Recent scientific and technological developments have promoted the emergence of biobanks on a population scale. Although the storage of human biological material has taken place for a long time, it is only recently that biobanks have acquired a broader scientific significance, especially for genomic research. The increase in biobanks creates many ethical dilemmas, such as the protection of privacy, and creates the need for a new regulatory framework, which must enable the sustainable development of biobanks while also protecting the rights (...) of research subjects and biobank participants. (shrink)
This edition of G. E. Moore's notes taken at Wittgenstein's seminal Cambridge lectures in the early 1930s provides, for the first time, an almost verbatim record of those classes. The presentation of the notes is both accessible and faithful to their original manuscripts, and a comprehensive introduction and synoptic table of contents provide the reader with essential contextual information and summaries of the topics in each lecture. The lectures form an excellent introduction to Wittgenstein's middle-period thought, covering a broad range (...) of philosophical topics, ranging from core questions in the philosophy of language, mind, logic, and mathematics, to illuminating discussions of subjects on which Wittgenstein says very little elsewhere, including ethics, religion, aesthetics, psychoanalysis, and anthropology. The volume also includes a 1932 essay by Moore critiquing Wittgenstein's conception of grammar, together with Wittgenstein's response. A companion website offers access to images of the entire set of source manuscripts. (shrink)
NG van Kampen is a well-known theoretical physicist who has had a long and distinguished career. His research covers scattering theory, plasma physics, statistical mechanics, and various mathematical aspects of physics. In addition to his scientific work, he has written a number of papers about more general aspects of science. An indefatigable fighter for intellectual honesty and clarity, he has pointed out repeatedly that the fundamental ideas of physics have been needlessly obscured. As those papers appeared in various journals, partly (...) in Dutch, it was felt that it would be worthwhile to collect them and make them available to a larger audience. This is a book of major importance to scientists and university teachers. (shrink)
How do thought and language manage to be 'about' aspects of the world? J. Robert G. Williams investigates how representation arises out of a fundamentally non-representational world, showing the explanatory relations between the representational properties of language, of thought, and of perception and intention.
Molecular Revolution in BrazilFélix Guattari and Suely Rolniktranslated by KarelClapshow and Brian HolmesYes, I believe that there is a multiple people, a people of mutants, apeople of potentialities that appears and disappears, that is embodied in social, literary, andmusical events.... I think that we're in a period of productivity, proliferation, creation, utterlyfabulous revolutions from the viewpoint of this emergence of a people. That's molecular revolution:it isn't a slogan or a program, it's something that I feel, that I live....--from MolecularRevolution in (...) BrazilFollowing Brazil's first democratic election after two decades of militarydictatorship, French philosopher Félix Guattari traveled through Brazil in 1982 with Brazilianpsychoanalyst Suely Rolnik and discovered an exciting, new political vitality. In the infancy of itsnew republic, Brazil was moving against traditional hierarchies of control and totalitarian regimesand founding a revolution of ideas and politics. Molecular Revolution in Brazil documents theconversations, discussions, and debates that arose during the trip, including a dialogue betweenGuattari and Brazil's future President Luis Ignacia Lula da Silva, then a young gubernatorialcandidate. Through these exchanges, Guattari cuts through to the shadowy practices of globalizationgone awry and boldly charts a revolution in practice.Assembled and edited by Rolnik, MolecularRevolution in Brazil is organized thematically; aphoristic at times, it presents a lesser-known,more overtly political aspect of Guattari's work. Originally published in Brazil in 1986 asMicropolitica: Cartografias do desejo, the book became a crucial reference for political movementsin Brazil in the 1980s and 1990s. It now provides English-speaking readers with an invaluablepicture of the radical thought and optimism that lies at the root of Lula's Brazil. Félix Guattari, post-'68 French psychoanalyst and philosopher, is the author of Anti-Oedipus, The Anti-Oedipus Papers, 2006), and other books. Semiotext haspublished the first two volumes of his complete essays, Chaosophy and Soft Subversions, and will publish the final volume, Chaos and Complexity, in 2008. Suely Rolnik is apsychoanalyst, cultural critic, and curator who lives and works in São Paulo, Brazil. She was aclose collaborator of Guattari during her exile in Paris from the military dictatorship inBrazil. (shrink)
Resumo: O objetivo deste estudo é apresentar reflexões teórico-metodológicas sobre o processo de letramentos bilíngues de estudantes surdos no ensino superior. Tomamos a enunciação verbo-visual como categoria bakhtiniana que direciona as hipóteses de leitura em português pelos estudantes surdos e ocupa centralidade na produção textual sinalizada em língua brasileira de sinais. Da obra do folclorista Câmara Cascudo foram selecionadas lendas brasileiras para análise textual de elementos coesivos que operam nas estratégias de referenciação no texto narrativo em língua brasileira de sinais (...) e na língua portuguesa. Como contribuições teórico-metodológicas, apresentamos a utilização da pedagogia visual e de um roteiro que orienta a leitura com destaque aos elementos intertextuais, paratextuais e textuais na produção dos sentidos do texto. O videorregistro de lendas brasileiras em libras contribui para a ampliação do repertório de gêneros textuais sinalizados, pesquisa e diversificação de léxico regional e composição de acervo de materiais e tecnologias em língua de sinais, para a constituição de uma cultura letrada. Palavras-chave: Letramento acadêmico; Libras; Português como segunda língua; Gêneros textuais; Ensino Superior. Bilingual literacies of deaf students in higher education: a study with Brazilian legends: The objective of this study is to present theoretical and methodological reflections on the process of bilingual literacies of deaf students in higher education. We understand that the verbovisual enunciation is the Bakhtinian category that mobilizes the hypotheses of reading in Portuguese by deaf students and occupies the centrality in the Brazilian sign language textual production. We selected Brazilian legends of the work of the folklorist Câmara Cascudo, for textual analysis of cohesive elements that influence the referencing strategies in the narrative text in Brazilian sign language and in the Portuguese. As theoretical-methodological contributions, we present the use of visual pedagogy and a script that guides reading, with emphasis on intertextual, paratextual and textual elements in the production of the meanings of the text. The recording of the Brazilian sign language in video of Brazilian legends contributes to the expansion of the repertoire of textual genres signaled in the Brazilian sign language, research and diversification of the regional lexicon and the composition of materials and technologies in sign language for the constitution of a literate culture. Key-words: Academic literacy; Brazilian sign language; Portuguese as a second language; Textual genres; Higher education. Letramentos bilingües de estudiantes sordos en la educación superior: un estudio con leyendas brasileñas Résumen : El objetivo de este estudio es presentar reflexiones teóricas y metodológicas sobre el proceso de letramento bilingüe de estudiantes sordos en la educación superior. Entendemos que la enunciación verbovisual es la categoría bakhtiniana que influye en las hipótesis de lectura en portugués de los estudiantes sordos y ocupa la centralidad en la producción textual señalada en lengua de señas brasileña. Seleccionamos leyendas brasileñas de la obra de la folclorista Câmara Cascudo, para el análisis textual de elementos cohesivos que influyen en las estrategias de referenciación en el texto narrativo en lengua de señas brasileña y en portugués. Como aportes teóricos y metodológicos, se presenta el uso de la pedagogía visual y un guión que orienta la lectura con énfasis en elementos intertextuales, paratextuales y textuales en la producción de los sentidos del texto. La producción de leyendas brasileñas en lengua de señas videograbada contribuye a la expansión del repertorio de géneros textuales señalados en la lengua de señas brasileña, la investigación y diversificación del léxico regional y la composición de materiales y tecnologías en lengua de signos para la constitución de una cultura letrada. Palabras clave: Letramento académico ; Libras ; Portugués como segunda lengua ; Géneros textuales ; Enseñanza superior. Data de registro: 15/04/2021 Data de aceite: 01/12/2021. (shrink)
What is racism? is a timely question that is hotly contested in the philosophy of race. Yet disagreement about racism’s nature does not begin in philosophy, but in the sociopolitical domain. Alberto G. Urquidez argues that philosophers of race have failed to pay sufficient attention to the practical considerations that prompt the question “What is racism?” Most theorists assume that “racism” signifies a language-independent phenomenon that needs to be “discovered” by the relevant science or “uncovered” by close scrutiny of everyday (...) usage of this term. (Re-)Defining Racism challenges this metaphysical paradigm. Urquidez develops a Wittgenstein-inspired framework that illuminates the use of terms like “definition,” “meaning,” “explanation of meaning,” and “disagreement,” for the analysis of contested normative concepts. These elucidations reveal that providing a definition of “racism” amounts to recommending a form of moral representation—a rule for the correct use of “racism.” As definitional recommendations must be justified on pragmatic grounds, Urquidez takes as a starting point for justification the interests of racism's historical victims. (shrink)
Some ways of defending inequality against the charge that it is unjust require premises that egalitarians find easy to dismiss—statements, for example, about the contrasting deserts and/or entitlements of unequally placed people. But a defense of inequality suggested by John Rawls and elaborated by Brian Barry has often proved irresistible even to people of egalitarian outlook. The persuasive power of this defense of inequality has helped to drive authentic egalitarianism, of an old-fashioned, uncompromising kind, out of contemporary political philosophy. The (...) present essay is part of an attempt to bring it back in. (shrink)
1. The present paper is a continuation of my “Self-Ownership, World Ownership, and Equality,” which began with a description of the political philosophy of Robert Nozick. I contended in that essay that the foundational claim of Nozick's philosophy is the thesis of self-ownership, which says that each person is the morally rightful owner of his own person and powers, and, consequently, that each is free to use those powers as he wishes, provided that he does not deploy them aggressively against (...) others. To be sure, he may not harm others, and he may, if necessary, be forced not to harm them, but he should never be forced to help them, as people are in fact forced to help others, according to Nozick, by redistributive taxation. (shrink)
Reminiscences of Peter, by P. Oppenheim.--Natural kinds, by W. V. Quine.--Inductive independence and the paradoxes of confirmation, by J. Hintikka.--Partial entailment as a basis for inductive logic, by W. C. Salmon.--Are there non-deductive logics?, by W. Sellars.--Statistical explanation vs. statistical inference, by R. C. Jeffre--Newcomb's problem and two principles of choice, by R. Nozick.--The meaning of time, by A. Grünbaum.--Lawfulness as mind-dependent, by N. Rescher.--Events and their descriptions: some considerations, by J. Kim.--The individuation of events, by D. Davidson.--On properties, by (...) H. Putnam.--A method for avoiding the Curry paradox, by F. B. Fitch.--Publications (1934-1969) by Carl G. Hempel (p. -270). (shrink)
Abstract G.A. Cohen has produced an influential criticism of libertarian?ism that posits joint ownership of everything in the world other than labor, with each joint owner having a veto right over any potential use of the world. According to Cohen, in that world rationality would require that wealth be divided equally, with no differential accorded to talent, ability, or effort. A closer examination shows that Cohen's argument rests on two central errors of reasoning and does not support his egalitarian conclusions, (...) even granting his assumption of joint ownership. That assumption was rejected by Locke, Pufendorf and other writers on property for reasons that Cohen does not rebut. (shrink)
Editor James Fetzer presents an analytical and historical introduction and a comprehensive bibliography together with selections of many of Carl G. Hempel's most important studies to give students and scholars an ideal opportunity to appreciate the enduring contributions of one of the most influential philosophers of science of the 20th century.
Este artigo mostra como Oresme orienta o leitor do "Tratado" a pensar a organização da vida política no processo histórico do século XIV a partir do estudo sobre a alteração da moeda. This paper shows how Oresme guides the reader of his "Treatise" to a thought in order to connect the organization of political life in the historical process of the 14th Century based on the study on the change in money.
This article examines the main aspects of Husserl's phenomenology, which are analyzed in "Appearance and Sense" by Gustav Shpet: the relation between sense and comprehension and between noesis and noema. Shpet emphasizes the hermeneutical theme of "comprehension" as a resolutive dimension to solve aspects not clarified by Husserl. Shpet's critical enquiry, in the course of his subsequent observation, converge into an hermeneutical logic. Shpet identifies the centrality of language as a form of thinking, through the recovery of Humbodt's meaning of (...) the "inner form". (shrink)
Laurence G. Thompson Chinese Religion in Western Languages. A Comprehensive and Classified Bibliography of Publications in English, French and German through 1980. The Association for Asian Studies Monograph No. XLI, The University of Arizona Press, Tucson 1985. xlix + 302pp. $19.95.
The work of the Brazilian artist Lygia Clark occupies a singular position in the movement of institutional critique that began in the 1960s and 70s. The center of her research consists in a mobilization of the two capacities of perception and sensation that alllow us to grasp the otherness of the world, respectively as a map of forms on which we project representations or as a diagram of forces that affect the senses in their capacity for resonance. In 1976, with (...) the Structuring of the Self, she abandoned the field of art and opted for therapy. The forms of critique that she brought into play over the following decade only found a resonance among the generation that began to assert itself in the mid-1990s. Noting this resonance, Suely Rolnik decided to develop a project for the reactivation of memory around the work of Lygia Clark. The idea was to use filmed interviews to produce a living recording of the effects of the body constituted by Lygia during her exile from art, in her cultural and political environment in Brazil and in France. With the exhibition, the pulsation of this body had a chance of contaminating the territory of art. (shrink)
In ‘Wittgenstein on Language and Rules’, Professor N. Malcolm took us to task for misinterpreting Wittgenstein's arguments on the relationship between the concept of following a rule and the concept of community agreement on what counts as following a given rule. Not that we denied that there are any grammatical connections between these concepts. On the contrary, we emphasized that a rule and an act in accord with it make contact in language. Moreover we argued that agreement in judgments and (...) in definitions is indeed necessary for a shared language. But we denied that the concept of a language is so tightly interwoven with the concept of a community of speakers as to preclude its applicabilty to someone whose use of signs is not shared by others. Malcolm holds that ‘This is an unwitting reduction of Wittgenstein's originality. That human agreement is necessary for “shared” language is not so striking a thought as that it is essential for language simpliciter.’ Though less striking, we believe that it has the merit of being a true thought. We shall once more try to show both that it is correct, and that it is a correct account of Wittgenstein's arguments. (shrink)
Among the most outstanding discoveries of the last century is one that is not quite as momentous as the theory of relativity or cybernetics. It may even still be enigmatic. It has no one single author, it is not expressed in a single formula, conception, or invention. Nonetheless it is worth all the others combined.