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Quantum Mechanics

Edited by Michael Cuffaro (Ludwig Maximilians Universität, München)
Assistant editors: Radin Dardashti, Brian Padden
About this topic
Summary Issues in the philosophy of quantum mechanics include first and foremost, its interpretation. Probably the most well-known of these is the 'orthodox' Copenhagen interpretation associated with Neils Bohr, Werner Heisenberg, Wolfgang Pauli, John von Neumann, and others. Beginning roughly at the midway point of the previous century, philosophers' attention began to be drawn towards alternative interpretations of the theory, including Bohmian mechanics, the relative state formulation of quantum mechanics and its variants (i.e., DeWit's "many worlds" variant, Albert and Loewer's "many minds" variant, etc.), and the dynamical collapse family of theories. One particular interpretational issue that has attracted very much attention since the seminal work of John Bell, is the issue of the extent to which quantum mechanical systems do or do not admit of a local realistic description. Bell's investigation of the properties of entangled quantum systems, inspired by the famous thought experiment of Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen, seems to lead one to the conclusion that the only realistic "hidden variables" interpretation compatible with the quantum mechanical formalism is a nonlocal one. In recent years, some of the attention has focused on applications of quantum mechanics and their potential for illuminating quantum foundations. These include the sciences of quantum information and quantum computation. Additional areas of research include philosophical investigation into the extensions of nonrelativistic quantum mechanics (such as quantum electrodynamics and quantum field theory more generally), as well as more formal logico-mathematical investigations into the structure of quantum states, state spaces, and their dynamics.
Key works Bohr 1928 and Heisenberg 1930 expound upon what has since become known as the 'Copenhagen interpretation' of quantum mechanics. The famous 'EPR' thought experiment of Einstein et al 1935 aims to show that quantum mechanics is an incomplete theory which should be supplemented by additional ('hidden') parameters. Bohr 1935 replies. More on Bohr's views can be found in Faye 1991, Folse 1985. Inspired by the EPR thought experiment, Bell 2004 [1964] proves what has since become known as "Bell's theorem." This, and a related result due to Kochen & Specker 1967 serve to revive the discussion of hidden variables and alternative interpretations of quantum mechanics. Jarrett 1984 analyses the key "factorisability" assumption Bell uses to derive his theorem into two distinct sub-assumptions, which Jarrett refers to as "locality" and "completeness". Two important volumes dedicated to the topics of entanglement and nonlocality are Cushing & McMullin 1989 and Maudlin 2002. Among the more discussed alternative interpretations of quantum mechanics are: Bohmian mechanics (Bohm 1952, and see also Cushing et al 1996), and Everett's relative state formulation (Everett Iii 1973). The latter gives rise to many variants, including the many worlds, many minds, and decoherence-based approaches (see Saunders et al 2012). Other notable interpretations and alternative theories include dynamical collapse theories (Ghirardi et al 1986), as well as the Copenhagen-inspired Quantum Bayesianism view (Fuchs 2003). An attempt to axiomatize quantum mechanics in terms of information theoretic constraints, and a discussion of the relevance of this for the interpretation of quantum mechanics is given in Clifton et al 2003. Discussion of this and other issues in quantum information theory can be found in: Timpson 2013. Key works in the philosophy of quantum field theory include: Redhead 1995, Redhead 1994, Ruetsche 2013, Teller 1995.
Introductions Hughes 1989 is an excellent introduction to the formalism and interpretation of quantum mechanics. Albert 1992 is another, which focuses particularly on the problem of measurement in quantum mechanics.
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  1. C. Carmeli, G. Cassinelli & F. Zizzi (2009). Generalized Orthogonality Relations and SU(1,1)-Quantum Tomography. Foundations of Physics 39 (6):521-549.
    We present a mathematically precise derivation of some generalized orthogonality relations for the discrete series representations of SU(1,1). These orthogonality relations are applied to derive tomographical reconstruction formulas. Their physical interpretation is also discussed.
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  2. M. Carmeli (1985). Field Theory onR× S 3 Topology. I: The Klein-Gordon and Schrödinger Equations. [REVIEW] Foundations of Physics 15 (2):175-184.
    A Klein-Gordon-type equation onR×S 3 topology is derived, and its nonrelativistic Schrödinger equation is given. The equation is obtained with a Laplacian defined onS 3 topology instead of the ordinary Laplacian. A discussion of the solutions and the physical interpretation of the equation are subsequently given, and the most general solution to the equation is presented.
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  3. M. Carmeli & S. Malin (1987). Field Theory onR×S 3 Topology. VI: Gravitation. [REVIEW] Foundations of Physics 17 (4):407-417.
    We extend to curved space-time the field theory on R×S3 topology in which field equations were obtained for scalar particles, spin one-half particles, the electromagnetic field of magnetic moments, an SU2 gauge theory, and a Schrödinger-type equation, as compared to ordinary field equations that are formulated on a Minkowskian metric. The theory obtained is an angular-momentum representation of gravitation. Gravitational field equations are presented and compared to the Einstein field equations, and the mathematical and physical similarity and differences between them (...)
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  4. M. Carmeli & S. Malin (1986). Field Theory onR×S 3 Topology. IV: Electrodynamics of Magnetic Moments. [REVIEW] Foundations of Physics 16 (8):791-806.
    The equations of electrodynamics for the interactions between magnetic moments are written on R×S3 topology rather than on Minkowskian space-time manifold of ordinary Maxwell's equations. The new field equations are an extension of the previously obtained Klein-Gordon-type, Schrödinger-type, Weyl-type, and Dirac-type equations. The concept of the magnetic moment in our case takes over that of the charge in ordinary electrodynamics as the fundamental entity. The new equations have R×S3 invariance as compared to the Lorentz invariance of Maxwell's equations. The solutions (...)
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  5. M. Carmeli & S. Malin (1985). Field Theory onR× S 3 Topology. III: The Dirac Equation. [REVIEW] Foundations of Physics 15 (10):1019-1029.
    A Dirac-type equation on R×S 3 topology is derived. It is a generalization of the previously obtained Klein-Gordon-type, Schrödinger-type, and Weyl-type equations, and reduces to the latter in the appropriate limit. The (discrete) energy spectrum is found and the corresponding complete set of solutions is given as expansions in terms of the matrix elements of the irreducible representations of the group SU 2 . Finally, the properties of the solutions are discussed.
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  6. M. Carmeli & S. Malin (1985). Field Theory onR× S 3 Topology. II: The Weyl Equation. [REVIEW] Foundations of Physics 15 (2):185-191.
    A Weyl-type equation onR×S 3 topology is derived, as a generalization to previously obtained Klein-Gordon- and Schrödinger-type equations for the same topology. The general solution of the new equation is given as an expansion in the matrix elements of the irreducible representations of the groupSU 2. The properties of the solutions are discussed.
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  7. M. Carmeli & A. Malka (1990). Field Theory onR×S 3 Topology: Lagrangian Formulation. [REVIEW] Foundations of Physics 20 (1):71-110.
    A brief description of the ordinary field theory, from the variational and Noether's theorem point of view, is outlined. A discussion is then given of the field equations of Klein-Gordon, Schrödinger, Dirac, Weyl, and Maxwell in their ordinary form on the Minkowskian space-time manifold as well as on the topological space-time manifold R × S3 as they were formulated by Carmeli and Malin, including the latter's most general solutions. We then formulate the general variational principle in the R × S3 (...)
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  8. Robert Carroll (2005). Information, Quantum Mechanics, and Gravity. Foundations of Physics 35 (1):131-154.
    This is a basically expository article, with some new observations, tracing connections of the quantum potential to Fisher information, to Kähler geometry of the projective Hilbert space of a quantum system, and to the Weyl-Ricci scalar curvature of a Riemannian flat spacetime with quantum matter.
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  9. C. Carson (1996). The Peculiar Notion of Exchange Forces--I: Origins in Quantum Mechanics, 1926-1928. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B 27 (1):23-45.
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  10. Nancy Cartwright, Models and the Limits of Theory: Quantum Hamiltonians and the BCS Model of Superconductivity.
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  11. Nancy Cartwright (1985). Book Review:Quantum Theory and Measurement John Archibald Wheeler, Wojciech Hubert Zurek. [REVIEW] Philosophy of Science 52 (3):480-.
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  12. Nancy Cartwright (1974). Correlations Without Joint Distributions in Quantum Mechanics. Foundations of Physics 4 (1):127-136.
    The use of joint distribution functions for noncommuting observables in quantum thermodynamics is investigated in the light of L. Cohen's proof that such distributions are not determined by the quantum state. Cohen's proof is irrelevant to uses of the functions that do not depend on interpreting them as distributions. An example of this, from quantum Onsager theory, is discussed. Other uses presuppose that correlations betweenp andq values depend at least on the state. But correlations may be fixed by the state (...)
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  13. Nancy Cartwright (1974). Book Review:Paradigms and Paradoxes: The Philosophical Challenge of the Quantum Domain Robert G. Colodny. [REVIEW] Philosophy of Science 41 (2):207-.
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  14. Nancy Cartwright (1972). Book Review:Quantum Theory and Beyond Ted Bastin. [REVIEW] Philosophy of Science 39 (4):558-.
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  15. G. Cassinelli, E. De Vito, P. Lahti & A. Levrero (2000). A Theorem of Ludwig Revisited. Foundations of Physics 30 (10):1757-1763.
    Using a recent result of Busch and Gudder, we reconsider a theorem of Ludwig which allows one to identify a class of effect automorphisms as the symmetry transformations in quantum mechanics.
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  16. Gianni Cassinelli & Pekka J. Lahti (1989). The Measurement Statistics Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics: Possible Values and Possible Measurement Results of Physical Quantities. [REVIEW] Foundations of Physics 19 (7):873-890.
    Starting with the Born interpretation of quantum mechanics, we show that the quantum theory of measurement, supplemented by the strong law of large numbers, leads to a measurement statistics interpretation of quantum mechanics. A probabilistic characterization of the spectrum of a physical quantity is given, and an analysis of the notions of possible values and possible measurement results is carried out.
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  17. Ernst Cassirer (1923/2003). Substance and Function. Dover Publications.
    In this double-volume work, a great modern philosopher propounds a system of thought in which Einstein's theory of relativity represents only the latest (albeit the most radical) fulfillment of the motives inherent to mathematics and the physical sciences. In the course of its exposition, it touches upon such topics as the concept of number, space and time, geometry, and energy; Euclidean and non-Euclidean geometry; traditional logic and scientific method; mechanism and motion; Mayer's methodology of natural science; Richter's definite proportions; relational (...)
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  18. Eva Cassirer (1958). Methodology and Quantum Physics. [REVIEW] British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 8 (32):334-341.
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  19. P. Catillon, N. Cue, M. J. Gaillard, R. Genre, M. Gouanère, R. G. Kirsch, J. -C. Poizat, J. Remillieux, L. Roussel & M. Spighel (2008). A Search for the de Broglie Particle Internal Clock by Means of Electron Channeling. Foundations of Physics 38 (7):659-664.
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  20. C. M. Caves (1994). Quantum Theory: Concepts and Methods. Foundations of Physics 24:1583-1583.
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  21. Lucas C. Céleri, Rafael M. Gomes, Radu Ionicioiu, Thomas Jennewein, Robert B. Mann & Daniel R. Terno (forthcoming). Quantum Control in Foundational Experiments. Foundations of Physics:1-12.
    We describe a new class of experiments designed to probe the foundations of quantum mechanics. Using quantum controlling devices, we show how to attain a freedom in temporal ordering of the control and detection of various phenomena. We consider wave–particle duality in the context of quantum-controlled and the entanglement-assisted delayed-choice experiments. Then we discuss a quantum-controlled CHSH experiment and measurement of photon’s transversal position and momentum in a single set-up.
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  22. Milan M. Ćirković (2005). Physics Versus Semantics: A Puzzling Case of the Missing Quantum Theory. [REVIEW] Foundations of Physics 35 (5):817-838.
    A case for the project of excising of confusion and obfuscation in the contemporary quantum theory initiated and promoted by David Deutsch has been made. It has been argued that at least some theoretical entities which are conventionally labelled as “interpretations” of quantum mechanics are in fact full-blooded physical theories in their own right, and as such are falsifiable, at least in principle. The most pertinent case is the one of the so-called “Many-Worlds Interpretation” (MWI) of Everett and others. This (...)
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  23. O. Civitarese & M. Gadella (2013). On the Concept of Entropy for Quantum Decaying Systems. Foundations of Physics 43 (11):1275-1294.
    The classical concept of entropy was successfully extended to quantum mechanics by the introduction of the density operator formalism. However, further extensions to quantum decaying states have been hampered by conceptual difficulties associated to the particular nature of these states. In this work we address this problem, by (i) pointing out the difficulties that appear when one tries a consistent definition for this entropy, and (ii) building up a plausible formalism for it, which is based on the use of coherent (...)
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  24. John W. Clark, Hessam Habibian, Aikaterini D. Mandilara & Manfred L. Ristig (2010). Aspects of Entanglement in Quantum Many-Body Systems. Foundations of Physics 40 (9-10):1200-1220.
    Knowledge of the entanglement properties of the wave functions commonly used to describe quantum many-particle systems can enhance our understanding of their correlation structure and provide new insights into quantum phase transitions that are observed experimentally or predicted theoretically. To illustrate this theme, we first examine the bipartite entanglement contained in the wave functions generated by microscopic many-body theory for the transverse Ising model, a system of Pauli spins on a lattice that exhibits an order-disorder magnetic quantum phase transition under (...)
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  25. C. J. S. Clarke (1974). Quantum Theory and Cosmolog. Philosophy of Science 41 (4):317-332.
    Interpretations, or generalizations, of quantum theory that are applicable to cosmology are of interest because they must display and resolve the "paradoxes" directly. The Everett interpretation is reexamined and compared with two alternatives. Its "metaphysical" connotations can be removed, after which it is found to be more acceptable than a theory which incorporates collapse, while retaining some unsatisfactory features.
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  26. Chris Clarke (2005). Being and Field Theory: Review Article. Journal of Consciousness Studies 12 (s 4-5):135-139.
    This article arises from the remarkably multi-faceted book Brain and Being edited by Gordon Globus and others, hereafter referred to as B&B. It raises questions (though not unusually, few answers) about several related areas: the way in which quantum theory might endow the physical matter of the brain with surprising, though still essentially classical, properties; the possibility that quantum field theory might shed a wholly new light on aspects of consciousness, in both the subjective and neurological approaches; and, at the (...)
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  27. Christopher J. S. Clarke (2007). The Role of Quantum Physics in the Theory of Subjective Consciousness. Mind and Matter 5 (1):45-81.
    I argue that a dual-aspect theory of consciousness, associated with a particular class of quantum states, can provide a consistent account of consciousness. I illustrate this with the use of coherent states as this class. The proposal meets Chalmers 'requirements of allowing a structural correspondence between consciousness and its physical correlate. It provides a means for consciousness to have an effect on the world (it is not an epiphenomenon, and can thus be selected by evolution) in a way that supplements (...)
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  28. Philip Clayton (2009). Constraint and Freedom in the Movement From Quantum Physics to Theology. In F. LeRon Shults, Nancey C. Murphy & Robert J. Russell (eds.), Philosophy, Science and Divine Action. Brill.
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  29. Philip Clayton (2004). Mind and Emergence: From Quantum to Consciousness. Oxford University Press.
    Strong claims have been made for emergence as a new paradigm for understanding science, consciousness, and religion. Tracing the past history and current definitions of the concept, Clayton assesses the case for emergent phenomena in the natural world and their significance for philosophy and theology. Complex emergent phenomena require irreducible levels of explanation in physics, chemistry and biology. This pattern of emergence suggests a new approach to the problem of consciousness, which is neither reducible to brain states nor proof of (...)
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  30. A. A. Clerk & J. E. Sipe (1998). Nonlocality and the Rotating Wave Approximation. Foundations of Physics 28 (4):639-651.
    The effect of the rotating-wave approximation (RWA) on the coupling between an atom and the electromagnetic field is studied in the dipole approximation. It is demonstrated that use of the RWA results in an explicitly nonlocal interaction.
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  31. R. Clifton (1995). Quantum Theory: Concepts and Methods. Foundations of Physics 25:205-205.
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  32. Rob Clifton (2004). Quantum Entanglements: Selected Papers. Oxford University Press.
    Rob Clifton was one of the most brilliant and productive researchers in the foundations and philosophy of quantum theory, who died tragically at the age of 38. Jeremy Butterfield and Hans Halvorson collect fourteen of his finest papers here, drawn from the latter part of his career (1995-2002), all of which combine exciting philosophical discussion with rigorous mathematical results. Many of these papers break wholly new ground, either conceptually or technically. Others resolve a vague controversy intoa precise technical problem, which (...)
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  33. Rob Clifton, Scientific Explanation in Quantum Theory.
    In this paper (which is, at best, a work in progress), I discuss different modes of scientific explanation identified by philosophers (Hempel, Salmon, Kitcher, Friedman, Hughes) and examine how well or badly they capture the "explanations" of phenomena that modern quantum theory provides. I tentatively conclude that quantum explanation is best seen as "structural explanation", and spell out in detail how this works in the case of explaining vacuum correlations. Problems and prospects for structural explanation in quantum theory are also (...)
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  34. Rob Clifton, Introductory Notes on the Mathematics Needed for Quantum Theory.
    These are notes designed to bring the beginning student of the philosophy of quantum mechanics 'up to scratch' on the mathematical background needed to understand elementary finite-dimensional quantum theory. There are just three chapters: Ch. 1 'Vector Spaces'; Ch. 2 'Inner Product Spaces'; and Ch. 3 'Operators on Finite-Dimensional Complex Inner Product Spaces'. The notes are entirely self-contained and presuppose knowledge of only high school level algebra.
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  35. Rob Clifton, Jeffrey Bub & Hans Halvorson (2003). Characterizing Quantum Theory in Terms of Information-Theoretic Constraints. Foundations of Physics 33 (11):1561-1591.
    We show that three fundamental information-theoretic constraints -- the impossibility of superluminal information transfer between two physical systems by performing measurements on one of them, the impossibility of broadcasting the information contained in an unknown physical state, and the impossibility of unconditionally secure bit commitment -- suffice to entail that the observables and state space of a physical theory are quantum-mechanical. We demonstrate the converse derivation in part, and consider the implications of alternative answers to a remaining open question about (...)
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  36. Rob Clifton & Damian Pope, On the Nonlocality of the Quantum Channel in the Standard Teleportation Protocol.
    By exhibiting a violation of a novel form of the Bell-CHSH inequality, \.{Z}ukowski has recently established that the quantum correlations exploited in the standard perfect teleportation protocol cannot be recovered by any local hidden variables model. Allowing the quantum channel state in the protocol to be given by any density operator of two spin-1/2 particles, we show that a violation of a generalized form of \.{Z}ukowski's teleportation inequality can only occur if the channel state, considered by itself, violates a Bell-CHSH (...)
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  37. Andrew A. Cochran (1971). Relationships Between Quantum Physics and Biology. Foundations of Physics 1 (3):235-250.
    The known facts of quantum physics and biology strongly suggest the following hypotheses: atoms and the fundamental particles have a rudimentary degree of consciousness, volition, or self-activity; the basic features of quantum mechanics are a result of this fact; the quantum mechanical wave properties of matter are actually the conscious properties of matter; and living organisms are a direct result of these properties of matter. These hypotheses are tested by using them to make detailed predictions of new facts, and then (...)
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  38. W. J. Cocke & B. Roy Frieden (1997). Information and Gravitation. Foundations of Physics 27 (10):1397-1412.
    An information-theoretic approach is shown to derive both the classical weak-field equations and the quantum phenomenon of metric fluctuation within the Planck length. A key result is that the weak-field metric $\bar h_{\mu \nu } $ is proportional to a probability amplitude φuv, on quantum fluctuations in four-position. Also derived is the correct form for the Planck quantum length, and the prediction that the cosmological constant is zero. The overall approach utilizes the concept of the Fisher information I acquired in (...)
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  39. Bob Coecke (1998). A Representation for Compound Quantum Systems as Individual Entities: Hard Acts of Creation and Hidden Correlations. [REVIEW] Foundations of Physics 28 (7):1109-1135.
    We introduce an explicit definition for “hidden correlations” on individual entities in a compound system: when one individual entity is measured, this induces a well-defined transition of the “proper state” of the other individual entities. We prove that every compound quantum system described in the tensor product of a finite number of Hilbert spaces can be uniquely represented as a collection of individual entities between which there exist such hidden correlations. We investigate the significance of these hidden correlation representations within (...)
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  40. Bob Coecke (1995). A Hidden Measurement Representation for Quantum Entities Described by Finite-Dimensional Complex Hilbert Spaces. Foundations of Physics 25 (8):1185-1208.
    It will be shown that the probability calculus of a quantum mechanical entity can be obtained in a deterministic framework, embedded in a real space, by introducing a lack of knowledge in the measurements on that entity. For all n ∃ ℕ we propose an explicit model in $\mathbb{R}^{n^2 } $ , which entails a representation for a quantum entity described by an n-dimensional complex Hilbert space þn, namely, the “þn,Euclidean hidden measurement representation.” This Euclidean hidden measurement representation is also (...)
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  41. F. Coester (1995). Local Quantum Physics. Foundations of Physics 25:1797-1798.
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  42. F. Coester & W. Polyzou (1994). Vacuum Structures in Hamiltonian Light-Front Dynamics. Foundations of Physics 24 (3):387-400.
    Hamiltonian light-front dynamics of quantum fields may provide a useful approach to systematic nonperturbative approximations to quantum field theories. We investigate inequivalent Hilbert-space representations of the light-front field algebra in which the stability group of the light front is implemented by unitary transformations. The Hilbert space representation of states is generated by the operator algebra from the vacuum state. There is a large class of vacuum states besides the Fock vacuum which meet all the invariance requirements. The light-front Hamiltonian must (...)
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  43. H. A. Cohen (1974). Is There a Quantization Condition for the Classical Problem of Charge and Pole? Foundations of Physics 4 (1):115-120.
    In elementary derivations of the quantization of azimuthal angular momentum the eigenfunction is determined to be exp(im φ), which is “oversensitive” to the rotation φ → φ+2π, unlessm is an integer. In a recent paper Kerner examined the classical system of charge and magnetic pole, and expressed Π, a vector constant of motion for the system, in terms of a physical angle ψ, to deduce a remarkable paradox. Kerner pointed out that Π(ψ) is “oversensitive” to ψ → ψ+2π unless a (...)
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  44. Leon Cohen (1992). Multipart Wave Functions. Foundations of Physics 22 (5):691-711.
    Some wave functions separate into two or more distinct regions in phase space. Each region is characterized by a trajectory and a spread about that trajectory. The trajectory is the quantum mechanical current. We show that these regions correspond to parts of the wave function and that these parts are generally nonorthogonal.
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  45. D. C. Cole & A. Rueda (1996). The Quantum Dice: An Introduction to Stochastic Electrodynamics. Foundations of Physics 26:1559-1562.
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  46. P. Coleman (1996). Quantum Field Theory in Condensed Matter Physics. Foundations of Physics 26:1733-1735.
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  47. Newton Costa & Olimpia Lombardi (forthcoming). Quantum Mechanics: Ontology Without Individuals. Foundations of Physics:1-12.
    The purpose of the present paper is to consider the traditional interpretive problems of quantum mechanics from the viewpoint of a modal ontology of properties. In particular, we will try to delineate a quantum ontology that (i) is modal, because describes the structure of the realm of possibility, and (ii) lacks the ontological category of individual. The final goal is to supply an adequate account of quantum non-individuality on the basis of this ontology.
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  48. John F. Cyranski (1985). Theory Vs. Experiment: A Holistic Philosophy of Physics. [REVIEW] Foundations of Physics 15 (7):753-771.
    We present a holistic description of physical systems and how they relate to observations. The “theory” is established (geometrically) as a “classical random field theory.” The basic system variables are related to Lie group generators: the conjugate variables define observer parameters. The dichotomy between system and observer leads to acommunication channel relationship. The distortion measure on the channel distinguishes “classical” from “quantum” theories. The experiment is defined in terms that accommodate precision and unreliability. Information theory methods permit stochastic inference (this (...)
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  49. C. D'Antonl & P. Scanzano (1980). An Application of Information Theory: Longitudinal Measurability Bounds in Classical and Quantum Physics. [REVIEW] Foundations of Physics 10 (11-12):875-885.
    We examine the problem of the existence (in classical and/or quantum physics) of longitudinal limitations of measurability, defined as limitations preventing the measurement of a given quantity with arbitrarily high accuracy. We consider a measuring device as a generalized communication system, which enables us to use methods of information theory. As a direct consequence of the Shannon theorem on channel capacity, we obtain an inequality which limits the accuracy of a measurement in terms of the average power necessary to transmit (...)
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  50. Bernard D'Espagnat (2011). Quantum Physics and Reality. Foundations of Physics 41 (11):1703-1716.
    Contrary to classical physics, which was strongly objective i.e. could be interpreted as a description of mind-independent reality, standard quantum mechanics (SQM) is only weakly objective, that is to say, its statements, though intersubjectively valid, still merely refer to operations of the mind. Essentially, in fact, they are predictive of observations. On the view that SQM is universal conventional realism is thereby refuted. It is shown however that this does not rule out a broader form of realism, called here ‘open (...)
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