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  1. Mark Addis (2013). Linguistic Competence and Expertise. Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 12 (2):327-336.
    Questions about the relationship between linguistic competence and expertise will be examined in the paper. Harry Collins and others distinguish between ubiquitous and esoteric expertise. Collins places considerable weight on the argument that ordinary linguistic competence and related phenomena exhibit a high degree of expertise. His position and ones which share close affinities are methodologically problematic. These difficulties matter because there is continued and systematic disagreement over appropriate methodologies for the empirical study of expertise. Against Collins, it will be argued (...)
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  2. Ben Ambridge (2013). How Do Children Restrict Their Linguistic Generalizations? An (Un‐)Grammaticality Judgment Study. Cognitive Science 37 (3):508-543.
    A paradox at the heart of language acquisition research is that, to achieve adult-like competence, children must acquire the ability to generalize verbs into non-attested structures, while avoiding utterances that are deemed ungrammatical by native speakers. For example, children must learn that, to denote the reversal of an action, un- can be added to many verbs, but not all (e.g., roll/unroll; close/*unclose). This study compared theoretical accounts of how this is done. Children aged 5–6 (N = 18), 9–10 (N = (...)
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  3. David Beaver & Joey Frazee, Semantics.
    Semantics is concerned with meaning: what meanings are, how meanings are assigned to words, phrases and sentences of natural and formal languages, and how meanings can be combined and used for inference and reasoning. The goal of this chapter is to introduce computational linguists and computer scientists to the tools, methods, and concepts required to work on natural language semantics. Semantics, while often paired with pragmatics, is nominally distinct. On a traditional view, semantics concerns itself with the compositional buildup of (...)
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  4. J. S. Bedwell, S. Gallagher, S. N. Whitten & S. M. Fiore (2011). Linguistic Correlates of Self in Deceptive Oral Autobiographical Narratives. Consciousness and Cognition 20 (3):547-555.
  5. José Luis Bermúdez (2003). Thinking Without Words. Oxford University Press.
    Thinking Without Words provides a challenging new theory of the nature of non-linguistic thought. Jose Luis Bermudez offers a conceptual framework for treating human infants and non-human animals as genuine thinkers. The book is written with an interdisciplinary readership in mind and will appeal to philosophers, psychologists, and students of animal behavior.
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  6. Patrick Blackburn & Edith Spaan (1993). A Modal Perspective on the Computational Complexity of Attribute Value Grammar. Journal of Logic, Language and Information 2 (2):129-169.
    Many of the formalisms used in Attribute Value grammar are notational variants of languages of propositional modal logic, and testing whether two Attribute Value Structures unify amounts to testing for modal satisfiability. In this paper we put this observation to work. We study the complexity of the satisfiability problem for nine modal languages which mirror different aspects of AVS description formalisms, including the ability to express re-entrancy, the ability to express generalisations, and the ability to express recursive constraints. Two main (...)
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  7. Gerlof J. Bouma & Petra Hendriks (2012). Partial Word Order Freezing in Dutch. Journal of Logic, Language and Information 21 (1):53-73.
    Dutch allows for variation as to whether the first position in the sentence is occupied by the subject or by some other constituent, such as the direct object. In particular situations, however, this commonly observed variation in word order is ‘frozen’ and only the subject appears in first position. We hypothesize that this partial freezing of word order in Dutch can be explained from the dependence of the speaker’s choice of word order on the hearer’s interpretation of this word order. (...)
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  8. Line Brandt (2009). Subjectivity in the Act of Representing: The Case for Subjective Motion and Change. [REVIEW] Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 8 (4):573-601.
    The objective in the present paper is to analyze the aspect of subjectivity having to do with construing motion and change where no motion and change exists outside the representation, that is, in cases where the conceptualizer does not intend to convey the idea that these properties exist in the state of affairs described. In the process of doing so, I will elaborate on a critique of the notion of fictivity as it is currently being used in cognitive linguistics.
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  9. W. M. Calder (1926). Lexical Notes. The Classical Review 40 (01):18-19.
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  10. Andrew Carstairs-McCarthy (2003). A Shrug is Not a Sentence. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 26 (2):215-215.
    Corballis's claim that the origin of syntax lies in solely gesture is contested. His scenario does not explain why constraints on syntactic “movement” are apparently part of the human biological endowment for language. It also does not pay enough attention to the internal structure of sentences, and how they contrast with other linguistic units such as noun phrases.
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  11. Robyn Carston & Gower Street, The Relationship Between Generative Grammar and (Relevance-Theoretic) Pragmatics.
    The generative grammar approach to language seeks a fully explicit account of the modular systems of knowledge (competence) that underlies the human language capacity. Similarly, the relevance-theoretic approach to pragmatics attempts an explicit characterisation of the sub-personal systems involved in utterance interpretation. As an on-line performance system, however, it is subject to certain additional constraints; this is demonstrated by the way in which matters of computational (processing effort) economy are currently employed in the two types of theory. A sub-module of (...)
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  12. Harald Clahsen (1999). The Dual Nature of the Language Faculty. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22 (6):1046-1055.
    The following discussion aims to illuminate further the way in which morphologically complex words are represented in the mental lexicon. It is argued that the dual-mechanism model can accommodate the linguistic and psycholinguistic evidence currently available, not only on German inflection (as pointed out in the target article) but also on other languages (as presented in several commentaries). Associative single-mechanism models of inflection, on the other hand, provide only partial accounts.
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  13. John Collins (2011). Impossible Words Again: Or Why Beds Break but Not Make. Mind and Language 26 (2):234-260.
    Do lexical items have internal structure that contributes to, or determines, the stable interpretation of their potential hosts? One argument in favour of the claim that lexical items are so structured is that certain putative verbs appear to be ‘impossible’, where the intended interpretation of them is apparently precluded by the character of their internal structure. The adequacy of such reasoning has recently been debated by Fodor and Lepore and Johnson, but to no apparent resolution. The present paper argues that (...)
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  14. Rudi Conrad (1987). Lexical Meaning and Ideological Knowledge. In Albrecht Neubert & Rudolf Růžička (eds.), Topics on the Semantic Borderline. Akademie Der Wissenschaften Der Ddr, Zentralinstitut für Sprachwissenschaft.
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  15. Annabel Cormack & Ruth M. Kempson (1981). On 'Formal Games and Forms for Games'. Linguistics and Philosophy 4 (3):431 - 435.
  16. M. J. Cresswell & John C. Bigelow (1978). Review. [REVIEW] Linguistics and Philosophy 2 (3):289-295.
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  17. Charles B. Cross (2001). A Theorem Concerning Syntactical Treatments of Nonidealized Belief. Synthese 129 (3):335 - 341.
    In Syntactical Treatments of Modality, with Corollaries on Reflexion Principles and Finite Axiomatizability, Acta Philosophica Fennica 16 (1963), 153–167, Richard Montague shows that the use of a single syntactic predicate (with a context-independent semantic value) to represent modalities of alethic necessity and idealized knowledge leads to inconsistency. In A Note on Syntactical Treatments of Modality, Synthese 44 (1980), 391–395, Richmond Thomason obtains a similar impossibility result for idealized belief: under a syntactical treatment of belief, the assumption that idealized belief is (...)
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  18. Kris De Jaegher & Robert van Rooij (2013). Game-Theoretic Pragmatics Under Conflicting and Common Interests. Erkenntnis:1-52.
    This paper combines a survey of existing literature in game-theoretic pragmatics with new models that fill some voids in that literature. We start with an overview of signaling games with a conflict of interest between sender and receiver, and show that the literature on such games can be classified into models with direct, costly, noisy and imprecise signals. We then argue that this same subdivision can be used to classify signaling games with common interests, where we fill some voids in (...)
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  19. Peter Ford Dominey (2003). A Conceptuocentric Shift in the Characterization of Language. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 26 (6):674-675.
    Recognizing limitations of the “syntactocentric” perspective, Jackendoff proposes a model in which phonology, syntax, and conceptual systems are each independently combinatorial. We can ask, however, whether he has taken this issue to its logical conclusion. The fundamental question that is not fully addressed is whether the combinatorial aspect of syntax originated in, and derives from, the indeed “far richer” conceptual system, a question to be discussed.
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  20. David A. Freedman & William Wang (1996). Language Polygenesis: A Probabilistic Model. .
    Monogenesis of language is widely accepted, but the conventional argument seems to be mistaken; a simple probabilistic model shows that polygenesis is likely. Other prehistoric inventions are discussed, as are problems in tracing linguistic lineages. Language is a system of representations; within such a system, words can evoke complex and systematic responses. Along with its social functions, language is important to humans as a mental instrument. Indeed, the invention of language,that is the accumulation of symbols to represent emotions, objects, and (...)
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  21. Jean Mark Gawron (1988). Lexical Representations and the Semantics of Complementation. Garland Pub..
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  22. Adele E. Goldberg (2013). Argument Structure Constructions Versus Lexical Rules or Derivational Verb Templates. Mind and Language 28 (4):435-465.
    The idea that correspondences relating grammatical relations and semantics (argument structure constructions) are needed to account for simple sentence types is reviewed, clarified, updated and compared with two lexicalist alternatives. Traditional lexical rules take one verb as ‘input’ and create (or relate) a different verb as ‘output’. More recently, invisible derivational verb templates have been proposed, which treat argument structure patterns as zero derivational affixes that combine with a root verb to yield a new verb. While the derivational template perspective (...)
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  23. Tao Gong (2011). Simulating the Coevolution of Compositionality and Word Order Regularity. Interaction Studies 12 (1):63-106.
    This paper proposes a coevolutionary scenario on the origins of compositionality and word order regularity in human language, and illustrates it using a multi-agent, behavioral model. The model traces a `bottom-up' process of syntactic development; artificial agents, by iterating local orders among lexical items, gradually build up basic constituent word order(s) in sentences. These results show that structural features of language (e.g. syntactic categories and word orders) could have coevolved with lexical items, as a consequence of general learning mechanisms (e.g. (...)
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  24. Anthony G. Greenwald, R. L. Abrams, Lionel Naccache & Stanislas Dehaene (2003). Long-Term Semantic Memory Versus Contextual Memory in Unconscious Number Processing. Journal of Experimental Psychology 29 (2):235-247.
    Subjects classified visible 2-digit numbers as larger or smaller than 55. Target numbers were preceded by masked 2-digit primes that were either congruent (same relation to 55) or incongruent. Experiments 1 and 2 showed prime congruency effects for stimuli never included in the set of classified visible targets, indicating subliminal priming based on long-term semantic memory. Experiments 2 and 3 went further to demonstrate paradoxical unconscious priming effects resulting from task context. For example, after repeated practice classifying 73 as larger (...)
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  25. Xiaoqiang Han (2009). Feature-Placing Sentences and the Canonical Scheme. Abstracta 4 (2):30-42.
    Feature-placing sentences are often confused with the general sentences in the canonical predicate calculus. The confusion is largely caused by their perceived commonality that both lack the subject-predicate form. In this paper, I offer some clarification of the fundamental differences between the two: the general sentences of the canonical predicate calculus contain predicates and variables which take individual objects as their values, and it is the sense of predication implied by the existence of predicates in these general sentences that is (...)
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  26. Jeffrey Heinz & William Idsardi (2013). What Complexity Differences Reveal About Domains in Language. Topics in Cognitive Science 5 (1):111-131.
    An important distinction between phonology and syntax has been overlooked. All phonological patterns belong to the regular region of the Chomsky Hierarchy, but not all syntactic patterns do. We argue that the hypothesis that humans employ distinct learning mechanisms for phonology and syntax currently offers the best explanation for this difference.
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  27. Steve Henser (2002). Relativistic Implications of a Natural-Language-Based Format for Thought. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 25 (6):688-689.
    I will argue (contra Carruthers) that accepting natural language as the format of many of our thoughts should entail accepting a version of Whorfian relativism and that, rather than something to be avoided, evidence from bilingual cognition suggests that incorporating this idea into future research would yield further insights into the cognitive functions of natural language.
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  28. J. F. M. Hunter (1990). Wittgenstein on Words as Instruments: Lessons in Philosophical Psychology. Barnes & Noble Books.
    Parti INTRODUCTION Wittgenstein sometimes suggested looking on words as instruments, for example in the following passages from ...
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  29. Eero Hyvönen (1986). Applying a Logical Interpretation of Semantic Nets and Graph Grammars to Natural Language Parsing and Understanding. Synthese 66 (1):177 - 190.
    In this paper a logical interpretation of semantic nets and graph grammars is proposed for modelling natural language understanding and creating language understanding computer systems. An example of parsing a Finnish question by graph grammars and inferring the answer to it by a semantic net representation is provided.
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  30. Peter Indefrey (1999). Some Problems with the Lexical Status of Nondefault Inflection. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22 (6):1025-1025.
    Clahsen's characterization of nondefault inflection as based exclusively on lexical entries does not capture the full range of empirical data on German inflection. In the verb system differential effects of lexical frequency seem to be input-related rather than affecting morphological production. In the noun system, the generalization properties of -n and -e plurals exceed mere analogy-based productivity.
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  31. Ray Jackendoff, Alternative Minimalist Visions of Language.
    The primary goal of modern linguistic theory (at least in the circles I inhabit) is an explanation of the human language capacity and how it enables the child to acquire adult competence in language.1 Adult competence in turn is understood as the ability (or knowledge) to creatively map between sound and meaning, using a rich combinatorial system – the lexicon and grammar of the language. An adequate theory must satisfy at least three crucial constraints, which I will call the Descriptive (...)
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  32. Ray Jackendoff, A Parallel Architecture Perspective on Language Processing.
    Article history: This article sketches the Parallel Architecture, an approach to the structure of grammar that Accepted 29 August 2006 contrasts with mainstream generative grammar (MGG) in that (a) it treats phonology, Available online 13 October 2006 syntax, and semantics as independent generative components whose structures are linked by interface rules; (b) it uses a parallel constraint-based formalism that is nondirectional; (c) Keywords: it treats words and rules alike as pieces of linguistic structure stored in long-term memory.
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  33. Ray Jackendoff, Contrastive Focus Reduplication in English (the Salad-Salad Paper).
    This paper presents a phenomenon of colloquial English that we call Contrastive Reduplication (CR), involving the copying of words and sometimes phrases as in It’s tuna salad, not SALAD-salad, or Do you LIKE-HIM-like him? Drawing on a corpus of examples gathered from natural speech, written texts, and television scripts, we show that CR restricts the interpretation of the copied element to a ‘real’ or prototypical reading. Turning to the structural properties of the construction, we show that CR is unusual among (...)
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  34. Ray Jackendoff, 1. The Parallel Architecture.
    The basic premise of the Parallel Architecture (Jackendoff 1997, 2002) is that phonology, syntax, and semantics are independent generative components in language, each with its own primitives and principles of combination. The theory builds on insights about linguistic structure that emerged in the 1970s. First, phonology was demonstrated to have highly articulated structure that cannot be derived directly from syntax: structured units such as syllables and prosodic constituents do not correspond one-to-one with syntactic units. Moreover, phonological structure includes several independent (...)
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  35. Gerhard Jäger (2007). The Evolution of Convex Categories. Linguistics and Philosophy 30 (5):551-564.
    Gärdenfors (Conceptual spaces, 2000) argues that the semantic domains that natural language deals with have a geometrical structure. He gives evidence that simple natural language adjectives usually denote natural properties, where a natural property is a convex region of such a “conceptual space.” In this paper I will show that this feature of natural categories need not be stipulated as basic. In fact, it can be shown to be the result of evolutionary dynamics of communicative strategies under very general assumptions.
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  36. R. Joseph (2000). The Limbic Language/Language Axis Theory of Speech. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (3):439-440.
    In a recent BBS target article, MacNeilage (1998) presents what he claims to be the only theory that can account for the evolution of language. However, major portions of his target article basically repeat and in many respects are identical to the theories of language evolution and development first proposed and detailed by the present commentator.
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  37. John Kadvany (2010). Indistinguishable From Magic: Computation is Cognitive Technology. [REVIEW] Minds and Machines 20 (1):119-143.
    This paper explains how mathematical computation can be constructed from weaker recursive patterns typical of natural languages. A thought experiment is used to describe the formalization of computational rules, or arithmetical axioms, using only orally-based natural language capabilities, and motivated by two accomplishments of ancient Indian mathematics and linguistics. One accomplishment is the expression of positional value using versified Sanskrit number words in addition to orthodox inscribed numerals. The second is Pāṇini’s invention, around the fifth century BCE, of a formal (...)
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  38. Roni Katzir & Raj Singh (2013). Constraints on the Lexicalization of Logical Operators. Linguistics and Philosophy 36 (1):1-29.
    We revisit a typological puzzle due to Horn (Doctoral Dissertation, UCLA, 1972) regarding the lexicalization of logical operators: in instantiations of the traditional square of opposition across categories and languages, the O corner, corresponding to ‘nand’ (= not and), ‘nevery’ (= not every), etc., is never lexicalized. We discuss Horn’s proposal, which involves the interaction of two economy conditions, one that relies on scalar implicatures and one that relies on markedness. We observe that in order to express markedness and to (...)
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  39. Paul Kiparsky, Reduplication in Stratal OT.
    In Stratal OT, morphology and phonology are stratified and interleaved, as in traditional Lexical Phonology (Mohanan 1986), but the strata (Stem, Word, Postlexical) are characterized by systems of parallel constraints. The output of each morphological operation is submitted to the phonological constraints on its stratum: stems must satisfy the stem phonology, words must satisfy the word phonology, and Phrase must satisfy the phrasal phonology.1 For example, an affix which is added to stems to form words would enter into the derivation (...)
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  40. Andrew Koontz-Garboden (2010). The Lexical Semantics of Derived Statives. Linguistics and Philosophy 33 (4):285-324.
    This paper investigates the semantics of derived statives, deverbal adjectives that fail to entail there to have been a preceding (temporal) event of the kind named by the verb they are derived from, e.g. darkened in a darkened portion of skin. Building on Gawron’s (The lexical semantics of extent verbs, San Diego State University, ms, 2009) recent observations regarding the semantics of extent uses of change of state verbs (e.g., Kim’s skin darkens between the knee and the calf) and Kennedy (...)
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  41. Sid Kouider & Emmanuel Dupoux (2001). A Functional Disconnection Between Spoken and Visual Word Recognition: Evidence From Unconscious Priming. Cognition 82 (1):35- 49.
  42. Brigitte Krenn (2000). The Usual Suspects: Data-Oriented Models for Identification and Representation of Lexical Collocations. Dfki.
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  43. Amichai Kronfeld (1990). Reference and Computation: An Essay in Applied Philosophy of Language. Cambridge University Press.
    This book deals with a major problem in the study of language: the problem of reference. The ease with which we refer to things in conversation is deceptive. Upon closer scrutiny, it turns out that we hardly ever tell each other explicitly what object we mean, although we expect our interlocutor to discern it. Amichai Kronfeld provides an answer to two questions associated with this: how do we successfully refer, and how can a computer be programmed to achieve this? Beginning (...)
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  44. Eric Lormand, Pshaw!
    Since my proposed framework for meaning (in Holist" and Atomist") is neither simply a psychosemantic holism nor simply a psychosemantic atomism, but a marriage in which the two have become one, we might call it a psychosemantic holism-atomism wedlock (PSHAW). In this paper I want to.
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  45. Max M. Louwerse, Rick Dale, Ellen G. Bard & Patrick Jeuniaux (2012). Behavior Matching in Multimodal Communication is Synchronized. Cognitive Science 36 (8):1404-1426.
    A variety of theoretical frameworks predict the resemblance of behaviors between two people engaged in communication, in the form of coordination, mimicry, or alignment. However, little is known about the time course of the behavior matching, even though there is evidence that dyads synchronize oscillatory motions (e.g., postural sway). This study examined the temporal structure of nonoscillatory actions—language, facial, and gestural behaviors—produced during a route communication task. The focus was the temporal relationship between matching behaviors in the interlocutors (e.g., facial (...)
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  46. David Lumsden (2002). Crossing the Symbolic Threshold: A Critical Review of Terrence Deacon's the Symbolic Species. [REVIEW] Philosophical Psychology 15 (2):155 – 171.
    Terrence Deacon's views about the origin of language are based on a particular notion of a symbol. While the notion is derived from Peirce's semiotics, it diverges from that source and needs to be investigated on its own terms in order to evaluate the idea that the human species has crossed the symbolic threshold. Deacon's view is defended from the view that symbols in the animal world are widespread and from the extreme connectionist view that they are not even to (...)
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  47. Eric McCready (2012). Emotive Equilibria. Linguistics and Philosophy 35 (3):243-283.
    Natural language contains many expressions with underspecified emotive content. This paper proposes a way to resolve such underspecification. Nonmonotonic inference over a knowledge base is used to derive an expected interpretation for emotive expressions in a particular context. This ‘normal’ meaning is then taken to influence the hearer’s expectations about probable interpretations, and, because of these probable interpretations, the decisions of the speaker about when use of underspecified emotive terms is appropriate.
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  48. Bo Mou (2008). A Subject-Comment Account of Predication. Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 39:167-191.
    This paper is concerned with the issue of how predication is possible, as a significant common concern in the philosophy of language, metaphysics and semantics. A ‘subject-comment’ account is suggested in view of its constructive engagement with two relevant competing approaches, i.e., the traditional ‘subject-categorization’ account and the ‘topic-comment’ account. The suggested account views predication as a unifying two-level predication: the primary level of predication is made through recognizing and commenting on some particular attribute(s) of the subject’s semantic referent as (...)
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  49. Laura L. Namy & Lynne C. Nygaard (2008). Perceptual-Motor Constraints on Sound-to-Meaning Correspondence in Language. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 31 (5):528-529.
    The proposal that language has evolved to conform to general cognitive and learning constraints inherent in the human brain calls for specification of these mechanisms. We propose that just as cognition appears to be grounded in cross-modal perceptual-motor capabilities, so too must language. Evidence for perceptual-motor grounding comes from non-arbitrary sound-to-meaning correspondences and their role in word learning.
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  50. Partha Niyogi & Robert C. Berwick (1997). Evolutionary Consequences of Language Learning. Linguistics and Philosophy 20 (6):697-719.
    Linguists intuitions about language change can be captured by adynamical systems model derived from the dynamics of language acquisition.Rather than having to posit a separate model for diachronic change, as hassometimes been done by drawing on assumptions from population biology (cf.Cavalli-Sforza and Feldman, 1973; 1981; Kroch, 1990), this new modeldispenses with these independent assumptions by showing how the behavior ofindividual language learners leads to emergent, global populationcharacteristics of linguistic communities over several generations. As thesimplest case, we formalize the example of (...)
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