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Bibliography: Fundamentality in Metaphysics
  1. Uriah Kriegel (forthcoming). Existence, Fundamentality, and the Scope of Ontology. Argumenta 1 (1).score: 24.0
    A traditional conception of ontology takes existence to be its proprietary subject matter – ontology is the study of what exists (§1). Recently, Jonathan Schaffer has argued that ontology is better thought of rather as the study of what is basic or fundamental in reality (§2). My goal here is twofold. First, I want to argue that while Schaffer’s characterization is quite plausible for some ontological questions, for others it is not (§3). More importantly, I want to offer a unified (...)
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  2. Ahmad Ahmadi (2007). The Fundamentality of Existence or Quiddity: A Confusion Between Epistemology and Ontology. Topoi 26 (2):213-219.score: 24.0
    Regarding the exhaustive discussions of the fundamentality of existence versus the fundamentality of quiddity, it is a necessary preliminary to examine and analyze the first documented statement of the fundamentality of existence. Following this, we must inquire how the concept is obtained on the basis of which such a judgment could be formed. Then we must illuminate the meaning of propositions that state only that an object is or exists (ontological propositions). Finally, by explaining the meaning of (...)
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  3. ‘Abd al-Rasul ‘Ubudiyyat (2007). The Fundamentality of Existence and the Subjectivity of Quiddity. Topoi 26 (2):201-212.score: 24.0
    It would not be an overstatement to say that Mulla Sadra’s metaphysical system—commonly known as transcendent philosophy or transcendent wisdom (hikmat muta‘aliyyah)—is founded on the fundamentality of existence and the subjectivity of quiddity or whatness. I will begin this essay by drawing a rather simple picture of this principle under the title “A Common Error.” Then I will proceed by explaining its background and the reasoning supporting it, while offering a more detailed elucidation of the problem. The essay will (...)
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  4. Eric Swanson (2014). Ordering Supervaluationism, Counterpart Theory, and Ersatz Fundamentality. Journal of Philosophy 111 (6):289-310.score: 21.0
    Many philosophical theories make comparisons between objects, events, states of affairs, worlds, or systems, and many such theories deliver plausible verdicts only if some of the elements they compare are ranked as ‘best.’ When the relevant ordering does not have such ‘best’ or ‘tied for best’ elements the theory wrongly falls silent or gives badly counterintuitive results. This paper develops ordering supervaluationism---a very general technique that allows any such theory to handle these problematic cases. Just as ordinary supervaluation helps us (...)
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  5. Elizabeth Barnes (2012). Emergence and Fundamentality. Mind 121 (484):873-901.score: 18.0
    In this paper, I argue for a new way of characterizing ontological emergence. I appeal to recent discussions in meta-ontology regarding fundamentality and dependence, and show how emergence can be simply and straightforwardly characterized using these notions. I then argue that many of the standard problems for emergence do not apply to this account: given a clearly specified meta-ontological background, emergence becomes much easier to explicate. If my arguments are successful, they show both a helpful way of thinking about (...)
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  6. Mariam Thalos (2010). Two Conceptions of Fundamentality. Philosophy of the Social Sciences 41 (2):151-177.score: 18.0
    This article aims to show that fundamentality is construed differently in the two most prominent strategies of analysis we find in physical science and engineering today: (1) atomistic, reductive analysis and (2) Systems analysis. Correspondingly, atomism is the conception according to which the simplest (smallest) indivisible entity of a certain kind is most fundamental; while systemism , as will be articulated here, is the conception according to which the bonds that structure wholes are most fundamental, and scale and/or constituting (...)
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  7. Andreas Hüttemann & Alan C. Love (2011). Aspects of Reductive Explanation in Biological Science: Intrinsicality, Fundamentality, and Temporality. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 62 (3):519-549.score: 18.0
    The inapplicability of variations on theory reduction in the context of genetics and their irrelevance to ongoing research has led to an anti-reductionist consensus in philosophy of biology. One response to this situation is to focus on forms of reductive explanation that better correspond to actual scientific reasoning (e.g. part–whole relations). Working from this perspective, we explore three different aspects (intrinsicality, fundamentality, and temporality) that arise from distinct facets of reductive explanation: composition and causation. Concentrating on these aspects generates (...)
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  8. Tatjana von Solodkoff & Richard Woodward (2013). Noneism, Ontology, and Fundamentality. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 87 (3):558-583.score: 18.0
    In the recent literature on all things metaontological, discussion of a notorious Meinongian doctrine—the thesis that some objects have no kind of being at all—has been conspicuous by its absence. And this is despite the fact that this thesis is the central element of the noneist metaphysics of Richard Routley (1980) and Graham Priest (2005). In this paper, we therefore examine the metaontological foundations of noneism, with a view to seeing exactly how the noneist's approach to ontological inquiry differs from (...)
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  9. Tatjana Solodkoff & Richard Woodward (2013). Noneism, Ontology, and Fundamentality. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 87 (3):558-583.score: 18.0
    In the recent literature on all things metaontological, discussion of a notorious Meinongian doctrine—the thesis that some objects have no kind of being at all—has been conspicuous by its absence. And this is despite the fact that this thesis is the central element of the noneist metaphysics of Richard Routley (1980) and Graham Priest (2005). In this paper, we therefore examine the metaontological foundations of noneism, with a view to seeing exactly how the noneist's approach to ontological inquiry differs from (...)
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  10. Alexander Skiles (2013). Getting Grounded: Essays in the Metaphysics of Fundamentality. Dissertation, University of Notre Damescore: 18.0
    When doing metaphysics, it is frequently convenient and sometimes essential to rely upon various notions of fundamentality when articulating the problems, positions, and arguments at issue. But what it is, exactly, the relevant notions are supposed to track remains obscure. The goal of this dissertation is to develop and defend a theory about the metaphysics of fundamentality; by doing so, I clarify and vindicate the roles that notions of fundamentality play in metaphysics. At the theory’s core are (...)
     
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  11. Matteo Morganti (2009). Ontological Priority, Fundamentality and Monism. Dialectica 63 (3):271-288.score: 16.0
    In recent work, the interrelated questions of whether there is a fundamental level to reality, whether ontological dependence must have an ultimate ground, and whether the monist thesis should be endorsed that the whole universe is ontologically prior to its parts have been explored with renewed interest. Jonathan Schaffer has provided arguments in favour of 'priority monism' in a series of articles (2003, 2004, 2007a, 2007b, forthcoming). In this paper, these arguments are analysed, and it is claimed that they are (...)
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  12. Ross P. Cameron (2008). Turtles All the Way Down: Regress, Priority and Fundamentality. Philosophical Quarterly 58 (230):1-14.score: 16.0
    I address an intuition commonly endorsed by metaphysicians, that there must be a fundamental layer of reality, i.e., that chains of ontological dependence must terminate: there cannot be turtles all the way down. I discuss applications of this intuition with reference to Bradley’s regress, composition, realism about the mental and the cosmological argument. I discuss some arguments for the intui- tion, but argue that they are unconvincing. I conclude by making some suggestions for how the intuition should be argued for, (...)
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  13. Kerry McKenzie (2011). Arguing Against Fundamentality. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B 42 (4):244-255.score: 15.0
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  14. Jonathan Schaffer (2008). Truth and Fundamentality: On Merricks's Truth and Ontology. Philosophical Books 49 (4):302-316.score: 15.0
    Truth and Ontology is a lively book, brimming with arguments, and drawing the reader towards the radical conclusion that what is true does not depend on what there is. If there is a central line of argument, it is that the best account of truthmaking requires truths to be about their truthmakers, but negative existentials, modals, and claims about the past and future are not about what is, but rather about what is not, what might be, and what was and (...)
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  15. Kerry McKenzie (2014). Priority and Particle Physics: Ontic Structural Realism as a Fundamentality Thesis. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 65 (2):353-380.score: 15.0
    In this article, I address concerns that the ontological priority claims definitive of ontic structural realism are as they stand unclear, and I do so by placing these claims on a more rigorous formal footing than they typically have been hitherto. I first of all argue that Kit Fine’s analysis of ontological dependence furnishes us with an ontological priority relation that is particularly apt for structuralism. With that in place, and with reference to two case studies prominent within the structuralist (...)
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  16. Tian Yu Cao (2003). Appendix: Ontological Relativity and Fundamentality – is QFT the Fundamental Theory? Synthese 136 (1):25 - 30.score: 15.0
  17. Daniel C. Russell (2008). Agent-Based Virtue Ethics and the Fundamentality of Virtue. American Philosophical Quarterly 45 (4):329 - 347.score: 15.0
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  18. Peter Simons (2013). Continuant Causation, Fundamentality, and Freedom. In Sophie C. Gibb & Rögnvaldur Ingthorsson (eds.), Mental Causation and Ontology. Oxford University Press.score: 15.0
     
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  19. Douglas Kutach (2013). Causation and Its Basis in Fundamental Physics. Oxford University Press.score: 12.0
    I provide a comprehensive metaphysics of causation based on the idea that fundamentally things are governed by the laws of physics, and that derivatively difference-making can be assessed in terms of what fundamental laws of physics imply for hypothesized events. Highlights include a general philosophical methodology, the fundamental/derivative distinction, and my mature account of causal asymmetry.
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  20. Markus Schrenk (2009). Can Physics Ever Be Complete If There is No Fundamental Level in Nature? Dialectica 63 (2):205-208.score: 12.0
    In their recent book Every Thing Must Go Ladyman and Ross (Ladyman et al. 2007) claim: (1) Physics is analytically complete since it is the only science that cannot be left incomplete (cf. Ladyman et al. 2007, 283). (2) There might not be an ontologically fundamental level (cf. Ladyman et al. 2007, 178). (3) We should not admit anything into our ontology unless it has explanatory and predictive utility (cf. Ladyman et al. 2007, 179). In this discussion note I aim (...)
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  21. Jessica M. Wilson (2012). Fundamental Determinables. Philosophers' Imprint 12 (4).score: 12.0
    Contemporary philosophers commonly suppose that any fundamental entities there may be are maximally determinate. More generally, they commonly suppose that, whether or not there are fundamental entities, any determinable entities there may be are grounded in, hence less fundamental than, more determinate entities. So, for example, Armstrong takes the physical objects constituting the presumed fundamental base to be “determinate in all respects” (1961, 59), and Lewis takes the properties characterizing things “completely and without redundancy” to be “highly specific” (1986, 60). (...)
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  22. Abd al-Rasul‘Ubudiyyat (2007). The Fundamentality of Existence and the Subjectivity of Quiddity. Topoi 26 (2):201-212.score: 10.0
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  23. Peter Simons (2013). Fundamentality, and Freedom. In Sophie C. Gibb & Rögnvaldur Ingthorsson (eds.), Mental Causation and Ontology. Oxford University Press. 233.score: 10.0
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  24. Daniel Wohlfarth (2013). A New View of “Fundamentality” for Time Asymmetries in Modern Physics. In Vassilios Karakostas & Dennis Dieks (eds.), Epsa11 Perspectives and Foundational Problems in Philosophy of Science. Springer. 281--292.score: 10.0
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  25. Cao Tianyu (2003). Appendix: Ontological Relativity and Fundamentality. Synthese 136:25-30.score: 10.0
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  26. Sharon R. Ford (2010). What Fundamental Properties Suffice to Account for the Manifest World? Powerful Structure. Dissertation, University of Queenslandscore: 8.0
    This Thesis engages with contemporary philosophical controversies about the nature of dispositional properties or powers and the relationship they have to their non-dispositional counterparts. The focus concerns fundamentality. In particular, I seek to answer the question, ‘What fundamental properties suffice to account for the manifest world?’ The answer I defend is that fundamental categorical properties need not be invoked in order to derive a viable explanation for the manifest world. My stance is a field-theoretic view which describes the world (...)
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  27. Robert Williams (2010). Fundamental and Derivative Truths. Mind 119 (473):103-141.score: 8.0
    This article investigates the claim that some truths are fundamentally or really true — and that other truths are not. Such a distinction can help us reconcile radically minimal metaphysical views with the verities of common sense. I develop an understanding of the distinction whereby Fundamentality is not itself a metaphysical distinction, but rather a device that must be presupposed to express metaphysical distinctions. Drawing on recent work by Rayo on anti-Quinean theories of ontological commitments, I formulate a rigourous (...)
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  28. Luca Baccelli (2011). The Logical Foundation of Fundamental Rights and Their Universality. Res Publica 17 (4):369-376.score: 8.0
    This paper offers a critical analysis of two central issues in Luigi Ferrajoli’s Principia iuris , and more generally of his theory of rights. One is the way in which ‘expectations’ play a crucial role in his deontic theory by establishing the logical basis for his guarantee-based conception of law and rights. The axiomatic way in which Ferrajoli arrives at his conception of fundamental rights is questioned, for it fails to give a full account of the nature of subjective rights. (...)
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  29. Thaddeus Metz (2014). Meaning as a Distinct and Fundamental Value: Reply to Kershnar. Science, Religion and Culture 1 (2):101-106.score: 8.0
    In this article, I reply to a critical notice of my book, Meaning in Life: An Analytic Study, that Stephen Kershnar has published elsewhere in this issue of Science, Religion & Culture. Beyond expounding the central conclusions of the book, Kershnar advances two major criticisms of it, namely, first, that I did not provide enough evidence that meaning in life is a genuine value-theoretic category as something distinct from and competing with, say, objective well-being, and, second, that, even if there (...)
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  30. Anya Plutynski (2006). What Was Fisher's Fundamental Theorem of Natural Selection and What Was It For? Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 37 (1):59-82.score: 8.0
    Fisher’s ‘fundamental theorem of natural selection’ is notoriously abstract, and, no less notoriously, many take it to be false. In this paper, I explicate the theorem, examine the role that it played in Fisher’s general project for biology, and analyze why it was so very fundamental for Fisher. I defend Ewens (1989) and Lessard (1997) in the view that the theorem is in fact a true theorem if, as Fisher claimed, ‘the terms employed’ are ‘used strictly as defined’ (1930, p. (...)
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  31. Nina E. Cohen, Frans W. A. Brom & Elsbeth N. Stassen (2009). Fundamental Moral Attitudes to Animals and Their Role in Judgment: An Empirical Model to Describe Fundamental Moral Attitudes to Animals and Their Role in Judgment on the Culling of Healthy Animals During an Animal Disease Epidemic. [REVIEW] Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 22 (4):341-359.score: 8.0
    In this paper, we present and defend the theoretical framework of an empirical model to describe people’s fundamental moral attitudes (FMAs) to animals, the stratification of FMAs in society and the role of FMAs in judgment on the culling of healthy animals in an animal disease epidemic. We used philosophical animal ethics theories to understand the moral basis of FMA convictions. Moreover, these theories provide us with a moral language for communication between animal ethics, FMAs, and public debates. We defend (...)
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  32. Tadashi Takenouchi (2006). Information Ethics as Information Ecology: Connecting Frankl's Thought and Fundamental Informatics. [REVIEW] Ethics and Information Technology 8 (4):187-193.score: 8.0
    To overcome “digital reductionism,” a new kind of mechanical view on human beings, fundamental informatics provides some critical viewpoints. It regards information as “meaning” generated in living things which do not exist alone but are parts of ecological system. On the other hand, V. E. Frankl proposed two dimensions of humans: homo sapiens and homo patiens. The latter is the essential aspect of humans whose essence is “compassion,” while the former is the nature like a mechanical machine. As features of (...)
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  33. Thaddeus Metz (2014). Fundamental Conditions of Human Existence as the Ground of Life’s Meaning: Reply to Landau. Religious Studies:1-13.score: 8.0
    Taking the good (generosity), the true (enquiry), and the beautiful (creativity) as exemplars of what can make a life noticeably meaningful, elsewhere I have advanced a principle that entails and plausibly explains all three. Specifically, I have proffered the view that great meaning in life, at least insofar as it comes from this triad, is a matter of positively orienting one’s rational nature towards fundamental conditions of human existence, conditions of human life responsible for much else about it. Iddo Landau (...)
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  34. Andrew Ward (2007). The Social Epidemiologic Concept of Fundamental Cause. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 28 (6):465-485.score: 8.0
    The goal of research in social epidemiology is not simply conceptual clarification or theoretical understanding, but more importantly it is to contribute to, and enhance the health of populations (and so, too, the people who constitute those populations). Undoubtedly, understanding how various individual risk factors such as smoking and obesity affect the health of people does contribute to this goal. However, what is distinctive of much on-going work in social epidemiology is the view that analyses making use of individual-level variables (...)
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  35. Allan Rosas (2012). When is the EU Charter of Fundamental Rights Applicable at National Level? Jurisprudence 19 (4):1269-1288.score: 8.0
    Whilst the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union, which became part of binding primary EU law on 1 December 2009, constitutes an important codification and clarification of fundamental rights as they exist in the European Union, the field of application of the Charter is limited in a significant way: the Charter only applies when EU law is at stake. When national courts and authorities in the EU Member States are confronted with problems of purely national law, they are (...)
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  36. Toru Nishigaki (2006). The Ethics in Japanese Information Society: Consideration on Francisco Varela's the Embodied Mind From the Perspective of Fundamental Informatics. [REVIEW] Ethics and Information Technology 8 (4):237-242.score: 8.0
    The ethics in an information society is discussed from the combined viewpoint of Eastern and Western thoughts. The breakdown of a coherent self threatens the Western ethics and causes nihilism. Francisco Varela, one of the founders of Autopoiesis Theory, tackled this problem and proposed Enactive Cognitive Science by introducing Buddhist middle-way philosophy. Fundamental Informatics gives further insights into the problem, by proposing the concept of a hierarchical autopoietic system. Here the ethics can be described in relation to a community rather (...)
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  37. J. R. G. Williams (2010). Fundamental and Derivative Truths. Mind 119 (473):103 - 141.score: 8.0
    This article investigates the claim that some truths are fundamentally or really true — and that other truths are not. Such a distinction can help us reconcile radically minimal metaphysical views with the verities of common sense. I develop an understanding of the distinction whereby Fundamentality is not itself a metaphysical distinction, but rather a device that must be presupposed to express metaphysical distinctions. Drawing on recent work by Rayo on anti-Quinean theories of ontological commitments, I formulate a rigourous (...)
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  38. Elise Muir (2013). Fundamental Rights: An Unsettling EU Competence. Human Rights Review:1-13.score: 8.0
    For many years, fundamental rights were primarily protected in the European Union (EU) legal order in a negative way; EU institutions and Member States should not infringe fundamental rights when acting within the scope of EU law. However, since the Treaties of Amsterdam and Lisbon, the EU has gained greater competences to develop fundamental rights standards, and new mechanisms for the protection of these standards have emerged. Although these new instruments enhance the mandate of the EU regarding fundamental rights protection, (...)
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  39. Maartje de Visser (2013). National Constitutional Courts, the Court of Justice and the Protection of Fundamental Rights in a Post-Charter Landscape. Human Rights Review 15 (1):1-13.score: 8.0
    This article critically evaluates the possible impact of the Charter on the relationship between the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU) and national constitutional courts. While it is premature to provide a definitive assessment of the kind of collaboration that these courts will develop, it is crucial to identify a number of features of the new landscape that will influence the direction in which the relationship between the CJEU and constitutional courts will evolve. This article discusses several reasons (...)
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  40. Loreta Šaltinytė (2010). European Union Accession to the European Convention on Human Rights: Stronger Protection of Fundamental Rights in Europe? Jurisprudence 120 (2):177-196.score: 8.0
    The treaty of Lisbon makes European Union (EU) accession to the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR) an obligation of result. The issue has been intensely discussed for more than thirty years, arguing that such accession is necessary in view of the need to ensure the ECHR standard of fundamental rights protection in Europe. This question again gains prominence as the EU member states and the institutions seek to agree on the negotiation directives of EU accession to the ECHR. The (...)
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  41. Warren J. Ewens (2014). Grafen, the Price Equations, Fitness Maximization, Optimisation and the Fundamental Theorem of Natural Selection. Biology and Philosophy 29 (2):197-205.score: 8.0
    This paper is a commentary on the focal article by Grafen and on earlier papers of his on which many of the results of this focal paper depend. Thus it is in effect a commentary on the “formal Darwinian project”, the focus of this sequence of papers. Several problems with this sequence are raised and discussed. The first of these concerns fitness maximization. It is often claimed in these papers that natural selection leads to a maximization of fitness and that (...)
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  42. Cécile Leconte (2013). The EU Fundamental Rights Policy as a Source of Euroscepticism. Human Rights Review:1-14.score: 8.0
    This article analyzes how the development of the European Union (EU) fundamental rights policy feeds Euroscepticism—and notably political Euroscepticism—within segments of national political elites in EU Member States. More specifically, it argues that this relatively new policy also gives rise to a new form of political Euroscepticism, which has been defined as “value-based Euroscepticism,” e.g., the perception that the EU via its fundamental rights policy, unduly interferes in matters where value systems and core domestic preferences on ethical issues are at (...)
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  43. Alessandro Rodrigues Rocha (2011). Nomear o Real numa cultura pluralista. Desafios da Teologia Fundamental diante da afirmação da experiência como locus theologico (Naming the Real in a pluralistic culture) - DOI: 10.5752/P.2175-5841.2010v8n19p114. [REVIEW] Horizonte 8 (19):114-129.score: 8.0
    O artigo pauta o desafio que a teologia tem diante de si na tarefa continua de nomear o Real numa cultura pluralista. Tal desafio coloca-se, sobretudo, à teologia fundamental que se encontra diante da afirmação da experiência como locus theologico . Para enfrentar essa temática o artigo propõe duas possíveis posturas de aproximação ao desafio de nomear o Real e, logo depois, partindo de uma das afirmações, enfrenta propriamente a temática da experiência como locus theologico, e suas conseqüências para a (...)
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  44. François Foret (2013). Religion and Fundamental Rights in European Politics: Convergences and Divisions at the European Parliament. [REVIEW] Human Rights Review:1-11.score: 8.0
    European legislators must increasingly deal with issues related to fundamental rights. Religion is a frequent topic obliging them to do so. It is not directly part of the EU’s competences but is a source of values underlying policy choices and a tricky political object. Relying on the findings of a survey about what Members of the European Parliament (MEPs) believe and what they do with these beliefs, the article analyzes potential tensions created by religion in the implementation of human rights (...)
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  45. Daniel Girsberger & Paulius Zapolskis (2012). Fundamental Alteration of the Contractual Equilibrium under Hardship Exemption. Jurisprudence 19 (1):121-141.score: 8.0
    The authors of this article apply systemic and comparative methods in order to discuss the key criteria of hardship as a legal institute, i.e. a fundamental alteration of the contractual equilibrium. The authors focus on modern regulations, such as those established in the Principles of International Commercial Contracts and other international contract restatements. The UNIDROIT Principles and other legal instruments usually quite abstractly define the criterion of fundamental alteration; thus further input is necessary in order to reveal the more precise (...)
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  46. Carlo Ruzza (2013). Civil Society Actors and EU Fundamental Rights Policy: Opportunities and Challenges. Human Rights Review:1-17.score: 8.0
    This paper examines how civil society actors in the EU utilize the political and legal opportunities provided by the EU’s fundamental rights policy to mobilize against discrimination, notably racism, and xenophobia. It emphasizes the multiple enabling roles that this policy provides to civil society associations engaged in judicial activism, political advocacy, and service delivery both at the EU and Member State levels, and assesses their effectiveness. It describes several factors that hinder the implementation of EU fundamental rights policy and reviews (...)
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  47. Antonino Drago (2008). The Square of Opposition and the Four Fundamental Choices. Logica Universalis 2 (1):127-141.score: 7.0
    . Each predicate of the Aristotelian square of opposition includes the word “is”. Through a twofold interpretation of this word the square includes both classical logic and non-classical logic. All theses embodied by the square of opposition are preserved by the new interpretation, except for contradictories, which are substituted by incommensurabilities. Indeed, the new interpretation of the square of opposition concerns the relationships among entire theories, each represented by means of a characteristic predicate. A generalization of the square of opposition (...)
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  48. Marek Piechowiak (2003). Aksjologiczne podstawy Karty praw podstawowych Unii Europejskiej [Axiological Foundations of the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union]. Studia Prawnicze 155 (1):5-29.score: 7.0
    Pierwszorzędnym przedmiotem badań są przyjęte w Karcie, wprost lub domyślnie, rozstrzygnięcia typu aksjologicznego. Przez „aksjologiczne podstawy” rozumiane są rozstrzygnięcia dotyczące uznania takich, a nie innych, wartości czy dóbr za przedmiot ochrony; a ponieważ chodzi o „podstawy”, przedmiotem zainteresowania są rozstrzygnięcia fundamentalne w takim sensie, że stanowią one uzasadnienie dla bardziej szczegółowych rozstrzygnięć aksjologicznych i normatywnych. Pozwala to m.in. na formułowanie wniosków co do spójności rozstrzygnięć szczegółowych. Zagadnienie aksjologicznych podstaw obejmuje także problematykę relacji między wartościami a prawami podstawowymi oraz zagadnienie ontologicznego (...)
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  49. Wolfgang Kundt (2007). Fundamental Physics. Foundations of Physics 37 (9):1317-1369.score: 7.0
    A survey is given of the elegant physics of N-particle systems, both classical and quantal, non-relativistic (NR) and relativistic, non-gravitational (SR) and gravitational (GR). Chapter 1 deals exclusively with NR systems; the correspondence between classical and quantal systems is highlighted and summarized in two tables of Sec. 1.3. Chapter 2 generalizes Chapter 1 to the relativistic regime, including Maxwell’s theory of electromagnetism. Chapter 3 follows Einstein in allowing gravity to curve the spacetime arena; its Sec. 3.2 is devoted to the (...)
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  50. Marek Piechowiak (2012). Godność w Karcie Praw Podstawowych Unii Europejskiej – destrukcja uniwersalnego paradygmatu ujęcia podstaw praw człowieka? [Dignity in the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union – Destruction of the Universal Paradigm of Understanding of the Foundations of Human Rights?]. Themis Polska Nova 2 (1):126-146.score: 7.0
    Zasadniczym przedmiotem analiz tego opracowania jest pojęcie godności w Karcie praw podstawowych Unii Europejskiej z 7 grudnia 2000 r. Interpretacja Karty prowadzona jest z uwzględnieniem postanowień Traktatu z Lizbony z 13 grudnia 2007 r., który podniósł Kartę do rangi prawa traktatowego. Uwyraźnienie treści pojęcia godności w Karcie dokonywane jest przez pryzmat paradygmatu rozumienia godności utrwalonego już w prawie międzynarodowym praw człowieka na poziomie uniwersalnym, czyli prawa kształtowanego i funkcjonującego w ramach Organizacji Narodów Zjednoczonych. Paradygmat uniwersalny, w którego centrum znajduje się (...)
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