This study aimed to explore the association between self-oriented empathy and compassion fatigue, and examine the potential mediating roles of dispositional mindfulness and the counselor’s self-efficacy. A total of 712 hotline psychological counselors were recruited from the Mental Health Service Platform at Central China Normal University, Ministry of Education during the outbreak of Corona Virus Disease 2019, then were asked to complete the questionnaires measuring self-oriented empathy, compassion fatigue, dispositional mindfulness, and counselor’s self-efficacy. Structural equation modeling was utilized to analyze (...) the possible associations and explore potential mediations. In addition to reporting confidence intervals, we employed a new method named model-based constrained optimization procedure to test hypotheses of indirect effects. Results showed that self-oriented empathy was positively associated with compassion fatigue. Dispositional mindfulness and counselor’s self-efficacy independently and serially mediated the associations between self-oriented empathy and compassion fatigue. The findings of this study confirmed and complemented the etiological and the multi-factor model of compassion fatigue. Moreover, the results indicate that it is useful and necessary to add some training for increasing counselor’s self-efficacy in mindfulness-based interventions in order to decrease compassion fatigue. (shrink)
This study explores the dark side of leadership, treats creative self-efficacy as a mediator, and frames supervisor bullying and employee creativity in the context of social cognition and social comparison. We theorize that with a high social comparison orientation, the combination of high supervisory abuse toward themselves and low supervisory abuse toward other team members leads to a double whammy effect: When employees are “singled out” for abuse, these victims suffer from not only low creative self-efficacy due to supervisory abuse (...) but also low supervisory creativity ratings. Results based on our two-wave data collected from multiple sources—253 employees and their 77 immediate supervisors—support our theory. The significant three-way interaction effect reveals that when social comparison orientation is high and peer abusive supervision is low, own abusive supervision creates the strongest negative impact on creative self-efficacy, which is significantly related to supervisory low creativity rating. Our discoveries of egregious bullying offer provocative theoretical, empirical, and practical implications to the fields of leadership, abusive supervision, creativity, and business ethics. (shrink)
For repeatable motion of redundant mobile manipulators, the flexible base platform and the redundant manipulator have to be returned to the desired initial position simultaneously after completing the given tasks. To remedy deviations between initial position and desired position of each kinematic joint angle, a special kind of repeatable optimization for kinematic energy minimization based on terminal-time Zhang neural network with finite-time convergence is proposed for inverse kinematics of mobile manipulators. It takes the advantages that each joint of the manipulator (...) is required to return to the desired initial position not considering the initial orientation of itself for realizing repeatable kinematics control. Unlike the existed training methods, such an optimization of kinematic energy scheme based on TTZNN can not only reduce the convergent position error of each joint to zero in finite time, but also improve the convergent precision. Theoretical analysis and verifications show that the proposed optimal kinematic energy scheme accelerates the convergent rate, which is tended to be applied in practical robot kinematics. Simulation results on the manipulator with three mobile wheels substantiate the timeliness and repetitiveness of the proposed optimization scheme. (shrink)
This essay is an attempt to sketch out two contrasting notions of freedom in the Zhuangzi and the Xunzi . I argue that to understand the classical Chinese formulations of freedom we should look at the concept of hua 化 (transformation or to transform). It is a kind of freedom that highlights the moral and/or spiritual transformation of the self and its entailments on the connection between the self and various domains of relationality. The Zhuangzian hua is the transformation of (...) the self in such a way that the self becomes supremely attuned to the complexity of the world and can thus navigate various domains of relationality with extraordinary grace, ease, and efficacy. The Xunzian hua is the transformation of the self so that the self can extend its relationality to include the entire world and transform it from a raw and uncouth world to a civilized one through ritual practices. (shrink)
In general, stimuli that are familiar and recognizable have an advantage of predominance during binocular rivalry. Recent research has demonstrated that familiar and recognizable stimuli such as upright faces and words in a native language could break interocular suppression faster than their matched controls. In this study, a visible word prime was presented binocularly then replaced by a high-contrast dynamic noise pattern presented to one eye and either a semantically related or unrelated word was introduced to the other eye. We (...) measured how long it took for target words to break from suppression. To investigate word-parts priming, a second experiment also included word pairs that had overlapping subword fragments. Results from both experiments consistently show that semantically related words and words that shared subword fragments were faster to gain dominance compared to unrelated words, suggesting that words, even when interocularly suppressed and invisible, can benefit from semantic and subword priming. (shrink)
This study investigated what information about brain death was available from Google searches for five major religions. A substantial body of supporting research examining online behaviors shows that information seekers use Google as their preferred search engine and usually limit their search to entries on the first page. For each of the five religions in this study, Google listings reveal ethical controversy about organ donation in the context of brain death. These results suggest that family members who go online to (...) find information about organ donation in the context of brain death would find information about ethical controversy in the first page of Google listings. Organ procurement agencies claim that all major world religions approve of organ donation and do not address the ethical controversy about organ donation in the context of brain death that is readily available online. (shrink)
A novel fuzzy control scheme with adaptation algorithms is developed for robot manipulators’ system. At the beginning, one adjustable parameter is introduced in the fuzzy logic system, the robot manipulators system with uncertain nonlinear terms as the master device and a reference model dynamic system as the slave robot system. To overcome the limitations such as online learning computation burden and logic structure in conventional fuzzy logic systems, a parameter should be used in fuzzy logic system, which composes fuzzy logic (...) system with updated parameter laws, and can be formed for a new fashioned adaptation algorithms controller. The error closed-loop dynamical system can be stabilized based on Lyapunov analysis, the number of online learning computation burdens can be reduced greatly, and the different kinds of fuzzy logic systems with fuzzy rules or without any fuzzy rules are also suited. Finally, effectiveness of the proposed approach has been shown in simulation example. (shrink)
In this paper, we use the fixed-point index and nonnegative matrices to study the existence of positive solutions for a system of Hadamard-type fractional differential equations with semipositone nonlinearities.
Committing financial fraud is a serious breach of business ethics. However, there are few large scale studies of financial fraud, which involve ethical considerations. In this study, we investigate the pervasive financial scandals, which by the end of 2012 involved more than a third of the US-listed Chinese companies. Based on a sample of 262 US-listed Chinese companies, we analyze factors that differentiate between firms that commit financial fraud and those that do not. We find that firms more predisposed to (...) unethical behavior, due to their low regional social trust in the home country and low respect for regulations and laws as proxied by political connections, are more likely to commit accounting and financial fraud. They take advantage of low hurdles for listing via reverse mergers and avoid third-party monitoring through poor governance and auditors. Finally, we find evidence, after these scandals, of non-fraudulent firms differentiating themselves from the fraudulent firms by sending costly signals such as insiders purchasing shares, increasing dividends, and going private. (shrink)
Source-rock samples from the Upper Triassic Yanchang Formation in the Ordos Basin of China were geochemically characterized to determine variations in depositional environments, organic-matter source, and thermal maturity. Total organic carbon content varies from 4 wt% to 10 wt% in the Chang 7, Chang 8, and Chang 9 members — the three OM-rich shale intervals. The Chang 7 has the highest TOC and hydrogen index values, and it is considered the best source rock in the formation. Geochemical evidence indicates that (...) the main sources of OM in the Yanchang Formation are freshwater lacustrine phytoplanktons, aquatic macrophytes, aquatic organisms, and land plants deposited under a weakly reducing to suboxic depositional environment. The elevated [Formula: see text] sterane concentration and depleted [Formula: see text] values of OM in the middle of the Chang 7 may indicate the presence of freshwater cyanobacteria blooms that corresponds to a period of maximum lake expansion. The OM deposited in deeper parts of the lake is dominated by oil-prone type I or type II kerogen or a mixture of both. The OM deposited in shallower settings is characterized by increased terrestrial input with a mixture of types II and III kerogen. These source rocks are in the oil window, with maturity increasing with burial depth. The measured solid-bitumen reflectance and calculated vitrinite reflectance from the temperature at maximum release of hydrocarbons occurs during Rock-Eval pyrolysis and the methylphenanthrene index chemical maturity parameters range from 0.8 to [Formula: see text]. Because the thermal labilities of OM are associated with the kerogen type, the required thermal stress for oil generation from types I and II mixed kerogen has a higher and narrower range of temperature for hydrocarbon generation than that of OM dominated by type II kerogen or types II and III mixed kerogen deposited in the prodelta and delta front. (shrink)
The recent rapid development of information technology, such as sensing technology, communications technology, and database, allows us to use simulation experiments for analyzing serious accidents caused by hazardous chemicals. Due to the toxicity and diffusion of hazardous chemicals, these accidents often lead to not only severe consequences and economic losses, but also traffic jams at the same time. Emergency evacuation after hazardous chemical accidents is an effective means to reduce the loss of life and property and to smoothly resume the (...) transport network as soon as possible. This paper considers the dynamic changes of the hazardous chemicals’ concentration after their leakage and simulates the diffusion process. Based on the characteristics of emergency evacuation of hazardous chemical accidents, we build a mixed-integer programming model and design a heuristic algorithm using network optimization and diffusion simulation. We then verify the validity and feasibility of the algorithm using Jinan, China, as a computational example. In the end, we compare the results from different scenarios to explore the key factors affecting the effectiveness of the evacuation process. (shrink)
This paper investigates a fractional-order linear system in the frame of Atangana–Baleanu fractional derivative. First, we prove that some properties for the Caputo fractional derivative also hold in the sense of AB fractional derivative. Subsequently, several sufficient criteria to guarantee the finite-time stability and the finite-time boundedness for the system are derived. Finally, an example is presented to illustrate the validity of our main results.
The degree of organic matter enrichment in shale determines its oil and gas potential. To understand the factors controlling this OM enrichment, we have used petrological and geochemical analyses to study the Lower Cambrian Niutitang Formation Shale in the eastern shelf margin of the Yangtze Block. Our results reveal that the total organic carbon content of the Niutitang Formation Shale varies significantly throughout the vertical section. The lower part of the Niutitang Formation has a high TOC content, likely due to (...) its formation in a dysoxic/anoxic environment with intense upwelling that favored OM enrichment. The middle part of the Niutitang Formation has the highest TOC content, which can be attributed to its formation in an environment with more hydrothermal activity, moderately upwelling, high paleosalinity, dysoxic/anoxic conditions, and moderately restricted water contents. Finally, the upper part of the Niutitang Formation records the lowest TOC contents because it likely formed in an oxic to dysoxic environment with weakly restricted hydrographic conditions that did not favor the preservation of OM. Therefore, these data demonstrate that the factors controlling OM enrichment in the Niutitang Formation Shale on the shelf margin include intense upwelling, greater amounts of hydrothermal activity, high paleosalinity, dysoxic/anoxic conditions, and moderately restricted water contents. (shrink)
Accurate estimation of permeability for reservoir simulation and production is challenging in carbonate rocks due to the diversified pore structures resulting from deposition and diagenetic modification. A significant amount of residue gas is expected in the Puguang field, China. We use a shear-frame flexibility factor [Formula: see text] from a rock-physics model as an index to quantify its spatial variation of pore structure and constrain the estimation of permeability in this field. The pore-structure index [Formula: see text] is established and (...) used to classify various permeability-porosity trends at well locations where core and log data are available. It is found that when [Formula: see text], the pore type is dominated by intercrystalline pores with large pore-throat sizes and high connectivity, the permeability-porosity relation is [Formula: see text]; when [Formula: see text], the pore type consists of isolated moldic pores, the permeability-porosity relation is [Formula: see text], where [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], and [Formula: see text] are constants, which are 80, 18, 3, 0.004, 5.5, and 1.6, respectively, for the studied gas reservoir. Rock-physics-based seismic inversion is then applied to quantify the spatial variation of pore type and permeability. The inversion results indicate that regional stratigraphy has a paramount control on the distribution of pore type and permeability. Moldic pores are widely distributed near the unconformities, whereas the large intercrystalline porosity and microporosity are distributed below and above the unconformities due to the sea-level regression and transgression, respectively. It is concluded that production problems may occur in porous and permeable intercrystalline-porosity zones and the exploration of residual gas remains in the high porosity yet less permeable moldic-porosity zones. (shrink)
The study aims to help characterize the sort of structures about which people can acquire unconscious knowledge. It is already well established that people can implicitly learn n-grams and also repetition patterns. We explore the acquisition of unconscious structural knowledge of symmetry. Chinese Tang poetry uses a specific sort of mirror symmetry, an inversion rule with respect to the tones of characters in successive lines of verse. We show, using artificial poetry to control both n-gram structure and repetition patterns, that (...) people can implicitly learn to discriminate inversions from non-inversions, presenting a challenge to existing models of implicit learning. (shrink)
In this paper, we study the existence and uniqueness of solutions to implicit the coupled fractional differential system with the Katugampola–Caputo fractional derivative. Different fixed-point theorems are used to acquire the required results. Moreover, we derive some sufficient conditions to guarantee that the solutions to our considered system are Hyers–Ulam stable. We also provided an example that explains our results.
The Triassic Yanchang Formation lacustrine shale is a source of conventional oil accumulation in the Ordos Basin, China. The Yanchang Formation, a hybrid system of organic-rich shale, interbedded silty shale, and siltstone, is believed to be a potential unconventional oil and gas play. Our crossdisciplinary investigation of the storage space included the outcrop description, core observation, thin sections, and scanning electron microscope pore imaging. We evaluated the results from these techniques to reveal that the storage space within the Yanchang Formation (...) shales included primary intergranular pores, secondary generated pores, tectonic fractures, and bedding-parallel fractures. We conducted adsorption experiments, combined with burial and thermal history, in which the primary migration process can be divided into three stages. In the Early Jurassic, organic matter did not reach the oil generation threshold. From the Late Jurassic to the Early Cretaceous, organic matter entered the oil generation window, and gas was generated and stored as adsorbed gas, dissolved gas, and free gas. From the Middle to Late Cretaceous, the storage of shale gas was dynamically transformed by tectonic uplift. Variations in chemical and carbon isotopic compositions from canister-core desorption were directly related to the gas supply in shales. An abrupt decrease in gas dryness and positive [Formula: see text] values indicated the depletion of gas supply drainage. Our ultimate recovery factor reached 70%. (shrink)
Using 3D seismic attributes and the support of a clay model that served as an analog, we mapped and analyzed a 32 km long, north–south-striking, right-lateral fault in the Woodford Shale, Anadarko Basin, Oklahoma, USA. Volumetric coherence, dip azimuth, and curvature delineated an approximately 1.5 km wide damage zone with multiple secondary faults, folds, and flexures. The clay analog enabled us to identify these features as belonging to a complex transpressional Riedel structure. We also suggest that the damage zone contains (...) dense subseismic fractures associated with multiscale faulting and secondary folding that may correspond to highly permeable features within the Woodford Shale. (shrink)
Western buying companies impose Supplier Codes of Conduct (SCC) on their suppliers in developing countries; however, many suppliers cannot fully comply with SCC and some of them even cheat in SCC. In this research, we link contract characteristics - price pressure, production complexity, contract duration - to the likelihood of supplier's commitment to SCC through a mediating process: how the buying companies govern their suppliers. Our structural equation model analysis shows that the hierarchy/relational norms governance is a perfect mediator of (...) contract characteristics' effects on the likelihood of supplier's commitment; the market governance, an insignificant one. The managerial implications are provided for successfully implementing SCC in global supply chains. (shrink)
The trigonometric table and its construction principles were introduced to China as part of calendar reform, spear-headed by Xu Guangqi in the late 1620s to early 1630s. Chinese scholars attempted and succeeded in uncovering how the construction principles were established in the seventeenth century and then in the eighteenth century expanded to include more algorithms to compute the values of trigonometric lines. Successful as they were in discoursing the construction principles, most Chinese scholars did not actually construct trigonometric tables anew. (...) In the early nineteenth century, a revolutionary approach was developed, which resembles computing a finite sum of power series to trigonometric functions of an arbitrary arc less than a one-half circle. Though hailed by many modern historians as Chinese achievements in developing “infinite series” of trigonometric functions, this approach was viewed by the actors at the time as a quick means to construct trigonometric tables. Interestingly, even with these “quick” methods, no trigonometric table was constructed. Besides the fact that constructing a trigonometric table afresh is a time-consuming business, the classification of the trigonometric table and their construction principles into different genres of knowledge by scholars offers an additional explanation of drastically uneven treatment of trigonometric tables and their construction principles. (shrink)
As an imitation of the biological nervous systems, neural networks, which have been characterized as powerful learning tools, are employed in a wide range of applications, such as control of complex nonlinear systems, optimization, system identification, and patterns recognition. This article aims to bring a brief review of the state-of-the-art NNs for the complex nonlinear systems by summarizing recent progress of NNs in both theory and practical applications. Specifically, this survey also reviews a number of NN based robot control algorithms, (...) including NN based manipulator control, NN based human-robot interaction, and NN based cognitive control. (shrink)
We demonstrated unconscious learning of task-irrelevant perceptual regularities in a Serial Reaction Time task in both visual and auditory domains. Participants were required to respond to different letters or syllables which occurred in random order. Unbeknownst to participants, the color of the two letters or the tone of the syllables varied according to certain rules. Reaction times indicated that people indeed learnt both the color and tonal regularities indicating that task-irrelevant sequence structure can be learned perceptually. In a subsequent prediction (...) test of knowledge of the color or tonal cues using subjective measures, we showed that people could acquire task irrelevant knowledge unconsciously. (shrink)