Results for 'participation'

999 found
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  1. Political Participation and Civic Engagement: Towards a New Typology.Joakim Ekman & Erik Amnå - 2012 - Human Affairs 22 (3):283-300.
    Reviewing the literature on political participation and civic engagement, the article offers a critical examination of different conceptual frameworks. Drawing on previous definitions and operationalisations, a new typology for political participation and civic engagement is developed, highlighting the multidimensionality of both concepts. In particular, it makes a clear distinction between manifest “political participation” and less direct or “latent” forms of participation, conceptualized here as “civic engagement” and “social involvement”. The article argues that the notion of “latent” (...)
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  2.  34
    Client Participation in Moral Case Deliberation: A Precarious Relational Balance. [REVIEW]F. C. Weidema, T. A. Abma, G. A. M. Widdershoven & A. C. Molewijk - 2011 - HEC Forum 23 (3):207-224.
    Moral case deliberation (MCD) is a form of clinical ethics support in which the ethicist as facilitator aims at supporting professionals with a structured moral inquiry into their moral issues from practice. Cases often affect clients, however, their inclusion in MCD is not common. Client participation often raises questions concerning conditions for equal collaboration and good dialogue. Despite these questions, there is little empirical research regarding client participation in clinical ethics support in general and in MCD in particular. (...)
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  3.  20
    Serial Participation and the Ethics of Phase 1 Healthy Volunteer Research.Rebecca L. Walker, Marci D. Cottingham & Jill A. Fisher - 2018 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 43 (1):83-114.
    Phase 1 healthy volunteer clinical trials—which financially compensate subjects in tests of drug toxicity levels and side effects—appear to place pressure on each joint of the moral framework justifying research. In this article, we review concerns about phase 1 trials as they have been framed in the bioethics literature, including undue inducement and coercion, unjust exploitation, and worries about compromised data validity. We then revisit these concerns in light of the lived experiences of serial participants who are income-dependent on phase (...)
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  4.  48
    Participation and Substantiality in Thomas Aquinas. Velde (ed.) - 1995 - Brill.
    This book offers a philosophical analysis of the main themes and problems of Aquinas' metaphysics of creation, centred on the concept of participation, the systematical meaning of which is examined in a critical discussion of the prevailing views of contemporary Thomas scholars.
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  5.  2
    Public Participation Methods: A Framework for Evaluation.Lynn J. Frewer & Gene Rowe - 2000 - Science, Technology, and Human Values 25 (1):3-29.
    There is a growing call for greater public involvement in establishing science and technology policy, in line with democratic ideals. A variety of public participation procedures exist that aim to consult and involve the public, ranging from the public hearing to the consensus conference. Unfortunately, a general lack of empirical consideration of the quality of these methods arises from confusion as to the appropriate benchmarks for evaluation. Given that the quality of the output of any participation exercise is (...)
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  6.  74
    Deliberation, Participation, and Democratic Legitimacy: Should Deliberative Mini‐Publics Shape Public Policy?Cristina Lafont - 2015 - Journal of Political Philosophy 23 (1):40-63.
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  7. Participation in the Workplace: Are Employees Special?Jeffrey Moriarty - 2010 - Journal of Business Ethics 92 (3):373-384.
    Many arguments have been advanced in favor of employee participation in firm decision-making. Two of the most influential are the "interest protection argument" and the "autonomy argument." I argue that the case for granting participation rights to some other stakeholders, such as suppliers and community members, is at least as strong, according to the reasons given in these arguments, as the case for granting them to certain employees. I then consider how proponents of these arguments might modify their (...)
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  8. How Payment For Research Participation Can Be Coercive.Joseph Millum & Michael Garnett - 2019 - American Journal of Bioethics 19 (9):21-31.
    The idea that payment for research participation can be coercive appears widespread among research ethics committee members, researchers, and regulatory bodies. Yet analysis of the concept of coercion by philosophers and bioethicists has mostly concluded that payment does not coerce, because coercion necessarily involves threats, not offers. In this article we aim to resolve this disagreement by distinguishing between two distinct but overlapping concepts of coercion. Consent-undermining coercion marks out certain actions as impermissible and certain agreements as unenforceable. By (...)
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  9.  59
    Voluntary Participation and Comprehension of Informed Consent in a Genetic Epidemiological Study of Breast Cancer in Nigeria.Patricia A. Marshall, Clement A. Adebamowo, Adebowale A. Adeyemo, Temidayo O. Ogundiran, Teri Strenski, Jie Zhou & Charles N. Rotimi - 2014 - BMC Medical Ethics 15 (1):38.
    Studies on informed consent to medical research conducted in low or middle-income settings have increased, including empirical investigations of consent to genetic research. We investigated voluntary participation and comprehension of informed consent among women involved in a genetic epidemiological study on breast cancer in an urban setting of Nigeria comparing women in the case and control groups.
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  10.  33
    Employee Participation in Cause-Related Marketing Strategies: A Study of Management Perceptions From British Consumer Service Industries.Gordon Liu, Catherine Liston-Heyes & Wai-Wai Ko - 2010 - Journal of Business Ethics 92 (2):195-210.
    The purpose of cause-related marketing (CRM) is to publicise and capitalise on a firm's corporate social performance (CSP) by enhancing its legitimacy in the eyes of its stakeholders. This study focuses on the firm's internal stakeholders - i.e. its employees - and the extent of their involvement in the selection of social campaigns. Whilst the difficulties of managing a firm that has lost or damaged its legitimacy in the eyes of its employees are well known, little is understood about the (...)
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  11. Fairness, Participation, and the Real Problem of Collective Harm.Julia Nefsky - 2015 - Oxford Studies in Normative Ethics 5:245-271.
  12.  12
    Stakeholder Participation as a Means to Produce Morally Justified Environmental Decisions.Lars Samuelsson & Lucy Rist - 2016 - Ethics, Policy and Environment 19 (1):76-90.
    Stakeholder participation is an increasingly popular ingredient within environmental management and decision-making. While much has been written about its purported benefits, a question that has been largely neglected is whether decision-making informed through stakeholder participation is actually likely to yield decisions that are morally justified in their own right. Using moral methodology as a starting point, we argue that stakeholder participation in environmental decision-making may indeed be an appropriate means to produce morally justified decisions, the reason being (...)
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  13.  32
    Questioning 'Participation': A Critical Appraisal of its Conceptualization in a Flemish Participatory Technology Assessment.Michiel van Oudheusden - 2011 - Science and Engineering Ethics 17 (4):673-690.
    This article draws attention to struggles inherent in discourse about the meaning of participation in a Flemish participatory technology assessment (pTA) on nanotechnologies. It explores how, at the project’s outset, key actors (e.g., nanotechnologists and pTA researchers) frame elements of the process like ‘the public’ and draw on interpretive repertoires to fit their perspective. The examples call into question normative commitments to cooperation, consensus building, and common action that conventionally guide pTA approaches. It is argued that pTA itself must (...)
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  14.  11
    Consumer Participation in Cause-Related Marketing: An Examination of Effort Demands and Defensive Denial.Katharine M. Howie, Lifeng Yang, Scott J. Vitell, Victoria Bush & Doug Vorhies - 2018 - Journal of Business Ethics 147 (3):679-692.
    This article presents two studies that examine cause-related marketing promotions that require consumers’ active participation. Requiring a follow-up behavior has very valuable implications for maximizing marketing expenditures and customer relationship management. Theories related to ethical behavior, like motivated reasoning and defensive denial, are used to explain when and why consumers respond negatively to these effort demands. The first study finds that consumers rationalize not participating in CRM by devaluing the sponsored cause. The second study identifies a tactic marketers can (...)
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  15.  66
    Participation as Post-Fordist Politics: Demos, New Labour, and Science Policy. [REVIEW]Charles Thorpe - 2010 - Minerva 48 (4):389-411.
    In recent years, British science policy has seen a significant shift ‘from deficit to dialogue’ in conceptualizing the relationship between science and the public. Academics in the interdisciplinary field of Science and Technology Studies (STS) have been influential as advocates of the new public engagement agenda. However, this participatory agenda has deeper roots in the political ideology of the Third Way. A framing of participation as a politics suited to post-Fordist conditions was put forward in the magazine Marxism Today (...)
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  16.  17
    Participation: A Religious Worldview.James M. Gustafson - 2016 - Journal of Religious Ethics 44 (1):148-175.
    This essay is an experimental project. It proposes that the theme of participation issues in an insightful, distinctive, comprehensive, and coherent interpretation of human experience. My personal history is a test case.
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  17. Participation: The Right of Rights.Jeremy Waldron - 1998 - Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 98 (3):307–337.
    This paper examines the role of political participation in a theory of rights. If political participation is a right, how does it stand in relation to other rights about which the participants may be making political decisions? Suppose a majority of citizens vote in favour of some limit on (say) the free exercise of religion. If their decision is allowed to stand, does that mean that we are giving more weight to the right to participate than to the (...)
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  18.  1
    Citizen Participation and Environmental Risk: A Survey of Institutional Mechanisms.Daniel J. Fiorino - 1990 - Science, Technology and Human Values 15 (2):226-243.
    Standard approaches to defining and evaluating environmental risk tend to reflect technocratic rather than democratic values. One consequence is that institutional mechanisms for achieving citizen participation in risk decisions rarely are studied or evaluated. This article presents a survey of five institutional mechanisms for allowing the lay public to influence environmental risk decisions: public hearings, initiatives, public surveys, negotiated rule making, and citizens review panels. It also defines democratic process criteria for assessing these and other participatory mechanisms.
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  19.  51
    Participation in and Responsibility for State Injustices.Robert Jubb - 2014 - Social Theory and Practice 40 (1):51-72.
    This paper discusses the criteria for acceptably holding citizens partly responsible for wrongs their state or its agents commit. Some proposed criteria are not, it argues, appropriately sensitive to the particular coercive relation between state and citizen. Others, which are, conceive of it wrongly and fail to match our judgments about a range of cases. Alternative criteria of breadth and joint authorship, built around Christopher Kutz's account of participation, better match these considered judgments as well as linking them to (...)
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  20.  17
    Patient Participation in Hospital Care: How Equal is the Voice of the Client Council?Hanneke van der Meide, Gert Olthuis & Carlo Leget - 2015 - Health Care Analysis 23 (3):238-252.
    Patient participation in healthcare is highly promoted for democratic reasons. Older patients make up a large part of the hospital population but their voices are less easily heard by most patient participation instruments. The client council can be seen as an important medium to represent the interests of this increasing group of patients. Every Dutch healthcare institution is obliged to have a client council and its rights are legally established. This paper reports on a case study of a (...)
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  21.  15
    The Participation and Motivations of Grant Peer Reviewers: A Comprehensive Survey.Stephen A. Gallo, Lisa A. Thompson, Karen B. Schmaling & Scott R. Glisson - 2020 - Science and Engineering Ethics 26 (2):761-782.
    Scientific peer reviewers play an integral role in the grant selection process, yet very little has been reported on the levels of participation or the motivations of scientists to take part in peer review. The American Institute of Biological Sciences developed a comprehensive peer review survey that examined the motivations and levels of participation of grant reviewers. The survey was disseminated to 13,091 scientists in AIBS’s proprietary database. Of the 874 respondents, 76% indicated they had reviewed grant applications (...)
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  22.  16
    Participation of Children in Medical Decision-Making: Challenges and Potential Solutions.Vida Jeremic, Karine Sénécal, Pascal Borry, Davit Chokoshvili & Danya F. Vears - 2016 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 13 (4):525-534.
    Participation in healthcare decision-making is considered to be an important right of minors, and is highlighted in both international legislation and public policies. However, despite the legal recognition of children’s rights to participation, and also the benefits that children experience by their involvement, there is evidence that legislation is not always translated into healthcare practice. There are a number of factors that may impact on the ability of the child to be involved in decisions regarding their medical care. (...)
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  23.  15
    Pediatric Participation in Medical Decision Making: Optimized or Personalized?Maya Sabatello, Annie Janvier, Eduard Verhagen, Wynne Morrison & John Lantos - 2018 - American Journal of Bioethics 18 (3):1-3.
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  24. Marginal Participation, Complicity, and Agnotology: What Climate Change Can Teach Us About Individual and Collective Responsibility.Säde Hormio - 2017 - Dissertation, University of Helsinki
    The topic of my thesis is individual and collective responsibility for collectively caused systemic harms, with climate change as the case study. Can an individual be responsible for these harms, and if so, how? Furthermore, what does it mean to say that a collective is responsible? A related question, and the second main theme, is how ignorance and knowledge affect our responsibility. -/- My aim is to show that despite the various complexities involved, an individual can have responsibility to address (...)
     
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  25.  6
    Remaking Participation in Science and Democracy.Matthew Kearnes & Jason Chilvers - 2020 - Science, Technology, and Human Values 45 (3):347-380.
    Over the past few decades, significant advances have been made in public engagement with, and the democratization of, science and technology. Despite notable successes, such developments have often struggled to enhance public trust, avert crises of expertise and democracy, and build more socially responsive and responsible science and innovation. A central reason for this is that mainstream approaches to public engagement harbor what we call “residual realist” assumptions about participation and publics. Recent coproductionist accounts in science and technology studies (...)
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  26.  17
    Democratic Participation and the Body Politic.Paul Standish - 2005 - Educational Theory 55 (4):371-384.
    Drawing partial contrasts with Deweyan and poststructuralist approaches, this essay develops an account of democratic participation based upon the work of Stanley Cavell. In particular it explores Cavell's reading of the celebrated treatment of the theme of the “body politic” in Shakespeare's Coriolanus. The discussion examines what it is that conditions the emergence of participative democracy, with particular reference to questions concerning the body and the voice. Tensions between perfectionism and perfectability are considered, and an attempt is made to (...)
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  27.  57
    Freedom, Participation and Corporations: The Issue of Corporate Democracy.George G. Brenkert - 1992 - Business Ethics Quarterly 2 (3):251-269.
    The freedom of employees within large corporations has been the topic of considerable attention. Various discussions have invoked utilitarian appeals, social contract arguments, rights to meaningful jobs and analogies between corporations and state government. After briefly reviewing and rejecting these approaches, this paper contends that the legitimate exercise of corporate authority requires its accountability to a relevant group. It is then argued that the rnost relevant group are the employees over whom such power is exercised and that the form such (...)
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  28.  18
    Participation in Biomedical Research is an Imperfect Moral Duty: A Response to John Harris.S. Shapshay & K. D. Pimple - 2007 - Journal of Medical Ethics 33 (7):414-417.
    In his paper “Scientific research is a moral duty”, John Harris argues that individuals have a moral duty to participate in biomedical research by volunteering as research subjects. He supports his claim with reference to what he calls the principle of beneficence as embodied in the “rule of rescue” , and the principle of fairness embodied in the prohibition on “free riding” . His view that biomedical research is an important social good is agreed upon, but it is argued that (...)
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  29.  12
    Pediatric Participation in Non-Therapeutic Research.Marilyn C. Morris - 2012 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 40 (3):665-672.
    Pediatric participation in non-therapeutic research that poses greater than minimal risk has been the subject of considerable thought-provoking debate in the research ethics literature. While the need for more pediatric research has been called morally imperative, and concerted efforts have been made to increase pediatric medical research, the importance of protecting children from undue research risks remains paramount.United States research regulations are derived largely from the deliberations and report of the National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of (...)
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  30.  17
    Consumer Participation in Co-Creation: An Enlightening Model of Causes and Effects Based on Ethical Values and Transcendent Motives.Ricardo Martínez-Cañas, Pablo Ruiz-Palomino, Jorge Linuesa-Langreo & Juan J. Blázquez-Resino - 2016 - Frontiers in Psychology 7.
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  31.  22
    Educational Participation Post-16: A Longitudinal Analysis of Intentions and Outcomes.Paul Croll - 2009 - British Journal of Educational Studies 57 (4):400-416.
    The issue of levels of participation in post-compulsory education has been emphasised by the current policy initiatives to increase the age to which some form of participation is compulsory. One of the acknowledged weaknesses of research in the field of children's intentions with regard to participation is the lack of longitudinal data. This paper offers a longitudinal analysis using the Youth Survey from the British Household Panel Survey. The results show that most children can express intentions with (...)
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  32. Participation and Predication in Plato's Middle Dialogues.R. E. Allen - 1960 - Philosophical Review 69 (2):147-164.
  33.  2
    Participation in Practice: A Case Study of a Collaborative Project on Sexual Offences in South Africa.Alex Müller, Hayley Galgut, Talia Meer & Lillian Artz - 2017 - Feminist Review 115 (1):79-96.
    In this article we critically reflect on ‘feminist research methods’ and ‘methodology’, from the perspective of a feminist research unit at a South African university, that explicitly aims to improve gender-based violence service provision and policy through evidence-based advocacy. Despite working within a complex and inequitable developing country context, where our feminist praxis is frequently pitted against seemingly intractable structural realities, it is a praxis that remains grounded in documenting the stories of vulnerable individuals and within a broader political project (...)
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  34.  47
    Payment for Research Participation: A Coercive Offer?A. Wertheimer & F. G. Miller - 2008 - Journal of Medical Ethics 34 (5):389-392.
    Payment for research participation has raised ethical concerns, especially with respect to its potential for coercion. We argue that characterising payment for research participation as coercive is misguided, because offers of benefit cannot constitute coercion. In this article we analyse the concept of coercion, refute mistaken conceptions of coercion and explain why the offer of payment for research participation is never coercive but in some cases may produce undue inducement.
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  35.  19
    Participation in Dementia Research: Rates and Correlates of Capacity to Give Informed Consent.J. Warner, R. McCarney, M. Griffin, K. Hill & P. Fisher - 2008 - Journal of Medical Ethics 34 (3):167-170.
    Background: Many people participating in dementia research may lack capacity to give informed consent and the relationship between cognitive function and capacity remains unclear. Recent changes in the law reinforce the need for robust and reproducible methods of assessing capacity when recruiting people for research.Aims: To identify numbers of capacitous participants in a pragmatic randomised trial of dementia treatment; to assess characteristics associated with capacity; to describe a legally acceptable consent process for research.Methods: As part of a pragmatic randomised controlled (...)
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  36.  29
    Patient and Citizen Participation in Health: The Need for Improved Ethical Support.Laura Williamson - 2014 - American Journal of Bioethics 14 (6):4-16.
    Patient and citizen participation is now regarded as central to the promotion of sustainable health and health care. Involvement efforts create and encounter many diverse ethical challenges that have the potential to enhance or undermine their success. This article examines different expressions of patient and citizen participation and the support health ethics offers. It is contended that despite its prominence and the link between patient empowerment and autonomy, traditional bioethics is insufficient to guide participation efforts. In addition, (...)
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  37.  41
    Participation Beyond Consensus? Technology Assessments, Consensus Conferences and Democratic Modulation.Jeroen Van Bouwel & Michiel Van Oudheusden - 2017 - Social Epistemology 31 (6):497-513.
    In this article, we inquire into two contemporary participatory formats that seek to democratically intervene in scientific practice: the consensus conference and participatory technology assessment. We explain how these formats delegitimize conflict and disagreement by making a strong appeal to consensus. Based on our direct involvement in these formats and informed both by political philosophy and science and technology studies, we outline conceptions that contrast with the consensus ideal, including dissensus, disclosure, conflictual consensus and agonistic democracy. Drawing on the notion (...)
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  38.  11
    Participation in Higher Education: Aspirations, Attainment and Social Background.Paul Croll & Gaynor Attwood - 2013 - British Journal of Educational Studies 61 (2):187-202.
    ABSTRACT The recent report of the Milburn Review into Social Mobility highlights the under-representation of young people from lower socio-economic groups in higher education and encourages universities and others to act to remedy this situation as a contribution to greater social mobility. The paper uses data from the Longitudinal Study of Young People in England to examine the relationship between social background, attainment and university participation. The results show that differences in school-level attainment associated with social background are by (...)
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  39.  21
    Political Participation as Self-Cultivation: Towards a Participatory Theory of Confucian Democracy.Jingcai Ying - 2018 - European Journal of Political Theory 20 (2):290-311.
    Challenging the popular perception that Confucianism provides mostly a moral defense of political hierarchy, this article demonstrates that Confucianism is more than compatible with democracy and f...
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  40.  2
    Equity, Participation, and Power: Achieving Health Justice Through Deep Democracy.Ben Palmquist - 2020 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 48 (3):393-410.
    This article explores how health governance has evolved into an enormously complicated—and inequitable and exclusionary—system of privatized, fragmented bureaucracy, and argues for addressing these deficiencies and promoting health justice by radically deepening democratic participation to rebalance decision-making power. It presents a framework for promoting four primary outcomes from health governance: universality, equity, democratic control, and accountability, which together define health justice through deep democracy. It highlights five mechanisms that hold potential to bring this empowered participatory mode of governance into (...)
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  41.  23
    Transformative Participation in Agrobiodiversity Governance: Making the Case for an Environmental Justice Approach.Brendan Coolsaet - 2015 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 28 (6):1089-1104.
    This paper makes the case for an environmental justice approach to the practice and study of participation and effectiveness in agrobiodiversity governance. It is argued that, in order to understand the conditions under which participation leads to improved outcomes, the concept has to be rethought, both from a political and a methodological perspective. This can be done by applying an ex-ante environmental justice approach to participation, including notions of distribution, recognition and representation. By exploring the approach through (...)
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  42. Participation and Judicial Review: A Reply to Jeremy Waldron. [REVIEW]Aileen Kavanagh - 2003 - Law and Philosophy 22 (5):451-486.
    This article challenges Jeremy Waldron's arguments in favour of participatory majoritarianism, and against constitutional judicial review. First, I consider and critique Waldron's arguments against instrumentalist justifications of political authority. My central claim is that although the right to democratic participation is intrinsically valuable, it does not displace the central importance of the `instrumental condition of good government': political decision-making mechanisms should be chosen (primarily) on the basis of their conduciveness to good results. I then turn to an examination of (...)
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  43.  14
    Participation for Free. Exploring (Limits of) Participatory Government.Kerlijn Quaghebeur - 2006 - Educational Philosophy and Theory 38 (4):497–511.
    Since the 1990s participation has become a buzzword in education as well as in development contexts. In those contexts, participation has more particularly been linked up with personal promises of self‐fulfilment, ownership and self‐determination as well as with democratic ideals such as justice, equivalence and freedom. In the paper, we focus on a dominant argument in the justification and also realisation of participation in those empirical contexts, namely the claim to freedom. In order to analyse this freedom, (...)
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  44.  12
    Pediatric Participation in Medical Decision Making: The Devil Is in the Details.David G. Scherer - 2018 - American Journal of Bioethics 18 (3):16-18.
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  45.  44
    Beyond Participation to Co-Creation of Meaning: Mobile Social Media in Generative Learning Communities.Sarah Lewis, Roy Pea & Joseph Rosen - 2010 - Social Science Information 49 (3):351-369.
    Digital social media is dramatically changing the social landscape and the ways in which we understand ‘participation’. As youth embrace these dynamic yet highly scripted forms of mediated social interaction, educators have struggled to find ways to harness these new participatory forms to support learning. This article considers the interactive structures and frameworks that underlie much of ‘Web 2.0’ participatory media, and proposes that theories of social learning and action could greatly inform the design of participatory media applications to (...)
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  46.  9
    Patient Participation in Healthcare Practice in Greenland: Local Challenges and Global Reflections.Tine Aagaard & Tove Borg - 2018 - Outlines. Critical Practice Studies 19 (1):07-24.
    Various kinds of user and patient involvement are spreading in healthcare in most Western countries. The purpose of this study is to critically assess the actual conditions for patients’ involvement in healthcare practice in Greenland and to point to possibilities for development. Patients’ perspectives on their own conduct of everyday life with illness and their possibilities for participation when hospitalized are examined in relation to the conditions in a hospital setting dominated by biomedical practice. On a theoretical level, it (...)
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  47.  14
    Reconsidering Patient Participation in Guideline Development.Hester M. van de Bovenkamp & Margo J. Trappenburg - 2009 - Health Care Analysis 17 (3):198.
    Health care has become increasingly patient-centred and medical guidelines are considered to be one of the instruments that contribute towards making it so. We reviewed the literature to identify studies on this subject. Both normative and empirical studies were analysed. Many studies recommend active patient participation in the process of guideline development as the instrument to make guidelines more patient-centred. This is done on the assumption that active patient participation will enhance the quality of the guidelines. We found (...)
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  48.  18
    Research Participation and Financial Inducements.David B. Resnik - 2001 - American Journal of Bioethics 1 (2):54-56.
  49.  36
    Physician Participation in Executions, the Morality of Capital Punishment, and the Practical Implications of Their Relationship.Paul Litton - 2013 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 41 (1):333-352.
    Over the past several years, the most widely publicized issue in capital litigation has been the constitutional status of states’ lethal injection protocols. Death row inmates have not challenged the constitutionality of lethal injection itself, but rather execution protocols and their potential for maladministration. The inmates’ concern is due to the three-drug protocol used in the vast majority of capital jurisdictions: if the anesthetic, which is administered first, is ineffectively delivered, then the second and third drugs — the paralytic and (...)
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  50.  22
    Research Participation and the Right to Withdraw.Sarah J. L. Edwards - 2005 - Bioethics 19 (2):112–130.
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