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Profile: Stephen Turner (University of South Florida)
  1.  4
    Stephen P. Turner (2013). Explaining the Normative. Polity.
    The book considers in detail a paradigm case: legal normativity as constructed by Hans Kelsen. This case exemplifies the problems with normativist arguments.
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  2.  17
    Stephen P. Turner (1994). The Social Theory of Practices: Tradition, Tacit Knowledge, and Presuppositions. University of Chicago Press.
    The concept of "practices"--whether of representation, of political or scientific traditions, or of organizational culture--is central to social theory. In this book, Stephen Turner presents the first analysis and critique of the idea of practice as it has developed in the various theoretical traditions of the social sciences and the humanities. Understood broadly as a tacit understanding "shared" by a group, the concept of a practice has a fatal difficulty, Turner argues: there is no plausible mechanism by which a "practice" (...)
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  3. Stephen P. Turner (1987). The Survey in Nineteenth-Century American Geology: The Evolution of a Form of Patronage. [REVIEW] Minerva 25 (3):282-330.
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  4.  79
    Stephen Turner (1994). Relativism Hot and Cold. History of the Human Sciences 7 (1):109-115.
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  5. Stephen P. Turner (1985). Weltgeist, Intention, and Reproduction: A Code. Sociological Theory 3 (1):23-28.
  6. Stephen P. Turner (2002). Brains/Practices/Relativism Social Theory After Cognitive Science. Monograph Collection (Matt - Pseudo).
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  7.  9
    Peter Olen & Stephen Turner (2015). Durkheim, Sellars, and the Origins of Collective Intentionality. British Journal for the History of Philosophy 23 (5):954-975.
    Wilfrid Sellars read and annotated Celestine Bouglé’s Evolution of Values, translated by his mother with an introduction by his father. The book expounded Émile Durkheim's account of morality and elaborated his account of origins of value in collective social life. Sellars replaced elements of this account in constructing his own conception of the relationship between the normative and community, but preserved a central one: the idea that conflicting collective and individual intentions could be found in the same person. These notoriously (...)
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  8. Stephen P. Turner (1987). Cause, Law, and Probability. Sociological Theory 5 (1):15-19.
  9. Stephen P. Turner (2003). Liberal Democracy 3.0 Civil Society in an Age of Experts. Monograph Collection (Matt - Pseudo).
     
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  10.  43
    Stephen P. Turner (2003). Cause, the Persistence of Teleology, and the Origins of the Philosophy of Social Science. In Stephen P. Turner and Paul Roth (ed.), Blackwell Guide to the Philosophy of the Social Sciences. 21-42.
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  11.  76
    Stephen P. Turner (2007). Explaining Normativity. Philosophy of the Social Sciences 37 (1):57-73.
    In this reply, I raise some questions about the account of "normativity" given by Joseph Rouse. I discuss the historical form of disputes over normativity in such thinkers as Kelsen and show that the standard issue with these accounts is over the question of whether there is anything added to the normal stream of explanation by the problem of normativity. I suggest that Rouse’s attempt to avoid the issues that arise with substantive explanatory theories of practices of the kind criticized (...)
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  12.  10
    Peter Olen & Stephen P. Turner (2016). Was Sellars an Error Theorist? Synthese 193 (7):2053-2075.
    Wilfrid Sellars described the moral syllogism that supports the inference “I ought to do x” from “Everyone ought to do x” as a “syntactical disguise” which embodies a “mistake.” He nevertheless regarded this form of reasoning as constitutive of the moral point of view. Durkheim was the source of much of this reasoning, and this context illuminates Sellars’ unusual philosophical reconstruction of the moral point of view in terms of the collective intentions of an ideal community of rational members for (...)
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  13.  30
    Stephen Turner (1995). Obituary for Edward Shils. Tradition and Discovery 22 (2):5-9.
    Michael Polanyi and Edward Shils shared a great many views, and in their long mutual relationship influenced one another. This memorial note examines the relationship and some of the respects in which Shils presented a Polanyian social theory organized around the notion of tradition.
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  14.  34
    Stephen Turner (2012). Making the Tacit Explicit. Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 42 (4):385-402.
    Tacit knowledge is both a ubiquitous and puzzling notion, related to the idea of hidden assumptions. The puzzle is partly a result of the conflict between the idea that assumptions are in the mind and the apparent audience-relativity of the "fact" of possessing an assumption or of the tacit knowledge that is articulated. If we think of making the tacit explicit as constructing a certain kind of inference repairing explanation for a particular audience "on the fly" we come closer to (...)
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  15.  50
    Stephen Turner (1998). Polanyian in Spirit. Tradition and Discovery 25 (1):12-20.
    Walter Gulick criticizes The Social Theory of Practices for its non-Polanyian views of the problem of the objective character of tacit knowledge, its insistence that there should be plausible causal mechanisms that correspond to claims about tacit knowledge and its “social” transmission, and its denial of the social, telic character of practices. In this reply it is asserted that the demand for causally plausible mechanisms is not scientistic or for that matter non-Polanyian, that the book has a view of objectivity (...)
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  16.  26
    Stephen P. Turner (2007). Mirror Neurons and Practices: A Response to Lizardo. Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 37 (3):351–371.
    Lizardo argues that The Social Theory of Practices is refuted by the discovery of mirror neurons. The book argues that the kind of sameness of tacit mental content assumed by practice theorists such as Bourdieu is fictional, because there is no actual process by which the same mental content can be transmitted. Mirror neurons, Lizardo claims, provide such a mechanism, as they imply that bodily automatisms, which can be understood as the basis of habitus and concepts, can be shared and (...)
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  17.  15
    Stephen Turner (2001). What is the Problem with Experts? Social Studies of Science 31 (1):123-149.
    The phenomenon of expertise produces two problems for liberal democratic theory: the first is whether it creates inequalities that undermine citizen rule or make it a sham; the second is whether the state can preserve its neutrality in liberal ’government by discussion’ while subsidizing, depending on, and giving special status to, the opinions of experts and scientists. A standard Foucauldian critique suggests that neutrality is impossible, expert power and state power are inseparable, and that expert power is the source of (...)
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  18.  10
    Stephen Turner (2013). Where Explanation Ends: Understanding as the Place the Spade Turns in the Social Sciences. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 44 (3):532-538.
  19.  6
    Stephen Turner (2014). Embodiment and its Relation to the Tacit: Response to Nikkel. Tradition and Discovery 41 (3):39-41.
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  20.  27
    Stephen Turner (2011). Collingwood and Weber Vs. Mink: History After the Cognitive Turn. Journal of the Philosophy of History 5 (2):230-260.
    Louis Mink wrote a classic study of R. G. Collingwood that led to his most important contribution to the philosophy of history, his account of narrative. Central to this account was the non-detachability thesis, that facts became historical facts through incorporation into narratives, and the thesis that narratives were not comparable to the facts or to one another. His book on Collingwood was critical of Collingwood's idea that there were facts in history that we get through self-knowledge but which are (...)
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  21.  5
    Stephen Turner (2007). Political Epistemology, Experts, and the Aggregation of Knowledge. Spontaneous Generations 1 (1):36.
  22.  38
    Stephen P. Turner (1999). Searle's Social Reality. History and Theory 38 (2):211–231.
  23.  64
    Stephen P. Turner (2009). Can There Be a Pragmatist Philosophy of Social Science? [REVIEW] Human Studies 32 (3):365 - 374.
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  24.  11
    Stephen Turner (2001). Teaching Subtlety of Thought: The Lessons of `Contextualism'. [REVIEW] Argumentation 15 (1):77-95.
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  25. Stephen P. Turner (1984). Max Weber and the Dispute Over Reason and Value: A Study in Philosophy, Ethics, and Politics. Routledge & Kegan Paul.
     
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  26.  51
    Stephen Turner (2010). Normal Accidents of Expertise. Minerva 48 (3):239-258.
    Charles Perrow used the term normal accidents to characterize a type of catastrophic failure that resulted when complex, tightly coupled production systems encountered a certain kind of anomalous event. These were events in which systems failures interacted with one another in a way that could not be anticipated, and could not be easily understood and corrected. Systems of the production of expert knowledge are increasingly becoming tightly coupled. Unlike classical science, which operated with a long time horizon, many current forms (...)
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  27.  1
    Sean Sturm & Stephen Francis Turner (2013). Erratology and the Ill-Logic of the Seismotic University. Educational Philosophy and Theory 46 (7):1-11.
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  28.  8
    Stephen Turner (2003). The Politics of the Word and the Politics of the Eye. Thesis Eleven 73 (1):51-69.
    The concept of worldviews gives a visual sense to the notion of a shared ideological frame, but misleadingly suppresses the visual itself. Against the standard image of worldviews, it is argued that the notion makes sense in connection with particular technologies of representation, notably newspapers, and is no longer informative about political beliefs. The example of Kristin Luker's work on abortion politics is used to show how weak the evidential base is for claims about worldviews. It is then argued that (...)
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  29.  10
    Stephen Turner (2015). The Present State of the Individual–Holism Debate. Metascience 24 (3):463-465.
    The problem of holism in social science has, as Zahle and Collin, the editors of this volume note, a long history. It has revived, however, in a peculiar way, inspired by such things as the literature on corporate responsibility in ethics, the idea of supervenience, “Critical Realism” in sociology, ideas about emergence, the use of game-theoretic models to account for collective outcomes, and various notions of collective actors with collective intentions. These new inspirations interact with older problematics, such as the (...)
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  30.  41
    Stephen Turner (2011). Meaning Without Theory. Journal of the Philosophy of History 5 (3):352-369.
    There is a core conflict between conventional ideas about “meaning“ and the phenomenon of meaning and meaning change in history. Conventional accounts are either atemporal or appeal to something fixed that bestows meaning, such as a rule or a convention. This produces familiar problems over change. Notions of rule and convention are metaphors for something tacit. They are unhelpful in accounting for change: there are no rule-givers or convenings in history. Meanings are in flux, and are part of a web (...)
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  31.  10
    Stephen Turner (2014). Tacit Knowledge Meets Analytic Kantianism. Tradition and Discovery 41 (1):33-47.
    Neil Gascoigne and Tim Thornton’s Tacit Knowledge is an attempt to find a place for tacit knowledge as “knowledge” within the limits of analytic epistemology. They do so by reference to Jason Stanley and Timothy Williamson’s analysis of the term “way” and by the McDowell-like claim that reference to the tacitly rooted “way” of doing something exhausts the knowledge aspect of tacit knowledge, which preserves the notion of tacit knowledge, while excluding most of Michael Polanyi’s examples, and rendering Hubert Dreyfus’s (...)
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  32.  9
    Stephen Turner (1991). Two Theorists of Action: Ihering and Weber. Analyse & Kritik 13 (1):46-60.
    Rudolf von Ihering was the leading German philosopher of law of the nineteenth century. He was also a major source of Weber's more famous sociological definitions of action. Characteristically, Weber transformed material he found: in this case Ihering's attempt to reconcile the causal and teleological aspects of action. In Ihering's hands these become, respectively, the external and internal moments of action, or intentional thought and the factual consequences of action. For Weber they are made into epistemic aspects of action, the (...)
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  33.  37
    Robert Ackermann, Brian Baigrie, Harold I. Brown, Michael Cavanaugh, Paul Fox-Strangways, Gonzalo Munevar, Stephen David Ross, Philip Pettit, Paul Roth, Frederick Schmitt, Stephen Turner & Charles Wallis (1988). Responses to 'in Defense of Relativism'. Social Epistemology 2 (3):227 – 261.
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  34.  22
    Stephen Turner (1994). The Origins of 'Mainstream Sociology' and Other Issues in the History of American Sociology. Social Epistemology 8 (1):41 – 67.
  35.  46
    Stephen Turner (1991). Social Constructionism and Social Theory. Sociological Theory 9 (1):22-33.
    The major emphasis of the "sociology of scientific knowledge" has been on the natural sciences. Recently, however, the field has taken a reflexive turn. I examine the relation between this kind of reflexivity and that in the history of the sociology of knowledge generally with an eye to assessing its place in social theory. Although reflexive adequacy, like other criteria for choice of theory, is not an absolute and overriding cognitive good, reflexive considerations often are critical in assessing the prospective (...)
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  36. Stephen P. Turner (2009). Public Sociology and Democratic Theory. In Jeroen Van Bouwel (ed.), The Social Sciences and Democracy. Palgrave Macmillan
  37.  2
    Stephen Turner (2007). Practice Then and Now. Human Affairs 17 (2).
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  38.  23
    Stephen Turner (2003). Tradition and Cognitive Science: Oakeshott’s Undoing of the Kantian Mind. Philosophy of the Social Sciences 33 (1):53-76.
    In this discussion, the author asks the question if Oakeshott’s famous depiction of a practice might be understood in relation to contemporary cognitive science, in particular connectionism (the contemporary cognitive science approach concerned with the problem of skills and skilled knowing) and in terms of the now conventional view of "normativity" in Anglo-American philosophy. The author suggests that Oakeshott meant to contrast practices to an alternative "Kantian" model of a shared tacit mental frame or set of rules. If cognitive science, (...)
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  39.  4
    Stephen Turner (1994). Social Theory of Practices. Human Studies 20 (3):315-323.
    The concept of "practices"—whether of representation, of political or scientific traditions, or of organizational culture—is central to social theory. In this book, Stephen Turner presents the first analysis and critique of the idea of practice as it has developed in the various theoretical traditions of the social sciences and the humanities. Understood broadly as a tacit understanding "shared" by a group, the concept of a practice has a fatal difficulty, Turner argues: there is no plausible mechanism by which a "practice" (...)
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  40.  26
    Stephen P. Turner & Paul Andrew Roth (eds.) (2003). The Blackwell Guide to the Philosophy of the Social Sciences. Blackwell Pub..
    _The Blackwell Guide to the Philosophy of the Social Sciences _collects newly commissioned essays that examine fundamental issues in the social sciences.
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  41.  32
    Stephen P. Turner (2011). Starting with Tacit Knowledge, Ending with Durkheim? Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 42 (3):472-476.
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  42. Stephen Turner (2012). The Strength of Weak Empathy. Science in Context 25 (3):383-399.
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  43.  8
    Stephen P. Turner (1982). On the Relevance of Statistical Relevance Theory. Theory and Decision 14 (2):195-205.
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  44.  5
    Stephen Turner (1988). The Political Face of “Rational Morality”. Theory and Society 17 (4):551-569.
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  45.  10
    David Mercer, Jerry Ravetz, Stephen P. Turner & Steve Fuller (2005). A Parting Shot at Misunderstanding: Fuller Vs. Kuhn. [REVIEW] Metascience 14 (1):3-152.
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  46.  31
    Stephen Turner (2009). Many Approaches, but Few Arrivals: Merton and the Columbia Model of Theory Construction. Philosophy of the Social Sciences 39 (2):174-211.
    Robert Merton's essays on theories of the middle range and his essays on functional explanation and the structural approach are among the most influential in the history of sociology. But their import is a puzzle. He explicitly allied himself with some of the most extreme scientistic formalists and contributed to and endorsed the Columbia model of theory construction. But Merton never responded to criticisms by Ernest Nagel of his arguments or acknowledged the rivalry between Lazarsfeld and Herbert Simon, rarely cited (...)
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  47.  16
    Stephen Turner, William Rehg, Heather Douglas & Evan Selinger (2013). Book Symposium on Expertise: Philosophical Reflections by Evan Selinger Automatic Press/Vip, Vince Inc. Press 2011. [REVIEW] Philosophy and Technology 26 (1):93-109.
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  48.  9
    Stephen Turner (2012). The Young Shils. Tradition and Discovery 39 (3):43-51.
    Edward Shils began as a sociologist under the close mentorship of Louis Wirth, with whom he collaborated on the translation of Karl Mannheim’s Ideology and Utopia. After 1940, however, Shils’ career, which had been focused on topics in sociology, notably the class and occupational structure of cities and on German Sociological Theory, took an apparent turn, which in 1946 led him into a relationship with Michael Polanyi, a half-time appointment at the London School of Economics, and a new intellectual direction. (...)
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  49.  1
    Stephen P. Turner (1998). Did Funding Matter to the Development of Research Methods in Sociology? Minerva 36 (1):69-79.
  50.  25
    Stephen P. Turner (2009). Shrinking Merton. Philosophy of the Social Sciences 39 (3):481-489.
    Agassi, Sztompka, Kincaid, and Crothers argue, in various ways, that Merton should not be held responsible for his published views on theory construction, and they provide psychological or strategic explanations for his failure to resolve issues with these views. I argue that this line of defense is unnecessary. A better case for Merton would be that theories in his middle-range sense were a nontechnical alternative solution to the problem of spurious correlation. Middle-range theory was not, however, a solution to the (...)
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