Search results for 'Contextual Associations' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Bert Forrin & Robert E. Morin (1966). Effect of Contextual Associations Upon Selective Reaction Time in a Numeral-Naming Task. Journal of Experimental Psychology 71 (1):40.score: 75.0
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  2. Douglas L. Hintzman, Richard A. Block & Jeffery J. Summers (1973). Contextual Associations and Memory for Serial Position. Journal of Experimental Psychology 97 (2):220.score: 75.0
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  3. D. Aerts, J. Broekaert & Liane Gabora (2002). Intrinsic Contextuality as the Crux of Consciousness. In Kunio Yasue, Marj Jibu & Tarcisio Della Senta (eds.), No Matter, Never Mind: Proceedings of Toward a Science of Consciousness: Fundamental Approaches (Tokyo '99). John Benjamins.score: 45.0
    A stream of conscious experience is extremely contextual; it is impacted by sensory stimuli, drives and emotions, and the web of associations that link, directly or indirectly, the subject of experience to other elements of the individual's worldview. The contextuality of one's conscious experience both enhances and constrains the contextuality of one's behavior. Since we cannot know first-hand the conscious experience of another, it is by way of behavioral contextuality that we make judgements about whether or not, and (...)
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  4. Anthony G. Greenwald, R. L. Abrams, Lionel Naccache & Stanislas Dehaene (2003). Long-Term Semantic Memory Versus Contextual Memory in Unconscious Number Processing. Journal of Experimental Psychology 29 (2):235-247.score: 39.0
    Subjects classified visible 2-digit numbers as larger or smaller than 55. Target numbers were preceded by masked 2-digit primes that were either congruent (same relation to 55) or incongruent. Experiments 1 and 2 showed prime congruency effects for stimuli never included in the set of classified visible targets, indicating subliminal priming based on long-term semantic memory. Experiments 2 and 3 went further to demonstrate paradoxical unconscious priming effects resulting from task context. For example, after repeated practice classifying 73 as larger (...)
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  5. Daniel M. T. Fessler (2006). Contextual Features of Problem-Solving and Social Learning Give Rise to Spurious Associations, the Raw Materials for the Evolution of Rituals. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 29 (6):617-618.score: 39.0
    If rituals persist in part because of their memory-taxing attributes, from whence do they arise? I suggest that magical practices form the core of rituals, and that many such practices derive from learned pseudo-causal associations. Spurious associations are likely to be acquired during problem-solving under conditions of ambiguity and danger, and are often a consequence of imitative social learning. (Published Online February 8 2007).
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  6. Maciej Witek, Contextual Facilitation of Colour Recognition: Penetrating Beliefs or Colour-Shape Associations?score: 37.0
    My aim in this paper is to defend the view that the processes underlying early vision are informationally encapsulated. Following Marr (1982) and Pylyshyn (1999) I take early vision to be a cognitive process that takes sensory information as its input and produces the so-called primal sketches or shallow visual outputs: informational states that represent visual objects in terms of their shape, location, size, colour and luminosity. Recently, some researchers (Schirillo 1999, Macpherson 2012) have attempted to undermine the idea of (...)
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  7. M. T. Daniel (2006). Contextual Features of Problem-Solving and Social Learning Give Rise to Spurious Associations, the Raw Materials for the Evolution of Rituals. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 29 (6).score: 36.0
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  8. Louis D. Matzel, Juan Castillo & Ralph R. Miller (1988). Contextual Modulation of Simultaneous Associations. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 26 (4):371-374.score: 36.0
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  9. James S. Miller, D. F. McCoy, Kimberly S. Kelly & M. T. Bardo (1987). Within-Compound Associations Between Taste and Contextual Stimuli. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 25 (2):124-125.score: 36.0
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  10. John P. Houston (1967). Unlearning of Specific Associations in the a-B, C-D Paradigm. Journal of Experimental Psychology 74 (2, Pt.1):254-258.score: 33.0
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  11. B. M. Spruijt (2001). How the Hierarchical Organization of the Brain and Increasing Cognitive Abilities May Result in Consciousness. Animal Welfare Supplement 10:77- 87.score: 30.0
  12. S. Pan (1926). The Influence of Context Upon Learning and Recall. Journal of Experimental Psychology 9 (6):468.score: 30.0
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  13. Natasha M. Bryan Jessica S. Horst, Kelly L. Parsons (2011). Get the Story Straight: Contextual Repetition Promotes Word Learning From Storybooks. Frontiers in Psychology 2.score: 27.0
    Although reading storybooks to preschool children is a common activity believed to improve language skills, how children learn new vocabulary from being to has been largely neglected in the shared storybook reading literature. The current study systematically explores the effects of repeatedly reading the same storybooks on both young children's fast and slow mapping ability. Specially created storybooks were read to 3-year-old children three times during the course of one week. Each of the nine storybooks contained two novel word-object pairs. (...)
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  14. Robert C. Bishop & Harald Atmanspacher (2006). Contextual Emergence in the Description of Properties. Foundations of Physics 36 (12):1753-1777.score: 18.0
    The role of contingent contexts in formulating relations between properties of systems at different descriptive levels is addressed. Based on the distinction between necessary and sufficient conditions for interlevel relations, a comprehensive classification of such relations is proposed, providing a transparent conceptual framework for discussing particular versions of reduction, emergence, and supervenience. One of these versions, contextual emergence, is demonstrated using two physical examples: molecular structure and chirality, and thermal equilibrium and temperature. The concept of stability is emphasized as (...)
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  15. Haim Gaifman (2010). Vagueness, Tolerance and Contextual Logic. Synthese 174 (1):5 - 46.score: 18.0
    The goal of this paper is a comprehensive analysis of basic reasoning patterns that are characteristic of vague predicates. The analysis leads to rigorous reconstructions of the phenomena within formal systems. Two basic features are dealt with. One is tolerance: the insensitivity of predicates to small changes in the objects of predication (a one-increment of a walking distance is a walking distance). The other is the existence of borderline cases. The paper shows why these should be treated as different, though (...)
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  16. Gordon Hull, Heather Richter Lipford & Celine Latulipe (2011). Contextual Gaps: Privacy Issues on Facebook. [REVIEW] Ethics and Information Technology 13 (4):289-302.score: 18.0
    Social networking sites like Facebook are rapidly gaining in popularity. At the same time, they seem to present significant privacy issues for their users. We analyze two of Facebooks’s more recent features, Applications and News Feed, from the perspective enabled by Helen Nissenbaum’s treatment of privacy as “contextual integrity.” Offline, privacy is mediated by highly granular social contexts. Online contexts, including social networking sites, lack much of this granularity. These contextual gaps are at the root of many of (...)
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  17. Jay Newhard (2009). The Chrysippus Intuition and Contextual Theories of Truth. Philosophical Studies 142 (3):345 - 352.score: 18.0
    Contextual theories of truth are motivated primarily by the resolution they provide to paradoxical reasoning about truth. The principal argument for contextual theories of truth relies on a key intuition about the truth value of the proposition expressed by a particular utterance made during paradoxical reasoning, which Anil Gupta calls “the Chrysippus intuition.” In this paper, I argue that the principal argument for contextual theories of truth is circular, and that the Chrysippus intuition is false. I conclude (...)
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  18. Harald Atmanspacher (2006). Contextual Emergence in the Description of Properties. Foundations of Physics 36 (12):1753-1777.score: 18.0
    The role of contingent contexts in formulating relations between properties of systems at different descriptive levels is addressed. Based on the distinction between necessary and sufficient conditions for interlevel relations, a comprehensive classification of such relations is proposed, providing a transparent conceptual framework for discussing particular versions of reduction, emergence, and supervenience. One of these versions, contextual emergence, is demonstrated using two physical examples: molecular structure and chirality, and thermal equilibrium and temperature. The concept of stability is emphasized as (...)
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  19. Samir Okasha & Cedric Paternotte (2012). Group Adaptation, Formal Darwinism and Contextual Analysis. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 25 (6):1127–1139.score: 18.0
    We consider the question: under what circumstances can the concept of adaptation be applied to groups, rather than individuals? Gardner and Grafen (2009, J. Evol. Biol.22: 659–671) develop a novel approach to this question, building on Grafen's ‘formal Darwinism’ project, which defines adaptation in terms of links between evolutionary dynamics and optimization. They conclude that only clonal groups, and to a lesser extent groups in which reproductive competition is repressed, can be considered as adaptive units. We re-examine the conditions under (...)
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  20. Kirstin Borgerson (2011). Amending and Defending Critical Contextual Empiricism. European Journal for Philosophy of Science 1 (3):435-449.score: 18.0
    In Science as Social Knowledge in 1990 and The Fate of Knowledge in 2002, Helen Longino develops an epistemological theory known as Critical Contextual Empiricism (CCE). Knowledge production, she argues, is an active, value-laden practice, evidence is context dependent and relies on background assumptions, and science is a social inquiry that, under certain conditions, produces social knowledge with contextual objectivity. While Longino’s work has been generally well-received, there have been a number of criticisms of CCE raised in the (...)
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  21. William E. Shafer & Dwight Owsen (2003). Policy Issues Raised by for-Profit Spinoffs From Professional Associations: An Evaluation of a Recent AICPA Initiative. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 42 (2):181 - 195.score: 18.0
    This paper provides an evaluation of the spinoff of a for-profit company from the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants (AICPA), a nonprofit professional association. The evaluation is based on a review of the literature on public policy issues surrounding organizational conversions from nonprofit to for-profit legal status. Many criticisms of this for-profit spinoff were voiced by professional leaders and accounting regulators, and we demonstrate that these criticisms are grounded in widely recognized policy principles relating to nonprofit conversions. The public (...)
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  22. Markus Josef Hofmann, Lars Kuchinke, Chris Biemann, Sascha Tamm & Arthur M. Jacobs (2011). Remembering Words in Context as Predicted by an Associative Read-Out Model. Frontiers in Psychology 2:252-252.score: 18.0
    Interactive Activation Models (IAMs) simulate orthographic and phonological processes in implicit memory tasks, but they neither account for associative relations between words nor explicit memory performance. To overcome both limitations, we introduce the Associative Read-Out Model (AROM), an IAM extended by an associative layer implementing long-term associations between words. According to Hebbian learning, two words were defined as ‘associated’ if they co-occurred significantly often in the sentences of a large corpus. In a study-test task, a greater amount of associated (...)
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  23. Agustin Ibanez, Ezequiel Gleichgerrcht, Esteban Hurtado, Ramiro González, Andrés Haye & Facundo F. Manes (2010). Early Neural Markers of Implicit Attitudes: N170 Modulated by Intergroup and Evaluative Contexts in IAT. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 4.score: 18.0
    The Implicit Association Test (IAT) is the most popular measure to evaluate implicit attitudes. Nevertheless, its neural correlates are not yet fully understood. We examined event related potentials (ERPs) in response to face- and word- processing while indigenous and non-indigenous participants performed an IAT displaying faces (ingroup and outgroup members) and words (positive and negative valence) as targets of category judgments. The N170 component was modulated by valence of words and by ingroup/outgroup face categorization. Contextual effects (face-words implicitly associated (...)
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  24. A. Ibáñez, E. Gleichgerrcht, E. Hurtado, R. González, A. Haye & F. Manes (2010). Neural Markers of Early Contextual Blending: N170 Modulation of Ingroup/Outgroup Relative Position and Associated Valence. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 4:188.score: 18.0
     
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  25. Chia-Ying Lee, Yu-Ning Liu & Jie-Li Tsai (2012). The Time Course of Contextual Effects on Visual Word Recognition. Frontiers in Psychology 3.score: 18.0
    Sentence comprehension depends on continuous prediction of upcoming words. However, when and how contextual information affects the bottom-up streams of visual word recognition is unknown. This study examined the effects of word frequency and contextual predictability (cloze probability of a target word embedded in the sentence) on N1, P200, and N400 components, which are related to various cognitive operations in early visual processing, perceptual decoding, and semantic processing. The data exhibited a significant interaction between predictability and frequency at (...)
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  26. Shenbai Liao (2006). Doing Business: An Obscure Notion of the Ethics of Public Associations in Ordinary Chinese. [REVIEW] Frontiers of Philosophy in China 1 (3):325-340.score: 18.0
    Along with the notion of being a person (zuo ren 做人), the notion of doing business (zuo shi 做事) in ordinary Chinese is basically an over-all notion of the norms in the practical and associative activities, carrying typically obscure meanings on practice and association affairs in some external world. Ordinary Chinese not only distinguishes these two notions but also defines a dictionary order of them, with the affairs of the internal world prior to those of the external. The fact that (...)
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  27. Joseph H. Carens (2004). A Contextual Approach to Political Theory. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 7 (2):117-132.score: 15.0
    This article explores the advantages of using a range of actual cases in doing political theory. This sort of approach clarifies what is at stake in alternative theoretical formulations, draws attention to the wisdom that may be embedded in existing practices, and encourages theorists to confront challenges they might otherwise overlook and to think through the implications of their accounts more fully.
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  28. Miri Albahari (2014). Alief or Belief? A Contextual Approach to Belief Ascription. Philosophical Studies 167 (3):701-720.score: 15.0
    There has been a surge of interest over cases where a subject sincerely endorses P while displaying discordant strains of not-P in her behaviour and emotion. Cases like this are telling because they bear directly upon conditions under which belief should be ascribed. Are beliefs to be aligned with what we sincerely endorse or with what we do and feel? If belief doesn’t explain the discordant strains, what does? T.S. Gendler has recently attempted to explain all the discordances by introducing (...)
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  29. Andrei Khrennikov (2005). The Principle of Supplementarity: A Contextual Probabilistic Viewpoint to Complementarity, the Interference of Probabilities and Incompatibility of Variables in Quantum Mechanics. Foundations of Physics 35 (10):1655-1693.score: 15.0
  30. Diederik Aerts, Jan Broekaert & Liane Gabora, Intrinsic Contextuality as the Crux of Consciousness.score: 15.0
    A stream of conscious experience is extremely contextual; it is impacted by sensory stimuli, drives and emotions, and the web of associations that link, directly or indirectly, the subject of experience to other elements of the individual's worldview. The contextuality of one's conscious experience both enhances and constrains the contextuality of one's behavior. Since we cannot know first-hand the conscious experience of another, it is by way of behavioral contextuality that we make judgements about whether or not, and (...)
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  31. David J. A. Dozois (2000). Influences on Freud's Mourning and Melancholia and its Contextual Validity. Journal of Theoretical and Philosophical Psychology 20 (2):167-195.score: 15.0
  32. Ruth Meinzen-Dick & Margreet Zwarteveen (1998). Gendered Participation in Water Management: Issues and Illustrations From Water Users' Associations in South Asia. [REVIEW] Agriculture and Human Values 15 (4):337-345.score: 15.0
    The widespread trend to transferirrigation management responsibility from the stateto “communities” or local user groups has byand large ignored the implications ofintra-community power differences for theeffectiveness and equity of water management. Genderis a recurrent source of such differences. Despitethe rhetoric on women‘s participation, a review ofevidence from South Asia shows that femaleparticipation is minimal in water users‘organizations. One reason for this is that theformal and informal membership criteria excludewomen. Moreover, the balance between costs andbenefits of participation is often negative forwomen (...)
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  33. Rath Kanha Sar & Yeslam Al-Saggaf (2014). Contextual Integrity's Decision Heuristic and the Tracking by Social Network Sites. Ethics and Information Technology 16 (1):15-26.score: 15.0
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  34. Martin Wiesmann & Alumit Ishai (2010). Training Facilitates Object Recognition in Cubist Paintings. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 4.score: 15.0
    To the naïve observer, cubist paintings contain geometrical forms in which familiar objects are hardly recognizable, even in the presence of a meaningful title. We used fMRI to test whether a short training session about Cubism would facilitate object recognition in paintings by Picasso, Braque and Gris. Subjects, who had no formal art education, were presented with titled or untitled cubist paintings and scrambled images, and performed object recognition tasks. Relative to the control group, trained subjects recognized more objects in (...)
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  35. E. James Archer & Benton J. Underwood (1951). Retroactive Inhibition of Verbal Associations as a Multiple Function of Temporal Point of Interpolation and Degree of Interpolated Learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology 42 (5):283.score: 15.0
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  36. Katherine E. Baker & Irene Mackintosh (1955). The Influence of Past Associations Upon Attributive Color Judgments. Journal of Experimental Psychology 49 (4):281.score: 15.0
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  37. Jean M. Barnes & Benton J. Underwood (1959). "Fate" of First-List Associations in Transfer Theory. Journal of Experimental Psychology 58 (2):97.score: 15.0
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  38. William F. Battig, Sam C. Brown & Mary E. Schild (1964). Serial Position and Sequential Associations in Serial Learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology 67 (5):449.score: 15.0
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  39. Alfred A. Baumeister & Cecil Campbell (1971). Formation of Backward Associations in Paired-Associates Learning by Normal Children and Retardates. Journal of Experimental Psychology 89 (2):298.score: 15.0
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  40. Michael H. Birnbaum, Allen Parducci & Robert K. Gifford (1971). Contextual Effects in Information Integration. Journal of Experimental Psychology 88 (2):158.score: 15.0
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  41. Luke Boucher & Zoltán Dienes (2003). Two Ways of Learning Associations. Cognitive Science 27 (6):807-842.score: 15.0
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  42. Ann L. Brown (1973). Temporal and Contextual Cues as Discriminative Attributes in Retardates' Recognition Memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology 98 (1):1.score: 15.0
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  43. H. Cason (1933). Associations Between the Familiar and the Unfamiliar. Journal of Experimental Psychology 16 (2):295.score: 15.0
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  44. Jeffrey Cohen, Gil B. Manzon Jr & Valentina L. Zamora (2013). Contextual and Individual Dimensions of Taxpayer Decision Making. Journal of Business Ethics:1-17.score: 15.0
    We examine whether a taxpayer’s decision to choose a taxpayer-favorable (vs. a taxpayer-unfavorable) characterization of income is associated with contextual and individual dimensions of that decision. Using a 2 × 2 factorial experimental design, we manipulate the prevailing social norm on whether there is a general belief that a specific form of income should be characterized as a capital gain (taxed at a lower tax rate and hence taxpayer favorable) or as ordinary income (taxed at a higher tax rate (...)
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  45. Kent Dallett & Sandra G. Wilcox (1968). Contextual Stimuli and Proactive Inhibition. Journal of Experimental Psychology 78 (3p1):475.score: 15.0
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  46. Kent M. Dallett (1959). Retention of Remote Associations. Journal of Experimental Psychology 58 (3):252.score: 15.0
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  47. Graham C. L. Davey (1995). Preparedness and Phobias: Specific Evolved Associations or a Generalized Expectancy Bias? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 18 (2):289.score: 15.0
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  48. Richard A. Depue & Yu Fu (2013). On the Nature of Extraversion: Variation in Conditioned Contextual Activation of Dopamine-Facilitated Affective, Cognitive, and Motor Processes. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 15.0
  49. Judith A. Diethorn & James F. Voss (1967). Serial Learning as a Function of Locus of Chained Associations. Journal of Experimental Psychology 73 (3):411.score: 15.0
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  50. Allen R. Dobbs (1972). Effect of Retention Interval, Retroactive Inhibition, and Proactive Inhibition on Mediating Associations. Journal of Experimental Psychology 93 (2):417.score: 15.0
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