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  1. Reduced Legal Equality of Combatants in War.Philipp Gisbertz-Astolfi - 2021 - Ethics and International Affairs 35 (3):443-465.
    The focus on the moral rights of combatants in the ethics of war ignores a very important point: although morally unjust combatants cannot be considered moral equals to just combatants, especially with regard to the right to kill, there are sound moral reasons why the laws of war should accept a kind of equality between them, a concept referred to as “reduced legal equality.” Reduced legal equality is not about equal moral rights but about granting legal immunity to combatants for (...)
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  2. From relational equality to personal responsibility.Andreas T. Schmidt - 2022 - Philosophical Studies 179 (4):1373-1399.
    According to relational egalitarians, equality is not primarily about the distribution of some good but about people relating to one another as equals. However, compared with other theorists in political philosophy – including other egalitarians – relational egalitarians have said relatively little on what role personal responsibility should play in their theories. For example, is equality compatible with responsibility? Should economic distributions be responsibility-sensitive? This article fills this gap. I develop a relational egalitarian framework for personal responsibility and show that (...)
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  3. COVID-19 Vaccination Passports: Are They a Threat to Equality?Kristin Voigt - forthcoming - Public Health Ethics.
    In several countries, governments have implemented so-called ‘COVID passport’ schemes, which restrict access to venues such as bars or sports events to those who are vaccinated against COVID-19 and/or exempt vaccinated individuals from public health measures such as curfews or quarantine requirements. These schemes have been the subject of a heated debate. Concerns about inequality have played an important role in the opposition to such schemes. This article highlights that determining how COVID passports affect equality requires a much more nuanced (...)
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  4. Daniel Halliday, The Inheritance of Wealth: Justice, Equality, and the Right to Bequeath. [REVIEW]Marina Uzunova - 2022 - Journal of Moral Philosophy 19 (2):197-200.
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  5. Feminism Versus Male Supremacy: An Assessment of the Validity of Gender Equality Theory.Lubunga Kakozi - 2022 - Open Journal of Philosophy 12 (2):169-181.
  6. Losing Our Dignity: How Secularized Medicine is Undermining Fundamental Human Equality.Bruce Philip Blackshaw - forthcoming - The New Bioethics:1-3.
    Charles Camosy’s Losing Our Dignity is a concise and disturbing account of how our long held understanding of human equality, largely inherited from Christianity, is gradually being undermined by t...
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  7. Autonomy and Equality: Relational Approaches.Natalie Stoljar & Kristin Voigt - 2021 - Routledge.
    This book draws connections and explores important questions at the intersection of the debates about relational autonomy and relational equality. Although these two research areas share several common assumptions and concerns, their connections have not been systematically explored. The essays in this volume address theoretical questions at the intersection of relational theories of autonomy and equality and also consider how these theoretical considerations play out in real-world contexts. Several chapters explore possible conceptual links between relational autonomy and equality by considering (...)
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  8. Ethics and Economics: An Introduction to Free Markets, Equality and Happiness.Johan Graafland - 2021 - Routledge.
    This textbook applies economic ethics to evaluate the free market system and enables students to examine the impact of free markets using the three main ethical approaches: utilitarianism, principle-based ethics, and virtue ethics. Ethics and Economics systematically links empirical research to these ethical questions, with a focus on the core topics of happiness, inequality, and virtues. Each chapter offers a recommended further reading list, and digital supplements include a list of key terms. The final chapter provides a practical method for (...)
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  9. Political Fraternity: Democracy Beyond Freedom and Equality.Àngel Puyol - 2019 - Routledge.
    Fraternity is a feeling, and a moral virtue, but fraternity is also a political concept. The French Revolution proclaimed an ethical and political ideal with its three principles: liberty, equality and fraternity. Since then, western political philosophy has gone to great lengths to analyse the liberty and equality, but has ignored, and even disdained, the third part of the revolutionary triad: fraternity. Forgetting or underestimating fraternity as a political category is unjustifiable. Political fraternity can help us to overcome some of (...)
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  10. Nietzsche’s Philosophy of Education: Rethinking Ethics, Equality and the Good Life in a Democratic Age.Mark E. Jonas & Douglas Yacek - 2018 - Routledge.
    Nietzsche's Philosophy of Education makes the case that Nietzsche's ​philosophy has ​significant import for the theory and contemporary practice of education, arguing that ​some of ​Nietzsche​'s most important ​ideas ​have been misunderstood by ​previous ​interpreters. ​In ​providing novel reinterpretations of ​Nietzsche's ​ethical theory, political​ philosophy​ and philosophical anthropology ​and outlining concrete ways in which ​these ideas can enrich teaching and learning in modern democratic schools, the book sets itself apart​ from previous works on Nietzsche​. This is one of the first (...)
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  11. Designing Social Equality: Architecture, Aesthetics, and the Perception of Democracy.Mark Foster Gage - 2018 - Routledge.
    In Designing Social Equality, Mark Foster Gage proposes a dramatic realignment between aesthetic thought, politics, social equality, and the design of our physical world. By reconsidering historic concepts from aesthetic philosophy and weaving them with emerging intellectual positions from a variety of disciplines, he sets out to design a more encompassing social theory for how humanity perceives its very reality, and how it might begin to more justly define that reality through new ways of reconsidering the built environment.
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  12. Democracy Beyond the Nation State: Practicing Equality.Joe Parker - 2017 - Routledge.
    Democracy promises rule by all, not by the few. Yet, electoral democracies limit decision-making to representatives and have always had a weakness for inequality. How might democracy serve all rather than the few? Democracy Beyond the Nation State: Practicing Equality examines communities that govern their own lives without elites or centralized structures through assemblies and consensus. Rather than claiming equality by abstract rights or citizenship, these groups put equality into practice by reducing wealth and health divides, or landlessness or homelessness, (...)
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  13. Friendship, Ēthos and Equality in Aristotle’s Treatment of Democratic Politeiai.Elena Irrera - 2022 - Araucaria 24 (49).
    The aim of this essay is to bring to light the role played by concern for the ēthos of citizens in the establishment and preservation of regimes by virtuous legislative activity, with special reference to democratic forms of government. To this goal, I will lay stress on the idea of “political friendship”, which Aristotle explores in his ethical works in relation to the power of virtuous legislative activity to shape the habits of citizens. An analysis of different types of democratic (...)
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  14. Energy Security, Equality and Justice.Benjamin K. Sovacool & Roman V. Sidortsov - 2013 - Routledge.
    This book applies concepts from ethics, justice, and political philosophy to five sets of contemporary energy problems cutting across time, economics, politics, geography, and technology. In doing so, the authors derive two key energy justice principles from modern theories of distributive justice, procedural justice, and cosmopolitan justice. The prohibitive principle states that "energy systems must be designed and constructed in such a way that they do not unduly interfere with the ability of people to acquire those basic goods to which (...)
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  15. Basic Equality and Discrimination: Reconciling Theory and Law.Nicholas Smith - 2011 - Routledge.
    Basic Equality and Discrimination examines the justification, interpretation and application of discrimination law. In order to navigate the often dense and conflicted jurisprudence in this area, the work first considers equality as a moral and political concept, thus providing a clearer understanding of the nature of the value - equality - and illustrating the nature of the difficulties posed by constitutional and ordinary 'equality law'.
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  16. Capabilities Equality: Basic Issues and Problems.Alexander Kaufman - 2005 - Routledge.
    In this volume, leading scholars present new and original essays to address controversies raised regarding the focus, structure and justification of the capabilities approach to equality.
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  17. Globalisation and Equality.Keith Horton & Haig Patapan - 2004 - Routledge.
    "Globalisation and Equality" examines the way in which conceptions of equality are being challenged by increasing globalisation, analysing not only the problems presented, but also the significant opportunities for equality both within states and internationally.
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  18. The Logic of Equality: A Formal Analysis of Non-Discrimination Law.Eric Heinze - 2003 - Routledge.
    This title was first published in 2003. Taking an original approach to the analysis of legal argument, The Logic of Equality identifies the structure of concepts such as 'sameness' and 'difference' and applies these to leading cases in non-discrimination law.
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  19. The Notion of Equality.Hajdin Mane - 2001 - Routledge.
    This title was first published in 2001. In the articles collected in this anthology, contemporary analytic philosophers examine the ways in which the notion of equality functions in moral and political discourse. Among the topics discussed are the relationship between the ideal of equality and formal features of moral discourse, the conflict between the ideal of equality of welfare and the ideal of equality of resources and the relationship between the equality of opportunity and the equality of results.
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  20. Illusions of Equality.David E. Cooper - 1980 - Routledge.
    Educational policy and discussion, in Britain and the USA, are increasingly dominated by the confused ideology of egalitarianism. David E. Cooper begins by identifying the principles hidden among the confusions, and argues that these necessarily conflict with the ideal of educational excellence - in which conflict it is this ideal that must be preserved. He goes on to criticize the use of education as a tool for promoting wider social equality, focussing especially on the muddles surrounding 'equal opportunities', 'social mix' (...)
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  21. Libertarian Thought in Nineteenth Century Britain: Freedom, Equality and Authority.William R. McKercher - 1987 - Routledge.
    CHAPTER FIVE LIBERTY AND FREEDOM -- Liberty and the Libertarian -- Libertarian Freedom -- CONCLUSION -- FOOTNOTES TO CHAPTER ONE -- FOOTNOTES TO CHAPTER TWO -- FOOTNOTES TO CHAPTER THREE -- FOOTNOTES TO CHAPTER FOUR -- FOOTNOTES TO CHAPTER FIVE -- SELECT BIBLIOGRAPHY.
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  22. The Genetic Lottery: Why DNA Matters for Social Equality KathrynPaige Harden Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2021. 320 Pp. ISBN 9780691190808. $29.95 (Hardcover). [REVIEW]Bryan Cwik - forthcoming - Bioethics.
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  23. Nancy Fraser, Iris Marion Young, and the Intersections of Justice: Equality, Recognition, Participation, and Third Wave Feminism.Gary Dorrien - 2021 - American Journal of Theology and Philosophy 42 (3):5-34.
    The call to struggle for social justice mobilizes progressive institutions, movements, and traditions that share nothing else. Progressives lacking any other ideological, religious, political, or cultural basis of commonality join together to make gains toward social justice, sometimes registering the historic limitations of this term by renaming it "eco-justice" or eco-social justice. The idea of social justice arose in the socialist and labor union movements of the mid-nineteenth century and was appropriated in Catholic and Protestant social teaching. Essentially it was (...)
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  24. Gender preferences for robots and gender equality orientation in communication situations.Tomohiro Suzuki & Tatsuya Nomura - forthcoming - AI and Society:1-10.
    The individual physical appearances of robots are considered significant, similar to the way that those of humans are. We investigated whether users prefer robots with male or female physical appearances for use in daily communication situations and whether egalitarian gender role attitudes are related to this preference. One thousand adult men and women aged 20–60 participated in the questionnaire survey. The results of our study showed that in most situations and for most subjects, “males” was not selected and “females” or (...)
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  25. Equality and Equity in Compensating Patient Engagement in Research: A Plea for Exceptionalism.Jean-Christophe Bélisle-Pipon, Vincent Couture & Marie-Christine Roy - 2022 - Research Ethics 18 (2):126-131.
    Engaging citizens and patients in research has become a truism in many fields of health research. It is now seen as a laudable—if not compulsory—activity in research for yielding more impactful and meaningful citizen/patient outcomes and steering research in the right direction. Although this research approach is increasingly common and commendable, we recently encountered a major obstacle in obtaining an ethics certificate from an institutional review board to conduct a study that places citizen/patient perspectives on equal footing with those of (...)
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  26. What Do Gender Equality and Women's Rights Have to Do with China's Global Engagement?Cai Yiping - 2021 - Feminist Studies 47 (2):450-462.
  27. Weak Superiority, Imprecise Equality and the Repugnant Conclusion – Erratum.Karsten Klint Jensen - forthcoming - Utilitas:1-3.
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  28. Fairness in Machine Learning: Against False Positive Rate Equality as a Measure of Fairness.Robert Long - 2021 - Journal of Moral Philosophy 19 (1):49-78.
    As machine learning informs increasingly consequential decisions, different metrics have been proposed for measuring algorithmic bias or unfairness. Two popular “fairness measures” are calibration and equality of false positive rate. Each measure seems intuitively important, but notably, it is usually impossible to satisfy both measures. For this reason, a large literature in machine learning speaks of a “fairness tradeoff” between these two measures. This framing assumes that both measures are, in fact, capturing something important. To date, philosophers have seldom examined (...)
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  29. Reimagining Gender Through Equality Law: What Legal Thoughtways Do Religion and Disability Offer?Flora Renz & Davina Cooper - forthcoming - Feminist Legal Studies.
    British equality law protections for sex and gender reassignment have grown fraught as activists tussle over legal and social categories of gender, gender transitioning, and sex. This article considers the future of gender-related equality protections in relation to ‘decertification’—an imagined reform that would detach sex and gender from legal personhood. One criticism of decertification is that de-formalising gender membership would undermine equality law protections. This article explores how gender-based equality law could operate in conditions of decertification, drawing on legal thoughtways (...)
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  30. A Philosopher's Guide to Multidimensional Equality.Kristi A. Olson - 2022 - Philosophy Compass 17 (4).
    Philosophy Compass, Volume 17, Issue 4, April 2022.
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  31. Collective Equality: Theoretical Foundations for the Law of Peace.Limor Yehuda - forthcoming - Oxford Journal of Legal Studies.
    Significant tensions exist between constitutional strategies central to contemporary peacemaking in ‘deeply divided places’ and human rights law. These tensions are generally framed as a peace versus justice dilemma. Such framing is built on a narrow, individualistic conception of justice that fails to account for the meaning and requirements of justice in such places, and is consequently blind to the possible ‘justness’ of peacemaking strategies. In response, this article offers the concept of Collective Equality as a new theoretical basis for (...)
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  32. Constitutional Transformation and Gender Equality: The Case of the Post-Arab Uprisings North African Constitutions.Antonio-Martín Porras-Gómez - 2022 - Oxford Journal of Legal Studies 42 (1):235-265.
    The recognition of gender equality has become one of the most important trends in contemporary constitutional law. Nonetheless, a crucial question lingers: is it leading to material constitutional transformation? In order to better understand it, this article presents a case study on the constitutional reconfigurations undergone in Morocco, Tunisia and Egypt after the Arab uprisings. The main vectors of constitutional change are identified from a descriptive-analytical perspective. Even if they kept idiosyncratic elements of persistent discrimination, the new charters were inserted (...)
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  33. Still Too Hot To Handle? Firebrand Radical Feminism.Finn Mackay - 2022 - Hypatia 37 (1):216-220.
    This is a particularly important time to be reconsidering and revisiting radical feminism. The contemporary visibility of trans rights movements, and the unsurprising, accompanying backlash from a variety of camps makes this a politically charged and tense moment for reflection on the herstory, present, and future of this school of feminism.
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  34. On the Political Sociology of Intersectional Equality and Difference.Bruce Baum - 2022 - Social Theory and Practice 48 (2):197-234.
    This article contends that Axel Honneth’s critical social theory provides a compelling general framework with which to map out the political sociology of social equality in a way that takes due account of class-based inequalities, social identity differences, and ecological challenges of contemporary globalized societies. Honneth joins an emphasis on equal respect for all—a core aspect of equality in modern democratic societies—with an account of social esteem recognition—which establishes evaluative distinctions among people—in a way that illuminates the interplay of equality (...)
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  35. Machiavelli and Spartan Equality.Filippo Del Lucchese - 2022 - Theoria 69 (170):1-34.
    In this article, I explore the meaning and function of Lycurgus in Machiavelli’s thought. While the exemplarity of the mythical Spartan legislator progressively fades in Machiavelli’s thought in favour of the Roman model, Lycurgus’ reforms are central in Machiavelli’s works on two issues of primary importance: wealth and land distribution. First, I analyse Machiavelli’s use of the ancient sources on both Lycurgus and other Spartan legislators to show how the former builds a selective and strategically balanced reading of the ancient (...)
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  36. Equality and Human Flourishing in Early Societies.Charles Reitz - 2022 - Radical Philosophy Review 25 (1):149-155.
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  37. Giving Executives Their Due: Just Pay, Desert and Equality.Alexander Andersson - 2021 - Dissertation, University of Gothenburg
    Before, during, and after the global financial crisis of 2008, executive pay practices were widely debated and criticized. Economists, philosophers, as well as the man on the street all seem to have strong feelings towards how much, in what ways, and on what grounds executives are paid. This thesis asks whether it is possible to morally justify current executive pay practices and, if so, on what grounds they are justified. It questions those who find no quarrel with pay practices due (...)
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  38. Acceptability, Equality, and Equity: A Fair Allocation Model for Scarce Healthcare Resources During Pandemics and Natural Disasters.Ercan Avci - 2022 - Türkiye Biyoetik Dergisi 8 (3):135-143.
    INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic has necessitated revisiting the matter of allocating scarce healthcare resources. During pandemics and natural disasters, applying certain allocation methods is inevitable due to an uncontrollable surge in the need for scarce resources, and those methods should distribute potential benefits and burdens according to the principle of justice. This article briefly studies four allocation models and proposes a new approach to maximize total benefits with social and ethical acceptability, equality, and equitability. For accomplishing that goal, the Acceptability, (...)
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  39. Algorithmic Political Bias in Artificial Intelligence Systems.Uwe Peters - 2022 - Philosophy and Technology 35 (2):1-23.
    Some artificial intelligence systems can display algorithmic bias, i.e. they may produce outputs that unfairly discriminate against people based on their social identity. Much research on this topic focuses on algorithmic bias that disadvantages people based on their gender or racial identity. The related ethical problems are significant and well known. Algorithmic bias against other aspects of people’s social identity, for instance, their political orientation, remains largely unexplored. This paper argues that algorithmic bias against people’s political orientation can arise in (...)
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  40. Political Equality, Plural Voting, and the Leveling Down Objection.David Peña-Rangel - 2022 - Politics, Philosophy and Economics 21 (2):122-164.
    Politics, Philosophy & Economics, Volume 21, Issue 2, Page 122-164, May 2022. I argue that the consensus view that one must never level down to equality gives rise to a dilemma. This dilemma is best understood by examining two parallel cases of leveling down: one drawn from the economic domain, the other from the political. In the economic case, both egalitarians and non-egalitarians have resisted the idea of leveling down wages to equality. With no incentives for some people to work (...)
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  41. Relational Equality and Immigration.Daniel Sharp - 2022 - Ethics 132 (3):644-679.
    Egalitarians often claim that well-off states’ immigration restrictions create or reinforce objectionable inequality. Standard defenses of this claim appeal to the distributive consequences of exclusion. This article offers a relational egalitarian defense of more open borders. On this view, well-off states’ immigration restrictions are problematic because they accord the citizens of well-off states a troubling form of asymmetric power over the disadvantaged. This creates an objectionably unequal relationship between affluent states’ citizens and disadvantaged immigrants. I show that this argument offers (...)
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  42. Le principe de neutralité comme justification des exemptions religieuses.Karel J. Leyva - 2021 - Theologiques 29 (1):215-241.
    Supporters of neutrality as benign neglect argue that a neutral state should not grant any type of recognition to cultural or religious groups. Liberal multiculturalists argue instead that due to the non-neutral nature of public institutions, democratic states must adopt policies that recognize and accommodate the distinctive needs of ethnocultural groups. This article examines a different way of conceiving the principle of neutrality. In this conception, developed by Alan Patten in the framework of liberal multiculturalism, a state can only be (...)
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  43. Proportionality without Inequality: Defending Lifetime Political Equality through Storable Votes.Manuel Sá Valente - forthcoming - Res Publica:1-18.
    Political egalitarians tend to defend equal distributions of voting power at specific times, as in ‘one election, one vote’. Appealing as it is, the principle seems incompatible with distributing power proportionally to the stakes voters have at different elections, as in ‘one stake, one vote’. This article argues that the tension above stems from the temporal scope ascribed to political equality, as at specific moments of democratic decision-making instead of over entire lives. More specifically, ascribing a lifetime view to political (...)
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  44. Distributive Justice in Pre-Qin Confucianism: Equality, Priority, and Sufficiency.Chun Hin Tsoi - 2021 - In Robert A. Carleo & Yong Huang (eds.), Confucian Political Philosophy: Dialogues on the State of the Field. Springer Verlag. pp. 137-163.
    In Confucius, Rawls and the Sense of Justice, in addition to making an interesting comparison between Rawls’ and Confucius’ sense of justice, Erin M. Cline also tried to seek elements of distributive justice, or at least concern for distributive matters, in the Analects. I shall, in this essay, try to pursue the subject even further, by examining Confucianism’s attitude towards the contemporary distributive ideals in the analytical philosophy literature—egalitarianism, prioritarianism and sufficientarianism. This will be done by first closely examining Cline’s (...)
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  45. Introduction: The Gender Equality Debate in Japan—An Overview.Gabriel Eweje & Shima Nagano - 2021 - In Gabriel Eweje & Shima Nagano (eds.), Corporate Social Responsibility and Gender Equality in Japan: Historical and Current Perspectives. Springer Verlag. pp. 1-12.
    The gender equality debate is current, pressing, and fundamental to a sustainable future it will never go away. Increasingly, gender equality has become an important global concept in international debates and has been a “focus of intention” among academics, business, governments, non-governmental organizations, and society. However, much still needs to be done to achieve gender parity. As such, globally, gender bias and discrimination persist. Therefore, it is no coincidence that gender equality is a global issue and has emerged as one (...)
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  46. The Future of Gender Equality in Nippon: The Role of Business, Government, and Society.Kazunori Kobayashi - 2021 - In Gabriel Eweje & Shima Nagano (eds.), Corporate Social Responsibility and Gender Equality in Japan: Historical and Current Perspectives. Springer Verlag. pp. 209-224.
    In 2015, the United Nations General Assembly adopted Sustainable Development Goals towards 2030, Goal 5 of which addresses the issue of “Gender equality and women’s empowerment”. One of the nine targets under Goal 5 is to “ensure women’s full and effective participation and equal opportunities for leadership at all levels of decision making in political, economic and public life ”. This target is measured by two indicators: 5.5.1 proportion of seats held by women in national parliaments and local governments; 5.5.2 (...)
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  47. Gender Equality Developments in Aotearoa New Zealand: Implications for Japan?Jane Parker & Noelle Donnelly - 2021 - In Gabriel Eweje & Shima Nagano (eds.), Corporate Social Responsibility and Gender Equality in Japan: Historical and Current Perspectives. Springer Verlag. pp. 225-244.
    In her debut address to the United Nations General Assembly on 28 September 2018, then newly-elected Prime Minister Jacinda Ardern renewed Aotearoa New Zealand’s commitment to the United Nation’s call for sustainable development through gender equality. The right to equality and the prohibition of discrimination was first enshrined in the principles of the Charter of the United Nations in 1945, legally affirmed in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights of 1948, and extended by the Convention on the Elimination of All (...)
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  48. Promoting Gender Equality at the Workplace in Japan: From a Historical Perspective of the Gendered Division of Labour in Japanese Society.Seika Tanaka & Shima Nagano - 2021 - In Gabriel Eweje & Shima Nagano (eds.), Corporate Social Responsibility and Gender Equality in Japan: Historical and Current Perspectives. Springer Verlag. pp. 93-110.
    With more and more women joining the workforce, a gendered division of household labour has gradually decreased in Japanese society. The national government and corporations are striving for the promotion of gender equality in the workplace, and such efforts are highly praised within society. However, the results of gender equality do not always match their expectations. For example, while the number of female managers has increased in many Japanese companies and government agencies, most of the female managers are at the (...)
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  49. Barriers to Gender Equality in Japan: Moving From Myth to Realities.Kazunori Kobayashi & Gabriel Eweje - 2021 - In Gabriel Eweje & Shima Nagano (eds.), Corporate Social Responsibility and Gender Equality in Japan: Historical and Current Perspectives. Springer Verlag. pp. 13-30.
    This chapter examines the barriers to gender equality in Japan. Despite the aspiration for gender equality in government and companies, there remains a persistent gap between the aspiration, targets, and outcomes. However, there has been limited discussion, dialogue, and consensus on what these barriers are, who the key stakeholders are, and how these barriers might be removed. To fill this gap, this chapter employs Institutional theory and investigates the barriers to gender equality in Japan. In particular, it examines corporate gender (...)
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  50. Universally Designed Urban Environments: “A Mindless Abuse of the Ideal of Equality” or a Matter of Social Justice?Kevin Mintz - 2021 - In Michael Nagenborg, Taylor Stone, Margoth González Woge & Pieter E. Vermaas (eds.), Technology and the City: Towards a Philosophy of Urban Technologies. Springer Verlag. pp. 177-200.
    In “Justice and Nature,” Thomas Nagel rejects the idea that social equality requires the universal design of urban environments to accommodate people with disabilities. Universal design is a movement in architecture and other arenas to minimize the need to provide individual accommodations for people with disabilities by designing environments that are accessible to a wide range of individuals. I advance that Nagel inappropriately categorizes universal design as a matter of humanitarianism or charity. I argue that for people with disabilities to (...)
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