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  1. Samu Abraham (2001). Selected Books and Articles by Ferenc Kiefer in Semantics and Pragmatics. In Robert M. Harrish & Istvan Kenesei (eds.), Perspectives on Semantics, Pragmatics, and Discourse. John Benjamins Publishing Company. 90.
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  2. Juan José Acero (2007). Searle y el significado literal. Revista de Filosofía (Madrid) 31 (2):9-30.
    In this paper, we try to show why a formal definition of truth is not satisfactory (first point). Later, we expound (second point) the polemic between Austin and Strawson about truth with the intention to show that both refer to different problems concerning truth and to prove that Austin did not lose this confrontation and that we can recover some elements of his investigation for making an adequate approach to this notion. We will complete our definition of truth using the (...)
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  3. Mark Addis (2013). Linguistic Competence and Expertise. Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 12 (2):327-336.
    Questions about the relationship between linguistic competence and expertise will be examined in the paper. Harry Collins and others distinguish between ubiquitous and esoteric expertise. Collins places considerable weight on the argument that ordinary linguistic competence and related phenomena exhibit a high degree of expertise. His position and ones which share close affinities are methodologically problematic. These difficulties matter because there is continued and systematic disagreement over appropriate methodologies for the empirical study of expertise. Against Collins, it will be argued (...)
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  4. Timo Airksinen (1982). Contextualism, a New Theory Ofepistemic Justification? Philosophia 12 (1-2):37-50.
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  5. Ryan Alan (1998). In a Conversational Idiom. Social Research 65 (3).
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  6. J. Davidson Alexander (1976). The Natural Standard of Speech. Philosophy and Social Criticism 3 (3):267-294.
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  7. Jens Allwood (1981). On the Distinctions Between Semantics and Pragmatics. In W. Klein & W. Levelt (eds.), Crossing the Boundaries in Linguistics. Reidel. 177--189.
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  8. Ben Ambridge (2013). How Do Children Restrict Their Linguistic Generalizations? An (Un‐)Grammaticality Judgment Study. Cognitive Science 37 (3):508-543.
    A paradox at the heart of language acquisition research is that, to achieve adult-like competence, children must acquire the ability to generalize verbs into non-attested structures, while avoiding utterances that are deemed ungrammatical by native speakers. For example, children must learn that, to denote the reversal of an action, un- can be added to many verbs, but not all (e.g., roll/unroll; close/*unclose). This study compared theoretical accounts of how this is done. Children aged 5–6 (N = 18), 9–10 (N = (...)
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  9. Luvell Anderson & Ernie Lepore (2013). What Did You Call Me? Slurs as Prohibited Words. Analytic Philosophy 54 (3):350-363.
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  10. R. J. Anderson & I. W. W. Sharrock (1984). Analytic Work: Aspects of the Organisation of Conversational Data. Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 14 (1):103–124.
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  11. Jan S. Andersson (1975). How to Define "Performative". Philosophical Society and the Department of Philosophy, University of Uppsala.
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  12. Constantin Antonopoulos (2012). An Antidote to Use-From Semantics to Human Rights and Back. Open Journal of Philosophy 2 (1):50-60.
    I unpack the contents of the motto that “meaning is use” in fivefold fashion and point to the elements it contains, which are open to an ideological exploitation, the main reason for its strong appeal among intellectual circles. I indicate how the sense of it, “where there is use, there is meaning”, has encouraged equalitarian accounts of meaning and truth . I then present and discuss Austin’s distinction between the Sentence and the Statement, which entails the presence of meaning preceding (...)
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  13. Lennart Åqvist (2003). Some Remarks on Performatives in the Law. Artificial Intelligence and Law 11 (2-3):105-124.
    This paper contains an analysis of performatives with special attention to performatives in the law. It deals with the possibility to recognise performativity by means of a grammatical-syntactic criterion, the self-verifying and norm-promulgating character of legal performatives, an analysis of the effects of performatives by means of causal logic, the different forms of performativity and a theory of promise-performatives.
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  14. Richard B. Arnaud (1976). Sentence, Utterance, and Samesayer. Noûs 10 (3):283-304.
  15. Leonardo Antonio Cisneiros Arrais (2008). Kant on Assertion and Content. In Valerio Hrsg V. Rohden, Ricardo Terra & Guido Almeida (eds.), Recht Und Frieden in der Philosophie Kants. 127-138.
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  16. Nicholas Asher & Alex Lascarides (2001). The Semantics and Pragmatics of Metaphor. In Pierrette Bouillon & Federica Busa (eds.), The Language of Word Meaning. Cambridge University Press. 262--289.
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  17. Kent Bach, Introduction.
    Language is used to express thoughts and to represent aspects of the world. What thought a sentence expresses depends on what the sentence means, and how it represents the world also depends on what it means. Moreover, it is ultimately arbitrary, a matter of convention, that the words of a language mean what they do. So it might seem that what they mean is a matter of how they are used. However, they need not be used in accordance with their (...)
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  18. Kent Bach (2008). The Semantics and Pragmatics of Reference. In Ernest Lepore & Barry C. Smith (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Language. Oup Oxford.
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  19. Kent Bach, Mean and Nasty Talk: On the Semantics and Pragmatics of Slurs.
    Group slurs are applied to a whole category of people. Whereas slurs like jerk, creep, and hag are generally directed at individuals because of the personal traits (behavior, personality, looks, etc.), group slurs, like spic, commie, and infidel, are applied across the board to members of a category. Even when directed at a particular individual, ethnic, religious, and political slurs are applied on the basis of group membership rather than anything about the person in particular. Before asking about the meanings (...)
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  20. Kent Bach & Anne Bezuidenhout (2002). Distinguishing Semantics and Pragmatics. In Joseph K. Campbell, Michael O'Rourke & David Shier (eds.), Meaning and Truth - Investigations in Philosophical Semantics. Seven Bridges Press. 284--310.
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  21. Kalyan Kumar Bagchi (1990). The Primitiveness of the T as Speaker. In Margaret Chatterjee (ed.), The Philosophy of Nikunja Vihari Banerjee. Indian Council of Philosophical Research in Association with Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers.
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  22. Dorit Bar-On (1995). Meaning Reconstructed: Grice and the Naturalizing of Semantics. Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 76 (2):83-116.
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  23. Grays Hall Basement (1994). Language Acquisition: A Linguistic Introduction. By Helen Goodluck. Oxford & Cambridge, Ma: Blackwell, 1991. Pp. VIII, 224. Cloth $57.95, Paper $19.95. Reviewed by Cecile McKee, University of Washington, and Guy Modica, University of Washington and Nagoya Shoka Daigaku Many Linguists Will Appreciate Goodluck's Introductory Textbook on First. [REVIEW] In Stephen Everson (ed.), Language. Cambridge University Press.
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  24. Peter Baumann (2011). WAMs: Why Worry? Philosophical Papers 40 (2):155 - 177.
    Abstract One of the most popular objections against epistemic contextualism is the so-called ?warranted assertability? objection. The objection is based on the possibility of a ?warranted assertability manoeuvre?, also known as a WAM. I argue here that WAMs are of very limited scope and importance. An important class of cases cannot be dealt with by WAMs. No analogue of WAMs is available for these cases. One should thus not take WAMs too seriously in the debate about epistemic contextualism.
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  25. Avner Baz (2008). The Reaches of Words. International Journal of Philosophical Studies 16 (1):31 – 56.
    This paper compares and contrasts two ways of going on from Wittgenstein and, to a lesser extent, Austin. The first is Charles Travis'. The second is Stanley Cavell's. Focusing on our concept of propositional knowledge ('knowing that such and such'), I argue that Travis' tendency to think of language and its concepts as essentially in the business of enabling us to represent (describe, think of) things as being one way or another and his consequent neglect of the question of what, (...)
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  26. David Beaver & Joey Frazee, Semantics.
    Semantics is concerned with meaning: what meanings are, how meanings are assigned to words, phrases and sentences of natural and formal languages, and how meanings can be combined and used for inference and reasoning. The goal of this chapter is to introduce computational linguists and computer scientists to the tools, methods, and concepts required to work on natural language semantics. Semantics, while often paired with pragmatics, is nominally distinct. On a traditional view, semantics concerns itself with the compositional buildup of (...)
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  27. J. S. Bedwell, S. Gallagher, S. N. Whitten & S. M. Fiore (2011). Linguistic Correlates of Self in Deceptive Oral Autobiographical Narratives. Consciousness and Cognition 20 (3):547-555.
    The current study collected orally-delivered autobiographical narratives from a sample of 44 undergraduate students. Participants were asked to produce both deceptive and non-deceptive versions of their narrative to two specific autobiographical question prompts while standing in front of a video camera. Narratives were then analyzed with Coh-Metrix software on 33 indices of linguistic cohesion. Following a Bonferroni correction for the large number of linguistic variables , results indicated that the deceptive narratives contained more explicit action verbs, less linguistic complexity, and (...)
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  28. Ángela Rocío Bejarano Chaves (2013). " It Rains" a Controversy on the Unarticulated Constituents. Discusiones Filosóficas 14 (22):107-123.
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  29. John Bell (2001). Pragmatic Reasoning Pragmatic Semantics and Semantic Pragmatics. In P. Bouquet V. Akman (ed.), Modeling and Using Context. Springer. 45--58.
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  30. Ermanno Bencivenga (1982). Carol A. Kates, Pragmatics and Semantics: An Empiricist Theory Reviewed By. Philosophy in Review 2 (6):279-282.
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  31. José Luis Bermúdez (2003). Thinking Without Words. Oxford University Press.
    Thinking Without Words provides a challenging new theory of the nature of non-linguistic thought. Jose Luis Bermudez offers a conceptual framework for treating human infants and non-human animals as genuine thinkers. The book is written with an interdisciplinary readership in mind and will appeal to philosophers, psychologists, and students of animal behavior.
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  32. Rod Bertolet (1980). Context and What Is Said. Canadian Journal of Philosophy 6:97.
    A popular answer to the question of what, In addition to what a sentence means, Determines what a speaker who utters that sentence says, Is the context in which it is uttered. While this answer is often not developed in any detail, Paul ziff in "what is said" attempts to specify just what contextual features are relevant and how they operate. This paper argues that the factors ziff offers are in fact irrelevant to the determination of what is said. The (...)
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  33. A. Bezuidenhout (2005). Review: Thoughts and Utterances: The Pragmatics of Explicit Communication. [REVIEW] Mind 114 (455):722-728.
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  34. Anne Bezuidenhout (2010). —4—Anne Bezuidenhout Contextualism and Information Structure: Towards a Science of Pragmatics. In Erich Rast & Luiz Carlos Baptista (eds.), Meaning and Context. Peter Lang. 2--79.
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  35. Patrick Blackburn & Edith Spaan (1993). A Modal Perspective on the Computational Complexity of Attribute Value Grammar. Journal of Logic, Language and Information 2 (2):129-169.
    Many of the formalisms used in Attribute Value grammar are notational variants of languages of propositional modal logic, and testing whether two Attribute Value Structures unify amounts to testing for modal satisfiability. In this paper we put this observation to work. We study the complexity of the satisfiability problem for nine modal languages which mirror different aspects of AVS description formalisms, including the ability to express re-entrancy, the ability to express generalisations, and the ability to express recursive constraints. Two main (...)
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  36. Diane Blakemore (1990). Performatives and Parentheticals. Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 91:197 - 213.
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  37. Diane Blakemore (1989). Meaning and Force: The Pragmatics of Performative Utterances. Mind and Language 4 (3):235-245.
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  38. Reinhard Blutner & Henk Zeevat, Editor's Introduction: Pragmatics in Optimality Theory.
    Based on the tenets of the so-called ‘radical pragmatics’ school (see, for instance, Cole, 1981), this book takes a particular view with regard to the relationship between content and linguistically encoded meaning. The traditional view embodied in the work of Montague and Kaplan (e.g., Kaplan, 1979; Montague, 1970) sees content being fully determined by linguistic meaning relative to a contextual index. In contrast, the radical view takes it that, although linguistic meaning is clearly important to content, it does not determine (...)
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  39. Jim Bogen (2011). Occasion-Sensitivity – Charles Travis. Philosophical Quarterly 61 (242):196-201.
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  40. E. Borg (2012). Semantics Without Pragmatics. In Keith Allan & Kasia Jaszczolt (eds.), Cambridge Handbook of Pragmatics. Cambridge University Press. 513--528.
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  41. E. Borg (2006). Review: Literal Meaning. [REVIEW] Mind 115 (458):461-465.
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  42. Emma Borg (2012). Pursuing Meaning. Oup Oxford.
    Emma Borg examines the relation between semantics and pragmatics, and assesses recent answers to fundamental questions of how and where to draw the divide between the two. She argues for a minimal account of the interrelation between them--a 'minimal semantics'--which holds that only rule-governed appeals to context can influence semantic content.
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  43. Emma Borg (2004). Formal Semantics and Intentional States. Analysis 64 (3):215–223.
    My aim in this note is to address the question of how a context of utterance can figure within a formal, specifically truth-conditional, semantic theory. In particular, I want to explore whether a formal semantic theory could, or should, take the intentional states of a speaker to be relevant in determining the literal meaning of an uttered sentence. The answer I’m going to suggest, contrary to the position of many contemporary formal theorists, is negative. The structure of this note is (...)
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  44. Steffen Borge (2013). Talking to Infants: A Gricean Perspective. American Philosophical Quarterly 50 (4):423.
    According to Paul Grice, when we address someone, we intend to make ourselves understood, partly by the addressee’s recognition of that intention. Call this set of nested audience-directed intentions an M-intention. The standard Gricean analysis of speaker’s meaning goes as follows: “U meant something by uttering x” is true iff, for some audience A, U uttered x intending: (1) A to produce a particular response r (2) A to think (recognize) that U intends (1) (3) A to fulfill (1) on (...)
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  45. Gerlof J. Bouma & Petra Hendriks (2012). Partial Word Order Freezing in Dutch. Journal of Logic, Language and Information 21 (1):53-73.
    Dutch allows for variation as to whether the first position in the sentence is occupied by the subject or by some other constituent, such as the direct object. In particular situations, however, this commonly observed variation in word order is ‘frozen’ and only the subject appears in first position. We hypothesize that this partial freezing of word order in Dutch can be explained from the dependence of the speaker’s choice of word order on the hearer’s interpretation of this word order. (...)
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  46. Line Brandt (2009). Subjectivity in the Act of Representing: The Case for Subjective Motion and Change. [REVIEW] Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 8 (4):573-601.
    The objective in the present paper is to analyze the aspect of subjectivity having to do with construing motion and change where no motion and change exists outside the representation, that is, in cases where the conceptualizer does not intend to convey the idea that these properties exist in the state of affairs described. In the process of doing so, I will elaborate on a critique of the notion of fictivity as it is currently being used in cognitive linguistics.
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  47. Adrian Brasoveanu & Donka F. Farkas, Say Reports, Assertion Events and Meaning Dimensions.
    In this paper, we study the parameters that come into play when assessing the truth conditions of say reports and contrast them with belief attributions. We argue that these conditions are sensitive in intricate ways to the connection between the interpretation of the complement of say and the properties of the reported speech act. There are three general areas this exercise is relevant to, besides the immediate issue of understanding the meaning of say: (i) the discussion shows the need to (...)
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  48. Hugh Bredin (1992). The Literal and the Figurative. Philosophy 67 (259):69 - 80.
    In everyday English usage, the words ‘literal’ and ‘figurative’ are normally taken to be opposite in meaning. It is an opposition with very ancient roots. One of its forbears was the medieval theory of Scriptural hermeneutics, which distinguished among the literal, allegorical, moral, and anagogic senses of Scripture. This itself had an ancestry in pre-Augustinian times: Augustine tells in his Confessions how he learned from Ambrose the trick of interpreting Scripture figuratively, thus eliminating the problems and contradictions created by a (...)
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  49. Ellen Broselow (2006). Loanword Phonology. In Keith Brown (ed.), Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics. Elsevier. 7--286.
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  50. Catherine P. Browman & Louis Goldstein (1995). Dynamics and Articulatory Phonology. In T. Van Gelder & Robert Port (eds.), Mind as Motion. Mit Press. 175--193.
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