Search results for 'Contextual Associations' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Bert Forrin & Robert E. Morin (1966). Effect of Contextual Associations Upon Selective Reaction Time in a Numeral-Naming Task. Journal of Experimental Psychology 71 (1):40.score: 210.0
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  2. Douglas L. Hintzman, Richard A. Block & Jeffery J. Summers (1973). Contextual Associations and Memory for Serial Position. Journal of Experimental Psychology 97 (2):220.score: 210.0
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  3. Daniel M. T. Fessler (2006). Contextual Features of Problem-Solving and Social Learning Give Rise to Spurious Associations, the Raw Materials for the Evolution of Rituals. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 29 (6):617-618.score: 126.0
    If rituals persist in part because of their memory-taxing attributes, from whence do they arise? I suggest that magical practices form the core of rituals, and that many such practices derive from learned pseudo-causal associations. Spurious associations are likely to be acquired during problem-solving under conditions of ambiguity and danger, and are often a consequence of imitative social learning. (Published Online February 8 2007).
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  4. Maciej Witek, Contextual Facilitation of Colour Recognition: Penetrating Beliefs or Colour-Shape Associations?score: 122.0
    My aim in this paper is to defend the view that the processes underlying early vision are informationally encapsulated. Following Marr (1982) and Pylyshyn (1999) I take early vision to be a cognitive process that takes sensory information as its input and produces the so-called primal sketches or shallow visual outputs: informational states that represent visual objects in terms of their shape, location, size, colour and luminosity. Recently, some researchers (Schirillo 1999, Macpherson 2012) have attempted to undermine the idea of (...)
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  5. Louis D. Matzel, Juan Castillo & Ralph R. Miller (1988). Contextual Modulation of Simultaneous Associations. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 26 (4):371-374.score: 120.0
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  6. M. T. Daniel (2006). Contextual Features of Problem-Solving and Social Learning Give Rise to Spurious Associations, the Raw Materials for the Evolution of Rituals. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 29 (6).score: 120.0
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  7. James S. Miller, D. F. McCoy, Kimberly S. Kelly & M. T. Bardo (1987). Within-Compound Associations Between Taste and Contextual Stimuli. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 25 (2):124-125.score: 120.0
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  8. D. Aerts, J. Broekaert & Liane Gabora (2002). Intrinsic Contextuality as the Crux of Consciousness. In Kunio Yasue, Marj Jibu & Tarcisio Della Senta (eds.), No Matter, Never Mind: Proceedings of Toward a Science of Consciousness: Fundamental Approaches (Tokyo '99). John Benjamins.score: 94.0
    A stream of conscious experience is extremely contextual; it is impacted by sensory stimuli, drives and emotions, and the web of associations that link, directly or indirectly, the subject of experience to other elements of the individual's worldview. The contextuality of one's conscious experience both enhances and constrains the contextuality of one's behavior. Since we cannot know first-hand the conscious experience of another, it is by way of behavioral contextuality that we make judgements about whether or not, and (...)
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  9. Anthony G. Greenwald, R. L. Abrams, Lionel Naccache & Stanislas Dehaene (2003). Long-Term Semantic Memory Versus Contextual Memory in Unconscious Number Processing. Journal of Experimental Psychology 29 (2):235-247.score: 90.0
    Subjects classified visible 2-digit numbers as larger or smaller than 55. Target numbers were preceded by masked 2-digit primes that were either congruent (same relation to 55) or incongruent. Experiments 1 and 2 showed prime congruency effects for stimuli never included in the set of classified visible targets, indicating subliminal priming based on long-term semantic memory. Experiments 2 and 3 went further to demonstrate paradoxical unconscious priming effects resulting from task context. For example, after repeated practice classifying 73 as larger (...)
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  10. John P. Houston (1967). Unlearning of Specific Associations in the a-B, C-D Paradigm. Journal of Experimental Psychology 74 (2, Pt.1):254-258.score: 78.0
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  11. Natasha M. Bryan Jessica S. Horst, Kelly L. Parsons (2011). Get the Story Straight: Contextual Repetition Promotes Word Learning From Storybooks. Frontiers in Psychology 2.score: 66.0
    Although reading storybooks to preschool children is a common activity believed to improve language skills, how children learn new vocabulary from being to has been largely neglected in the shared storybook reading literature. The current study systematically explores the effects of repeatedly reading the same storybooks on both young children's fast and slow mapping ability. Specially created storybooks were read to 3-year-old children three times during the course of one week. Each of the nine storybooks contained two novel word-object pairs. (...)
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  12. B. M. Spruijt (2001). How the Hierarchical Organization of the Brain and Increasing Cognitive Abilities May Result in Consciousness. Animal Welfare Supplement 10:77- 87.score: 60.0
  13. S. Pan (1926). The Influence of Context Upon Learning and Recall. Journal of Experimental Psychology 9 (6):468.score: 60.0
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  14. A. Ibáñez, E. Gleichgerrcht, E. Hurtado, R. González, A. Haye & F. Manes (2010). Neural Markers of Early Contextual Blending: N170 Modulation of Ingroup/Outgroup Relative Position and Associated Valence. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 4:188.score: 50.0
     
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  15. Markus Josef Hofmann, Lars Kuchinke, Chris Biemann, Sascha Tamm & Arthur M. Jacobs (2011). Remembering Words in Context as Predicted by an Associative Read-Out Model. Frontiers in Psychology 2:252-252.score: 40.0
    Interactive Activation Models (IAMs) simulate orthographic and phonological processes in implicit memory tasks, but they neither account for associative relations between words nor explicit memory performance. To overcome both limitations, we introduce the Associative Read-Out Model (AROM), an IAM extended by an associative layer implementing long-term associations between words. According to Hebbian learning, two words were defined as ‘associated’ if they co-occurred significantly often in the sentences of a large corpus. In a study-test task, a greater amount of associated (...)
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  16. Neil Gross (1997). Durkheim's Pragmatism Lectures: A Contextual Interpretation. Sociological Theory 15 (2):126-149.score: 36.0
    This article attempts to understand Emile Durkheim's 1913-14 lectures on pragmatism and sociology by situating them in the socio-intellectual context of the time. An analysis of books and journal articles from the period reveals that the ideas of the Anglo-American pragmatic philosophers Charles Peirce, William James, John Dewey, and F.C.S. Schiller were very popular in pre-World War I France. The French term le pragmatisme, however, was used to refer not only to the thought of these philosophers, but also to the (...)
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  17. Diederik Aerts, Jan Broekaert & Liane Gabora, Intrinsic Contextuality as the Crux of Consciousness.score: 34.0
    A stream of conscious experience is extremely contextual; it is impacted by sensory stimuli, drives and emotions, and the web of associations that link, directly or indirectly, the subject of experience to other elements of the individual's worldview. The contextuality of one's conscious experience both enhances and constrains the contextuality of one's behavior. Since we cannot know first-hand the conscious experience of another, it is by way of behavioral contextuality that we make judgements about whether or not, and (...)
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  18. H. Eckert (1985). Valences Ltd. Vs Valences Associated Comments on Heringer's Association Experiment as a Basis for Valence Theory. Journal of Semantics 4 (3):257-263.score: 34.0
    Hennger claims that the value of existing theories of valence is limited as they have failed to give a clear account of the crucial distinction between complements and supplements. He maintains that associations between verbs and question words can serve as a basis for valence theory. The results of his association experiment, however, do not permit us to lnferdependency relations, to distinguish clearly between optional and obligatory elements, to specify quantitative valence, or to distinguish between elements that are grammatically (...)
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  19. Miri Albahari (2014). Alief or Belief? A Contextual Approach to Belief Ascription. Philosophical Studies 167 (3):701-720.score: 30.0
    There has been a surge of interest over cases where a subject sincerely endorses P while displaying discordant strains of not-P in her behaviour and emotion. Cases like this are telling because they bear directly upon conditions under which belief should be ascribed. Are beliefs to be aligned with what we sincerely endorse or with what we do and feel? If belief doesn’t explain the discordant strains, what does? T.S. Gendler has recently attempted to explain all the discordances by introducing (...)
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  20. Jeffrey Cohen, Gil B. Manzon Jr & Valentina L. Zamora (2013). Contextual and Individual Dimensions of Taxpayer Decision Making. Journal of Business Ethics:1-17.score: 30.0
    We examine whether a taxpayer’s decision to choose a taxpayer-favorable (vs. a taxpayer-unfavorable) characterization of income is associated with contextual and individual dimensions of that decision. Using a 2 × 2 factorial experimental design, we manipulate the prevailing social norm on whether there is a general belief that a specific form of income should be characterized as a capital gain (taxed at a lower tax rate and hence taxpayer favorable) or as ordinary income (taxed at a higher tax rate (...)
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  21. Michelle R. Greene (2013). Statistics of High-Level Scene Context. Frontiers in Psychology 4.score: 30.0
    Context is critical to our ability to recognize environments and to search for objects within them: contextual associations have been shown to modulate reaction time and object recognition accuracy, as well as influence the distribution of eye movements and patterns of brain activations. However, we have not yet systematically quantified the relationships between objects and their scene environments. Here I seek to fill this gap by providing descriptive statistics of object-scene relationships. A total of 48,167 objects were hand-labeled (...)
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  22. Martin Wiesmann & Alumit Ishai (2010). Training Facilitates Object Recognition in Cubist Paintings. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 4.score: 30.0
    To the naïve observer, cubist paintings contain geometrical forms in which familiar objects are hardly recognizable, even in the presence of a meaningful title. We used fMRI to test whether a short training session about Cubism would facilitate object recognition in paintings by Picasso, Braque and Gris. Subjects, who had no formal art education, were presented with titled or untitled cubist paintings and scrambled images, and performed object recognition tasks. Relative to the control group, trained subjects recognized more objects in (...)
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  23. Agustin Ibanez, Ezequiel Gleichgerrcht, Esteban Hurtado, Ramiro González, Andrés Haye & Facundo F. Manes (2010). Early Neural Markers of Implicit Attitudes: N170 Modulated by Intergroup and Evaluative Contexts in IAT. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 4.score: 30.0
    The Implicit Association Test (IAT) is the most popular measure to evaluate implicit attitudes. Nevertheless, its neural correlates are not yet fully understood. We examined event related potentials (ERPs) in response to face- and word- processing while indigenous and non-indigenous participants performed an IAT displaying faces (ingroup and outgroup members) and words (positive and negative valence) as targets of category judgments. The N170 component was modulated by valence of words and by ingroup/outgroup face categorization. Contextual effects (face-words implicitly associated (...)
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  24. Stefan Pollmann & Angela A. Manginelli (2009). Anterior Prefrontal Involvement in Implicit Contextual Change Detection. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 3.score: 30.0
    Anterior prefrontal cortex is usually associated with high level executive functions. Here, we show that the frontal pole, specifically left lateral frontopolar cortex, is involved in signaling change in implicitly learned spatial contexts, in the absence of conscious change detection. In a variant of the contextual cueing paradigm, participants first learned implicitly contingencies between distractor contexts and target locations. After learning, repeated distractor contexts were paired with new target locations. Left lateral frontopolar (BA10) and superior frontal (BA9) cortices showed (...)
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  25. Robert C. Bishop & Harald Atmanspacher (2006). Contextual Emergence in the Description of Properties. Foundations of Physics 36 (12):1753-1777.score: 24.0
    The role of contingent contexts in formulating relations between properties of systems at different descriptive levels is addressed. Based on the distinction between necessary and sufficient conditions for interlevel relations, a comprehensive classification of such relations is proposed, providing a transparent conceptual framework for discussing particular versions of reduction, emergence, and supervenience. One of these versions, contextual emergence, is demonstrated using two physical examples: molecular structure and chirality, and thermal equilibrium and temperature. The concept of stability is emphasized as (...)
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  26. Haim Gaifman (2010). Vagueness, Tolerance and Contextual Logic. Synthese 174 (1):5 - 46.score: 24.0
    The goal of this paper is a comprehensive analysis of basic reasoning patterns that are characteristic of vague predicates. The analysis leads to rigorous reconstructions of the phenomena within formal systems. Two basic features are dealt with. One is tolerance: the insensitivity of predicates to small changes in the objects of predication (a one-increment of a walking distance is a walking distance). The other is the existence of borderline cases. The paper shows why these should be treated as different, though (...)
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  27. Gordon Hull, Heather Richter Lipford & Celine Latulipe (2011). Contextual Gaps: Privacy Issues on Facebook. [REVIEW] Ethics and Information Technology 13 (4):289-302.score: 24.0
    Social networking sites like Facebook are rapidly gaining in popularity. At the same time, they seem to present significant privacy issues for their users. We analyze two of Facebooks’s more recent features, Applications and News Feed, from the perspective enabled by Helen Nissenbaum’s treatment of privacy as “contextual integrity.” Offline, privacy is mediated by highly granular social contexts. Online contexts, including social networking sites, lack much of this granularity. These contextual gaps are at the root of many of (...)
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  28. Jay Newhard (2009). The Chrysippus Intuition and Contextual Theories of Truth. Philosophical Studies 142 (3):345 - 352.score: 24.0
    Contextual theories of truth are motivated primarily by the resolution they provide to paradoxical reasoning about truth. The principal argument for contextual theories of truth relies on a key intuition about the truth value of the proposition expressed by a particular utterance made during paradoxical reasoning, which Anil Gupta calls “the Chrysippus intuition.” In this paper, I argue that the principal argument for contextual theories of truth is circular, and that the Chrysippus intuition is false. I conclude (...)
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  29. Samir Okasha & Cedric Paternotte (2012). Group Adaptation, Formal Darwinism and Contextual Analysis. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 25 (6):1127–1139.score: 24.0
    We consider the question: under what circumstances can the concept of adaptation be applied to groups, rather than individuals? Gardner and Grafen (2009, J. Evol. Biol.22: 659–671) develop a novel approach to this question, building on Grafen's ‘formal Darwinism’ project, which defines adaptation in terms of links between evolutionary dynamics and optimization. They conclude that only clonal groups, and to a lesser extent groups in which reproductive competition is repressed, can be considered as adaptive units. We re-examine the conditions under (...)
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  30. Harald Atmanspacher (2006). Contextual Emergence in the Description of Properties. Foundations of Physics 36 (12):1753-1777.score: 24.0
    The role of contingent contexts in formulating relations between properties of systems at different descriptive levels is addressed. Based on the distinction between necessary and sufficient conditions for interlevel relations, a comprehensive classification of such relations is proposed, providing a transparent conceptual framework for discussing particular versions of reduction, emergence, and supervenience. One of these versions, contextual emergence, is demonstrated using two physical examples: molecular structure and chirality, and thermal equilibrium and temperature. The concept of stability is emphasized as (...)
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  31. Kirstin Borgerson (2011). Amending and Defending Critical Contextual Empiricism. European Journal for Philosophy of Science 1 (3):435-449.score: 24.0
    In Science as Social Knowledge in 1990 and The Fate of Knowledge in 2002, Helen Longino develops an epistemological theory known as Critical Contextual Empiricism (CCE). Knowledge production, she argues, is an active, value-laden practice, evidence is context dependent and relies on background assumptions, and science is a social inquiry that, under certain conditions, produces social knowledge with contextual objectivity. While Longino’s work has been generally well-received, there have been a number of criticisms of CCE raised in the (...)
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  32. Catherine E. Schwoerer, Douglas R. May & Benson Rosen (1995). Organizational Characteristics and HRM Policies on Rights: Exploring the Patterns of Connections. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 14 (7):531 - 549.score: 24.0
    The protection of employee rights in the workplace is one of the fundamental ethical questions facing organizations today. Organizations differ in the extent to which they protect the rights of both employees and themselves as employers, yet little research has examined the types of organizations that have rights protection policies. Instead of the classic normative approach to ethical issues, this study took a contextual approach to the management of rights in the workplace through human resource policies. Associations were (...)
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  33. William E. Shafer & Dwight Owsen (2003). Policy Issues Raised by for-Profit Spinoffs From Professional Associations: An Evaluation of a Recent AICPA Initiative. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 42 (2):181 - 195.score: 24.0
    This paper provides an evaluation of the spinoff of a for-profit company from the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants (AICPA), a nonprofit professional association. The evaluation is based on a review of the literature on public policy issues surrounding organizational conversions from nonprofit to for-profit legal status. Many criticisms of this for-profit spinoff were voiced by professional leaders and accounting regulators, and we demonstrate that these criticisms are grounded in widely recognized policy principles relating to nonprofit conversions. The public (...)
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  34. Natalia G. Vidal, Gary Q. Bull & Robert A. Kozak (2010). Diffusion of Corporate Responsibility Practices to Companies: The Experience of the Forest Sector. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 94 (4):553 - 567.score: 24.0
    This qualitative study indentifies how corporate responsibility (CR) practices are diffused to companies, as well as the factors that influence this diffusion process. Forest companies, industry associations, non-governmental organizations, and academics in Brazil, Canada, and the United States participated in this interview-based study. Data emerging from a grounded theory approach revealed three factors influencing the diffusion of CR practices to companies: (1) external contextual characteristics, (2) connectors, and (3) experts and expert organizations. These three factors influence each other, (...)
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  35. Samuel W. K. Chan, Dynamic Context Generation for Natural Language Understanding: A Multifaceted Knowledge Approach.score: 24.0
    ��We describe a comprehensive framework for text un- derstanding, based on the representation of context. It is designed to serve as a representation of semantics for the full range of in- terpretive and inferential needs of general natural language pro- cessing. Its most distinctive feature is its uniform representation of the various simple and independent linguistic sources that play a role in determining meaning: lexical associations, syntactic re- strictions, case-role expectations, and most importantly, contextual effects. Compositional syntactic structure (...)
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  36. Apt P. (2010). Modelling the Meaning of Words: Neural Correlates of Abstract and Concrete Noun Processing. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 4.score: 24.0
    We present a model relating analysis of abstract and concrete word meaning in terms of semantic features and contextual frames within a general framework of neurocognitive information processing. The approach taken here assumes concrete noun meanings to be intimately related to sensory feature constellations. These features are processed by posterior sensory regions of the brain, e.g. the occipital lobe, which handles visual information. The interpretation of abstract nouns, however, is likely to be more dependent on semantic frames and linguistic (...)
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  37. Stefan Everling Thilo Womelsdorf, Martin Vinck, L. Stan Leung (2010). Selective Theta-Synchronization of Choice-Relevant Information Subserves Goal-Directed Behavior. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 4.score: 24.0
    Theta activity reflects a state of rhythmic modulation of excitability at the level of single neuron membranes, within local neuronal groups and between distant nodes of a neuronal network. A wealth of evidence has shown that during theta states distant neuronal groups synchronize, forming networks of spatially confined neuronal clusters at specific time periods during task performance. Here, we show that a functional commonality of networks engaging in theta rhythmic states is that they emerge around decision points, reflecting rhythmic synchronization (...)
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  38. Chia-Ying Lee, Yu-Ning Liu & Jie-Li Tsai (2012). The Time Course of Contextual Effects on Visual Word Recognition. Frontiers in Psychology 3.score: 24.0
    Sentence comprehension depends on continuous prediction of upcoming words. However, when and how contextual information affects the bottom-up streams of visual word recognition is unknown. This study examined the effects of word frequency and contextual predictability (cloze probability of a target word embedded in the sentence) on N1, P200, and N400 components, which are related to various cognitive operations in early visual processing, perceptual decoding, and semantic processing. The data exhibited a significant interaction between predictability and frequency at (...)
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  39. Shenbai Liao (2006). Doing Business: An Obscure Notion of the Ethics of Public Associations in Ordinary Chinese. [REVIEW] Frontiers of Philosophy in China 1 (3):325-340.score: 24.0
    Along with the notion of being a person (zuo ren 做人), the notion of doing business (zuo shi 做事) in ordinary Chinese is basically an over-all notion of the norms in the practical and associative activities, carrying typically obscure meanings on practice and association affairs in some external world. Ordinary Chinese not only distinguishes these two notions but also defines a dictionary order of them, with the affairs of the internal world prior to those of the external. The fact that (...)
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  40. Beatrice de Gelder Mariska Esther Kret (2012). Islamic Headdress Influences How Emotion is Recognized From the Eyes. Frontiers in Psychology 3.score: 24.0
    Previous research has shown a negative bias in the perception of whole facial expressions from out-group members. Whether or not emotion recognition from the eyes is already sensitive to contextual information is presently a matter of debate. In three experiments we tested whether emotions can be recognized from the upper part of the face only when just the eyes are visible and whether this recognition is affected by context cues, such as various Islamic headdresses versus a cap or a (...)
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  41. Nicholas D. Smith (2008). Modesty: A Contextual Account. Proceedings and Addresses of the American Philosophical Association 82 (2):23 - 45.score: 22.0
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  42. Ann Meulders, Nele Vandebroek, Bram Vervliet & Johan Ws Vlaeyen (2013). Generalization Gradients in Cued and Contextual Pain-Related Fear: An Experimental Study in Healthy Participants. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 1.score: 22.0
    Increasing evidence supports the notion that pain-related fear plays a key role in the transition from acute to chronic pain. Recent experimental data show that associative learning processes are involved in the acquisition of pain-related fear. An intriguing yet underinvestigated question entails how spreading of pain-related fear in chronic pain occurs. In a voluntary movement paradigm in which one arm movement (CS+) was followed by a painful stimulus and another was not (CS-) in the predictable group and painful stimuli were (...)
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  43. Michael Wagner (2006). Association by Movement: Evidence From NPI-Licensing. [REVIEW] Natural Language Semantics 14 (4):297-324.score: 22.0
    ‘Only’ associates with focus and licenses NPIs. This paper looks at the distributional pattern of NPIs under ‘only’ and presents evidence for the movement theory of focus association and against an in situ approach. NPIs are licensed in the ‘scope’ (or the second argument) of ‘only’, but not in the complement (or its first argument), which I will call the ‘syntactic restrictor’. While earlier approaches argued that ‘only’ licenses NPIs in the unfocused part of the sentence it occurs in except (...)
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  44. Joseph H. Carens (2004). A Contextual Approach to Political Theory. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 7 (2):117-132.score: 21.0
    This article explores the advantages of using a range of actual cases in doing political theory. This sort of approach clarifies what is at stake in alternative theoretical formulations, draws attention to the wisdom that may be embedded in existing practices, and encourages theorists to confront challenges they might otherwise overlook and to think through the implications of their accounts more fully.
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  45. Andrei Khrennikov (2005). The Principle of Supplementarity: A Contextual Probabilistic Viewpoint to Complementarity, the Interference of Probabilities and Incompatibility of Variables in Quantum Mechanics. Foundations of Physics 35 (10):1655-1693.score: 21.0
  46. David J. A. Dozois (2000). Influences on Freud's Mourning and Melancholia and its Contextual Validity. Journal of Theoretical and Philosophical Psychology 20 (2):167-195.score: 21.0
  47. Graham C. L. Davey (1995). Preparedness and Phobias: Specific Evolved Associations or a Generalized Expectancy Bias? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 18 (2):289.score: 21.0
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  48. Steven Rosenberg & Wallace E. Lambert (1974). Contextual Constraints and the Perception of Speech. Journal of Experimental Psychology 102 (1):178.score: 21.0
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  49. Rath Kanha Sar & Yeslam Al-Saggaf (2014). Contextual Integrity's Decision Heuristic and the Tracking by Social Network Sites. Ethics and Information Technology 16 (1):15-26.score: 21.0
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  50. Robert W. Weisberg (1969). Sentence Processing Assessed Through Intrasentence Word Associations. Journal of Experimental Psychology 82 (2):332.score: 21.0
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