
    The Appropriation and Subsequent Naturalization of Greek Science in Medieval Islam: A Preliminary Statement.Abdelhamid I. Sabra - 1987 - History of Science 25 (69):223-243.
    Challenges the picture according to which Islamic culture during the European middle ages served as a passive conduit of ancient Greek sources to the Latin West, along with the conjoined conception that the Islamic achievement in science was a mere reflection, and perhaps a dim one, of earlier Greek achievements. Against this view, this article argues for the "naturalization" of science in the classical Islamic context in a way that allowed for distinctive achievements in their own right.
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  47. added 2017-09-15
    Miguel Á. Granada, Patrick J. Boner, and Dario Tessicini, Eds. Unifying Heaven and Earth: Essays in the History of Early Modern Cosmology. [REVIEW]Aviva Rothman - 2017 - Hopos: The Journal of the International Society for the History of Philosophy of Science 7 (1):169-173.
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  48. added 2017-09-14
    Stuffed Animals and Pickled Heads.Stephen Asma - 2001 - New York: Oxford.
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  49. added 2017-09-07
    Science as Social Existence: Heidegger and the Sociology of Scientific Knowledge.Jeff Kochan - 2017 - Cambridge, UK: Open Book Publishers.
    Review: 'Half an original interpretation of Heidegger's early work and half an attempt to buttress the sociology of scientific knowledge (SSK) with a more philosophically rigorous grounding, Science as Social Existence will be of interest not only to Heidegger scholars but to anyone engaged in science and technology studies. [...] This is an informative and original book. Kochan should be praised for his clear, pleasant-to-read prose.' (Michael Butler, University of Texas Rio Grande Valley, for CHOICE).
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  50. added 2017-09-03
    The Thirty Years War and the Galileo Affair.David Marshall Miller - 2008 - History of Science 46 (1):49-74.
    All too often, historians of the ‘Galileo Affair’ fail to recognize the dynamic – indeed, tumultuous – nature of the political landscape surrounding Galileo’s condemnation and the events leading to it. This was a landscape rent by the Thirty Years War, which dominated the affairs of Europe’s rulers, including Galileo’s patrons. In fact, Galileo’s publication of the Dialogo in 1632 could not have come at a more ill-advised moment: in the aftermath of the battle of Breitenfeld, the nadir of Catholicism (...)
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1 — 50 / 289