Results for 'TURING TEST'

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  1.  28
    Can Automatic Calculating Machines Be Said to Think?M. H. A. Newman, Alan M. Turing, Geoffrey Jefferson, R. B. Braithwaite & S. Shieber - 2004 - In Stuart M. Shieber (ed.), The Turing Test: Verbal Behavior as the Hallmark of Intelligence. MIT Press.
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  2.  58
    Laws of Form and the Force of Function: Variations on the Turing Test.Hajo Greif - 2012 - In Vincent C. Müller & Aladdin Ayesh (eds.), Revisiting Turing and His Test: Comprehensiveness, Qualia, and the Real World. AISB. pp. 60-64.
    This paper commences from the critical observation that the Turing Test (TT) might not be best read as providing a definition or a genuine test of intelligence by proxy of a simulation of conversational behaviour. Firstly, the idea of a machine producing likenesses of this kind served a different purpose in Turing, namely providing a demonstrative simulation to elucidate the force and scope of his computational method, whose primary theoretical import lies within the realm of mathematics (...)
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  3. On the Claim That a Table-Lookup Program Could Pass the Turing Test.Drew McDermott - 2014 - Minds and Machines 24 (2):143-188.
    The claim has often been made that passing the Turing Test would not be sufficient to prove that a computer program was intelligent because a trivial program could do it, namely, the “Humongous-Table (HT) Program”, which simply looks up in a table what to say next. This claim is examined in detail. Three ground rules are argued for: (1) That the HT program must be exhaustive, and not be based on some vaguely imagined set of tricks. (2) That (...)
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  4. The Turing Test.B. Jack Copeland - 2000 - Minds and Machines 10 (4):519-539.
    Turing''s test has been much misunderstood. Recently unpublished material by Turing casts fresh light on his thinking and dispels a number of philosophical myths concerning the Turing test. Properly understood, the Turing test withstands objections that are popularly believed to be fatal.
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  5. Beyond the Turing Test.Jose Hernandez-Orallo - 2000 - Journal of Logic, Language and Information 9 (4):447-466.
    The main factor of intelligence is defined as the ability tocomprehend, formalising this ability with the help of new constructsbased on descriptional complexity. The result is a comprehension test,or C- test, which is exclusively defined in computational terms. Due toits absolute and non-anthropomorphic character, it is equally applicableto both humans and non-humans. Moreover, it correlates with classicalpsychometric tests, thus establishing the first firm connection betweeninformation theoretical notions and traditional IQ tests. The TuringTest is compared with the C- (...) and the combination of the two isquestioned. In consequence, the idea of using the Turing Test as apractical test of intelligence should be surpassed, and substituted bycomputational and factorial tests of different cognitive abilities, amuch more useful approach for artificial intelligence progress and formany other intriguing questions that present themselves beyond theTuring Test. (shrink)
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  6.  95
    The Turing Test: Verbal Behavior as the Hallmark of Intelligence.Stuart M. Shieber (ed.) - 2004 - MIT Press.
    Stuart M. Shieber’s name is well known to computational linguists for his research and to computer scientists more generally for his debate on the Loebner Turing Test competition, which appeared a decade earlier in Communications of the ACM. 1 With this collection, I expect it to become equally well known to philosophers.
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  7. How to Pass a Turing Test: Syntactic Semantics, Natural-Language Understanding, and First-Person Cognition.William J. Rapaport - 2000 - Journal of Logic, Language, and Information 9 (4):467-490.
    I advocate a theory of syntactic semantics as a way of understanding how computers can think (and how the Chinese-Room-Argument objection to the Turing Test can be overcome): (1) Semantics, considered as the study of relations between symbols and meanings, can be turned into syntax – a study of relations among symbols (including meanings) – and hence syntax (i.e., symbol manipulation) can suffice for the semantical enterprise (contra Searle). (2) Semantics, considered as the process of understanding one domain (...)
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  8. The Status and Future of the Turing Test.James H. Moor - 2001 - Minds and Machines 11 (1):77-93.
    The standard interpretation of the imitation game is defended over the rival gender interpretation though it is noted that Turing himself proposed several variations of his imitation game. The Turing test is then justified as an inductive test not as an operational definition as commonly suggested. Turing's famous prediction about his test being passed at the 70% level is disconfirmed by the results of the Loebner 2000 contest and the absence of any serious (...) test competitors from AI on the horizon. But, reports of the death of the Turing test and AI are premature. AI continues to flourish and the test continues to play an important philosophical role in AI. Intelligence attribution, methodological, and visionary arguments are given in defense of a continuing role for the Turing test. With regard to Turing's predictions one is disconfirmed, one is confirmed, but another is still outstanding. (shrink)
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  9.  16
    The Turing Test.Graham Oppy & D. Dowe - 2003 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    This paper provides a survey of philosophical discussion of the "the Turing Test". In particular, it provides a very careful and thorough discussion of the famous 1950 paper that was published in Mind.
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  10.  38
    Turing Test: 50 Years Later. [REVIEW]Pinar Saygin Ayse, Cicekli Ilyas & Akman Varol - 2000 - Minds and Machines 10 (4):463-518.
    The Turing Test is one of the most disputed topics in artificial intelligence, philosophy of mind, and cognitive science. This paper is a review of the past 50 years of the Turing Test. Philosophical debates, practical developments and repercussions in related disciplines are all covered. We discuss Turing's ideas in detail and present the important comments that have been made on them. Within this context, behaviorism, consciousness, the `other minds' problem, and similar topics in philosophy (...)
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  11.  50
    The Constructibility of Artificial Intelligence (as Defined by the Turing Test).B. Edmonds - 2000 - Journal of Logic, Language and Information 9 (4):419-424.
    The Turing Test (TT), as originally specified, centres on theability to perform a social role. The TT can be seen as a test of anability to enter into normal human social dynamics. In this light itseems unlikely that such an entity can be wholly designed in an off-line mode; rather a considerable period of training insitu would be required. The argument that since we can pass the TT,and our cognitive processes might be implemented as a Turing (...)
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  12.  16
    Wittgensteinian Perspectives on the Turing Test.Ondřej Beran - 2014 - Studia Philosophica Estonica 7 (1):35-57.
    This paper discusses some difficulties in understanding the Turing test. It emphasizes the importance of distinguishing between conceptual and empirical perspectives and highlights the former as introducing more serious problems for the TT. Some objections against the Turingian framework stemming from the later Wittgenstein’s philosophy are exposed. The following serious problems are examined: 1) It considers a unique and exclusive criterion for thinking which amounts to their identification; 2) it misidentifies the relationship of speaking to thinking as that (...)
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  13.  34
    Passing Loebner's Turing Test: A Case of Conflicting Discourse Functions. [REVIEW]Sean Zdenek - 2001 - Minds and Machines 11 (1):53-76.
    This paper argues that the Turing test is based on a fixed and de-contextualized view of communicative competence. According to this view, a machine that passes the test will be able to communicate effectively in a variety of other situations. But the de-contextualized view ignores the relationship between language and social context, or, to put it another way, the extent to which speakers respond dynamically to variations in discourse function, formality level, social distance/solidarity among participants, and participants' (...)
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  14.  7
    A Formal Approach to Exploring the Interrogator's Perspective in the Turing Test.Paweł Łupkowski - 2011 - Logic and Logical Philosophy 20 (1-2):139-158.
    My aim in this paper is to use a formal approach to the Turing test. This approach is based on a tool developed within Inferential Erotetic Logic, so called erotetic search scenarios. First, I reconstruct the setting of the Turing test proposed by A.M. Turing. On this basis, I build a model of the test using erotetic search scenarios framework. I use the model to investigate one of the most interesting issues of the TT (...)
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  15. Animals, Zombanimals, and the Total Turing Test: The Essence of Artificial Intelligence.Selmer Bringsjord - 2000 - Journal of Logic Language and Information 9 (4):397-418.
    Alan Turing devised his famous test (TT) through a slight modificationof the parlor game in which a judge tries to ascertain the gender of twopeople who are only linguistically accessible. Stevan Harnad hasintroduced the Total TT, in which the judge can look at thecontestants in an attempt to determine which is a robot and which aperson. But what if we confront the judge with an animal, and arobot striving to pass for one, and then challenge him to peg (...)
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  16.  96
    Making the Right Identification in the Turing Test.Saul Traiger - 2000 - Minds and Machines 10 (4):561-572.
    The test Turing proposed for machine intelligence is usually understood to be a test of whether a computer can fool a human into thinking that the computer is a human. This standard interpretation is rejected in favor of a test based on the Imitation Game introduced by Turing at the beginning of "Computing Machinery and Intelligence.".
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  17.  96
    The Truly Total Turing Test.Paul Schweizer - 1998 - Minds and Machines 8 (2):263-272.
    The paper examines the nature of the behavioral evidence underlying attributions of intelligence in the case of human beings, and how this might be extended to other kinds of cognitive system, in the spirit of the original Turing Test. I consider Harnad's Total Turing Test, which involves successful performance of both linguistic and robotic behavior, and which is often thought to incorporate the very same range of empirical data that is available in the human case. However, (...)
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  18. Distributed Cognition: Cognizing, Autonomy and the Turing Test.Stevan Harnad & Itiel Dror - 2006 - Pragmatics and Cognition 14 (2):14.
    Some of the papers in this special issue distribute cognition between what is going on inside individual cognizers' heads and their outside worlds; others distribute cognition among different individual cognizers. Turing's criterion for cognition was individual, autonomous input/output capacity. It is not clear that distributed cognition could pass the Turing Test.
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  19. Subcognition and the Limits of the Turing Test.Robert M. French - 1990 - Mind 99 (393):53-66.
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  20.  87
    Turing Test: 50 Years Later. [REVIEW]A. P. Saygin & I. Cicekli - 2000 - Minds and Machines 10 (4):463-518.
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  21. Creativity, the Turing Test, and the (Better) Lovelace Test.Selmer Bringsjord, P. Bello & David A. Ferrucci - 2001 - Minds and Machines 11 (1):3-27.
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  22.  36
    The Turing Triage Test.Robert Sparrow - 2004 - Ethics and Information Technology 6 (4):203-213.
    If, as a number of writers have predicted, the computers of the future will possess intelligence and capacities that exceed our own then it seems as though they will be worthy of a moral respect at least equal to, and perhaps greater than, human beings. In this paper I propose a test to determine when we have reached that point. Inspired by Alan Turing’s (1950) original “Turing test”, which argued that we would be justified in conceding (...)
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  23. The Turing Test: Ai's Biggest Blind Alley?Blay Whitby - 1996 - In Peter Millican & A. Clark (eds.), Machines and Thought. Oxford University Press. pp. 519-539.
     
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  24. Turing Test: 50 Years Later. [REVIEW]Ayse P. Saygin, Ilyas Cicekli & Varol Akman - 2000 - Minds and Machines 10 (4):463-518.
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  25.  42
    Human Intelligence and Turing Test.Adam Drozdek - 1998 - AI and Society 12 (4):315-321.
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  26. Descartes' Turing Test.Adam Drozdek - 2001 - Epistemologia 24 (1):5-29.
  27. Revisiting Turing and His Test: Comprehensiveness, Qualia, and the Real World.Vincent C. Müller & Aladdin Ayesh (eds.) - 2012 - AISB.
    Proceedings of the papers presented at the Symposium on "Revisiting Turing and his Test: Comprehensiveness, Qualia, and the Real World" at the 2012 AISB and IACAP Symposium that was held in the Turing year 2012, 2–6 July at the University of Birmingham, UK. Ten papers. - http://www.pt-ai.org/turing-test --- Daniel Devatman Hromada: From Taxonomy of Turing Test-Consistent Scenarios Towards Attribution of Legal Status to Meta-modular Artificial Autonomous Agents - Michael Zillich: My Robot is Smarter (...)
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  28.  63
    On Turing's Turing Test and Why the Matter Matters.Justin Leiber - 1995 - Synthese 104 (1):59-69.
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  29.  27
    A Simple Comment Regarding the Turing Test.Benny Shanon - 1989 - Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 19 (June):249-56.
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  30.  13
    The Turing Test and the Argument From Analogy for Other Minds.C. Waterman - 1995 - Southwest Philosophy Review 11 (1):15-22.
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  31. Refocusing the Debate on the Turing Test: A Response.Robert M. French - 1995 - Behavior and Philosophy 23 (1):59-60.
     
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  32.  50
    The Externalist Foundations of a Truly Total Turing Test.Paul Schweizer - 2012 - Minds and Machines 22 (3):191-212.
    The paper begins by examining the original Turing Test (2T) and Searle’s antithetical Chinese Room Argument, which is intended to refute the 2T in particular, as well as any formal or abstract procedural theory of the mind in general. In the ensuing dispute between Searle and his own critics, I argue that Searle’s ‘internalist’ strategy is unable to deflect Dennett’s combined robotic-systems reply and the allied Total Turing Test (3T). Many would hold that the 3T marks (...)
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  33.  35
    Updating the Turing Test. Wittgenstein, Turing and Symbol Manipulation.Penco Carlo - 2012 - Open Journal of Philosophy 2 (3):189-194.
    In this paper I present an argument against the feasibility of the Imitation Game as a test for thinking or language understanding. The argument is different from the five objections presented by Turing in his original paper, although it tries to maintain his original intention. I therefore call it “the Sixth Argument” or “the Argument from Context”. I show that – although the argument works against the original version of the imitation game – it may suggest a new (...)
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  34.  26
    Who's Afraid of the Turing Test?Dale Jacquette - 1993 - Behavior and Philosophy 20 (21):63-74.
    The Turing Test is a verbal-behavioral operational criterion of artificial intelligence. If a machine can participate in question–and–answer conversation adequately enough to deceive an intelligent interlocutor, then it has intelligent information processing abilities. Robert M. French has argued that recent discoveries in cognitive science about subcognitive processes involving associational primings prove that the Turing Test cannot provide a satisfactory criterion of machine intelligence, that Turing's prediction concerning the feasibility of building machines to play the imitation (...)
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  35.  4
    El Test de Turing: Dos Mitos, Un Dogma.Rodrigo González - 2007 - Revista de filosofía (Chile) 63:37-53.
    Este artículo analiza el Test de Turing, uno de los métodos más famosos y controvertidos para evaluar la existencia de vida mental en la Filosofía de la Mente, revelando dos mitos filosóficos comúnmente aceptados y criticando su dogma. En primer lugar, se muestra por qué Turing nunca propuso una definición de inteligencia. En segundo lugar, se refuta que el Test de Turing involucre condiciones necesarias o suficientes para la inteligencia. En tercer lugar, teniendo presente el (...)
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  36. The Turing Test: The First Fifty Years.Robert French - 2000 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 4 (3):115-121.
    The Turing Test, originally proposed as a simple operational definition of intelligence, has now been with us for exactly half a century. It is safe to say that no other single article in computer science, and few other articles in science in general, have generated so much discussion. The present article chronicles the comments and controversy surrounding Turing's classic article from its publication to the present. The changing perception of the Turing Test over the last (...)
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  37.  26
    Establishing Consciousness in Non-Communicative Patients: A Modern-Day Version of the Turing Test.John F. Stins - 2009 - Consciousness and Cognition 18 (1):187-192.
    In a recent study of a patient in a persistent vegetative state, [Owen, A. M., Coleman, M. R., Boly, M., Davis, M. H., Laureys, S., & Pickard, J. D. . Detecting awareness in the vegetative state. Science, 313, 1402] claimed that they had demonstrated the presence of consciousness in this patient. This bold conclusion was based on the isomorphy between brain activity in this patient and a set of conscious control subjects, obtained in various imagery tasks. However, establishing consciousness in (...)
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  38.  29
    Plastic Machines: Behavioural Diversity and the Turing Test.Michael Wheeler - unknown
    After proposing the Turing Test, Alan Turing himself considered a number of objections to the idea that a machine might eventually pass it. One of the objections discussed by Turing was that no machine will ever pass the Turing Test because no machine will ever “have as much diversity of behaviour as a man”. He responded as follows: the “criticism that a machine cannot have much diversity of behaviour is just a way of saying (...)
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  39.  19
    The Turing Test as Interactive Proof.Stuart M. Shieber - 2007 - Noûs 41 (4):686–713.
    In 1950, Alan Turing proposed his eponymous test based on indistinguishability of verbal behavior as a replacement for the question "Can machines think?" Since then, two mutually contradictory but well-founded attitudes towards the Turing Test have arisen in the philosophical literature. On the one hand is the attitude that has become philosophical conventional wisdom, viz., that the Turing Test is hopelessly flawed as a sufficient condition for intelligence, while on the other hand is the (...)
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  40.  46
    Peeking Behind the Screen: The Unsuspected Power of the Standard Turing Test.Robert M. French - 2000 - Journal of Experimental and Theoretical Artificial Intelligence 12 (3):331-340.
    No computer that had not experienced the world as we humans had could pass a rigorously administered standard Turing Test. We show that the use of “subcognitive” questions allows the standard Turing Test to indirectly probe the human subcognitive associative concept network built up over a lifetime of experience with the world. Not only can this probing reveal differences in cognitive abilities, but crucially, even differences in _physical aspects_ of the candidates can be detected. Consequently, it (...)
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  41. Ascribing Moral Value and the Embodied Turing Test.Anthony Chemero - unknown
    What would it take for an artificial agent to be treated as having moral value? As a first step toward answering this question, we ask what it would take for an artificial agent to be capable of the sort of autonomous, adaptive social behavior that is characteristic of the animals that humans interact with. We propose that this sort of capacity is best measured by what we call the Embodied Turing Test. The Embodied Turing test is (...)
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  42.  65
    Zombies and the Turing Test.Mary Midgley - 1995 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 2 (4):351-352.
    Why did the plan of using zombie manufacture as a means of studying consciousness ever seem plausible? Why does it impress so many people today? The immediate reason surely lies in fascination with the Turing Test -- the suggestion that computer programs would be proved to be conscious if they managed to carry on conversations in a way that made them seem conscious to a naive observer.
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  43.  67
    The Turing Test is Not a Trick: Turing Indistinguishability is a Scientific Criterion.Stevan Harnad - 1992 - Philosophical Explorations 3 (4):9-10.
    It is important to understand that the Turing Test is not, nor was it intended to be, a trick; how well one can fool someone is not a measure of scientific progress. The TT is an empirical criterion: It sets AI's empirical goal to be to generate human-scale performance capacity. This goal will be met when the candidate's performance is totally indistinguishable from a human's. Until then, the TT simply represents what it is that AI must endeavor eventually (...)
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  44.  21
    Naive Psychology and the Inverted Turing Test.S. Watt - 1996 - Psycoloquy 7 (14).
    This target article argues that the Turing test implicitly rests on a "naive psychology," a naturally evolved psychological faculty which is used to predict and understand the behaviour of others in complex societies. This natural faculty is an important and implicit bias in the observer's tendency to ascribe mentality to the system in the test. The paper analyses the effects of this naive psychology on the Turing test, both from the side of the system and (...)
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  45.  50
    The Inverted Turing Test: How a Mindless Program Could Pass It.Robert French - 1996 - Psycoloquy 7 (39).
    This commentary attempts to show that the inverted Turing Test could be simulated by a standard Turing test and, most importantly, claims that a very simple program with no intelligence whatsoever could be written that would pass the inverted Turing test. For this reason, the inverted Turing test in its present form must be rejected.
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  46.  71
    Review of The Turing Test: Verbal Behavior As the Hallmark of Intelligence[REVIEW]William J. Rapaport - manuscript
    Stuart M. Shieber’s name is well known to computational linguists for his research and to computer scientists more generally for his debate on the Loebner Turing Test competition, which appeared a decade earlier in Communications of the ACM. 1 With this collection, I expect it to become equally well known to philosophers.
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  47. What Does the Turing Test Really Mean? And How Many Human Beings (Including Turing) Could Pass?Tyler Cowen & Michelle Dawson - unknown
    The so-called Turing test, as it is usually interpreted, sets a benchmark standard for determining when we might call a machine intelligent. We can call a machine intelligent if the following is satisfied: if a group of wise observers were conversing with a machine through an exchange of typed messages, those observers could not tell whether they were talking to a human being or to a machine. To pass the test, the machine has to be intelligent but (...)
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  48.  65
    The Turing Test and the Frame Problem: AI's Mistaken Understanding of Intelligence.L. Crockett - 1994 - Ablex.
    I have discussed the frame problem and the Turing test at length, but I have not attempted to spell out what I think the implications of the frame problem ...
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  49.  19
    There Can Be No Turing-Test-Passing Memorizing Machines.Stuart M. Shieber - 2014 - Philosophers' Imprint 14 (16).
    Anti-behaviorist arguments against the validity of the Turing Test as a sufficient condition for attributing intelligence are based on a memorizing machine, which has recorded within it responses to every possible Turing Test interaction of up to a fixed length. The mere possibility of such a machine is claimed to be enough to invalidate the Turing Test. I consider the nomological possibility of memorizing machines, and how long a Turing Test they can (...)
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  50.  46
    Answering Subcognitive Turing Test Questions: A Reply to French.Peter Turney - manuscript
    Robert French has argued that a disembodied computer is incapable of passing a Turing Test that includes subcognitive questions. Subcognitive questions are designed to probe the network of cultural and perceptual associations that humans naturally develop as we live, embodied and embedded in the world. In this paper, I show how it is possible for a disembodied computer to answer subcognitive questions appropriately, contrary to French’s claim. My approach to answering subcognitive questions is to use statistical information extracted (...)
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