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  1. David Atkinson & Porter Johnson (2010). Nonconservation of Energy and Loss of Determinism II. Colliding with an Open Set. Foundations of Physics 40 (2):179-189.
    An actual infinity of colliding balls can be in a configuration in which the laws of mechanics lead to logical inconsistency. It is argued that one should therefore limit the domain of these laws to a finite, or only a potentially infinite number of elements. With this restriction indeterminism, energy nonconservation and creatio ex nihilo no longer occur. A numerical analysis of finite systems of colliding balls is given, and the asymptotic behaviour that corresponds to the potentially infinite system is (...)
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  2. Z. Z. Aydm & A. U. Yilmazer (1993). Two-Body Dirac Equation Versus KDP Equation. Foundations of Physics 23 (5):837-840.
    A brief review of two-body Dirac and Kemmer-Duffin-Petiau approaches for the bound state problem of two fermions is presented from an algebraic point of view in a comparative manner. Reduction of the direct product of two Dirac spaces is discussed.
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  3. Guido Bacciagaluppi, Bob Coecke & Isar Stubbe (1999). List of Contents: Volume 12, Number 1, February 1999. Foundations of Physics 29 (5).
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  4. D. Baeriswyl (2000). Variational Scheme for the Mott Transition. Foundations of Physics 30 (12):2033-2048.
    The Hubbard model is studied at half filling, using two complementary variational wave functions, the Gutzwiller ansatz for the metallic phase at small values of the interaction parameter U and its analog for the insulating phase at large values of U. The metallic phase is characterized by the Drude weight, which exhibits a jump at the critical point Uc. In the insulating phase the system behaves as a collection of dipoles which increase both in number and in size as U (...)
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  5. C. D. Bailey, D. Batchelor, A. Belenkiy, G. Bene, P. Benioff, A. N. Bernal, T. H. Boyer, J. L. Chen, C. Dewdney & D. Dieks (2002). Emch, GG, 981 Esposito, G., 1459. Foundations of Physics 32 (12):2003.
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  6. F. Bampi & A. Morro (1980). Objectivity and Objective Time Derivatives in Continuum Physics. Foundations of Physics 10 (11-12):905-920.
    The role played by objectivity in continuum physics is reexamined in an attempt to establish fully its deep connection with classical and relativistic time derivatives. The way of distinguishing one element in the class of objective time derivatives may depend on the particular problem of interest; this is emphasized in conjunction with material relaxation phenomena described via hidden variable evolution equations.
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  7. T. Barakat & H. A. Alhendi (2013). Generalized Dirac Equation with Induced Energy-Dependent Potential Via Simple Similarity Transformation and Asymptotic Iteration Methods. Foundations of Physics 43 (10):1171-1181.
    This study shows how precise simple analytical solutions for the generalized Dirac equation with repulsive vector and attractive energy-dependent Lorentz scalar potentials, position-dependent mass potential, and a tensor interaction term can be obtained within the framework of both similarity transformation and the asymptotic iteration methods. These methods yield a significant improvement over existing approaches and provide more plausible and applicable ways in explaining the pseudospin symmetry’s breaking mechanism in nuclei.
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  8. Anouk Barberousse & Cyrille Imbert (forthcoming). Cellular Automata in Fluid Dynamics: Not so Different. Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics.
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  9. Julian B. Barbour (1989). Maximal Variety as a New Fundamental Principle of Dynamics. Foundations of Physics 19 (9):1051-1073.
    It is suggested, following a proposal made recently by Smolin, that the most fundamental law of the universe takes this form: Among the set of all possible universes compatible with an irreducibly minimal set of structural constraints, the actually realized universe is the one which maximizes a mathematically well-defined number (the variety) that measures the structural variety of the universe (in the totality of its history). This gives expression to Leibniz's idea that the actual universe gives “the greatest variety possible, (...)
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  10. Semi-Infinite Rectangular Barrier, K. Dechoum, L. de la Pena, E. Santos, A. Schulze, G. Esposito, C. Stornaiolo & P. K. Anastasovski (2000). List of Contents: Volume 13, Number 3, June 2000. Foundations of Physics 30 (10).
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  11. Steven C. Barrowes (1977). Tachyons Without Paradoxes. Foundations of Physics 7 (7-8):617-627.
    Tachyon paradoxes, including causality paradoxes, have persisted within tachyon theories and left little hope for the existence of observable tachyons. This paper presents a way to solve the causality paradoxes, along with two other paradoxes, by the introduction of an absolute frame of reference in which a tachyon effect may never precede its cause. Relativity for ordinary matter is unaffected by this, even if the tachyons couple to ordinary particles. Violations of the principle of relativity due to the absolute frame (...)
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  12. H. H. Barschall & Louis Brown (1986). Early Estimates of the Strength of the Nuclear Spin-Orbit Force. Foundations of Physics 16 (2):115-124.
    Before the development of the nuclear shell model estimates of the strength of the nuclear spin-orbit interaction varied widely. Wheeler was the first to conclude that the nuclear spin-orbit interaction produces splittings of several MeV. This conclusion appeared, however, to be inconsistent with some experimental results that later turned out to be faulty.
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  13. A. O. Barut (1994). Debating the Final Theory. Foundations of Physics 24 (11):1571-1576.
    Recent assertions that the present particle physics is on the path of a “final theory” which cannot be reduced to more fundamental ones is critically examined and confronted with a counter-thesis.
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  14. A. O. Barut & Thomas Gornitz (1985). On the Gyromagnetic Ratio in the Kaluza-Klein Theories and the Schuster-Blackett Law. Foundations of Physics 15 (4):433-437.
    Pauli's five-dimensional Dirac equation in projective space, which results in an anomalous magnetic moment term in four dimensions, is related to the Schuster-Blackett law of the magnetic field of rotating bodies and to the recent results on the gyromagnetic ratio in Kaluza-Klein theories.
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  15. J. Batouli & M. El Baz (2014). Classical Interpretation of a Deformed Quantum Oscillator. Foundations of Physics 44 (2):105-113.
    Following the same procedure that allowed Shcrödinger to construct the (canonical) coherent states in the first place, we investigate on a possible classical interpretation of the deformed harmonic oscillator. We find that, these oscillator, also called q-oscillators, can be interpreted as quantum versions of classical forced oscillators with a modified q-dependant frequency.
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  16. J. S. Bell (1982). On the Impossible Pilot Wave. Foundations of Physics 12 (10):989-999.
    The strange story of the von Neumann impossibility proof is recalled, and the even stranger story of later impossibility proofs, and how the impossible was done by de Broglie and Bohm. Morals are drawn.
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  17. Peter G. Bergmann, Henry Margenau, Abdus Salam, Robert S. Cohen, Jagdish Mehra, Abner Shimony, Olivier Costa de Beauregard, André Mercier, EСG Sudarshan & Hans G. Dehmelt (1995). Of Physics. Foundations of Physics 25 (1).
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  18. L. C. Biedenharn (1983). The “Sommerfeld Puzzle” Revisited and Resolved. Foundations of Physics 13 (1):13-34.
    The exact agreement between the Sommerfeld and Dirac results for the energy levels of the relativistic hydrogen atom (the “Sommerfeld Puzzle”) is analyzed and explained.
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  19. L. C. Biedenharn, R. Y. Cusson, M. Y. Han & J. D. Louck (1972). A Kinematical Model for Quarks and Hadrons. Foundations of Physics 2 (2-3):149-159.
    Starting from simple topological arguments due to Dirac on the classical rotational properties of extended rigid bodies, we abstract the concept of a finite-size spinor (FSS). The FSS is a concept distinct from both point spinors (e.g., electrons) and composite spinors (e.g., nuclei), and suggests a new model for baryons. The FSS offers a natural explanation of “threeness” for the quarks, excludes the existence of free quarks, denies the operational definition of quark spin statistics, and, moreover, leads to the dual (...)
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  20. L. C. Biedenharn & L. P. Horwitz (1994). On the Equivalence of the Skyrme-Witten Model and Large-N C Quark Models. Foundations of Physics 24 (3):401-417.
    We review the equivalence of the two-flavor Skyrme-Witten model and the two-flavor large-N c quark model. The claimed equivalence for three flavorsbetween these two models is shown to be incorrectly given in the literature, and the properly equivalent extended three-flavor large-N c quark model is constructed and discussed.
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  21. L. C. Biedenharn & L. P. Horwitz (1984). Chiral Two-Component Spinors and the Factorization of Kramers's Equation. Foundations of Physics 14 (10):953-961.
    Kramers's equation specialized to the Coulomb field is factored using a rotationally invariant, angular momentum based, algebra of three anticommuting operators. Comparing the explicit chiral two-component solutions for the factored equation to the two-component solutions defined by the Foldy-Wouthuysen series for the Dirac-Coulomb Hamiltonian, it is concluded that this series cannot converge.
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  22. T. S. Biró, S. G. Matinyan & B. Müller (2002). List of Contents: Volume 14, Number 5, October 2001. Foundations of Physics 32 (1).
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  23. T. S. Biro, S. G. Matinyan & B. Muller (2002). List of Contents: Volume 14, Number 5, October 2001 Jose L. Cereceda: Identification of All Hardy-Type Correlations for Two Photons or Particles with Spin\ Anatolij Dvurecenskij and Thomas Vetterlein: Congruences and States on Pseudoeffect Algebras. [REVIEW] Foundations of Physics 32 (1-3):187.
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  24. N. T. Bishop (1989). Do Tachyons Produce an Unacceptable Gravitational Field? Foundations of Physics 19 (5):619-624.
    The geodesics and the curvature of a metric representing an isolated tachyon are investigated. It is argued that the properties are unphysical and inconsistent with observation, thus providing further evidence against the existence of tachyons.
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  25. C. G. Boehmer & T. Harko (2008). Physics of Dark Energy Particles. Foundations of Physics 38 (3):216-227.
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  26. David Bohm (1987). The Implicate Order and Prigogine's Notions of Irreversibility. Foundations of Physics 17 (7):667-677.
    In this paper, a very close relationship between Prigogine's notions of irreversibility and the implicate order is brought out. Certain of Prigogine's basic assumptions with regard to irreversible processes are also shown to be the equivalent of the introduction of nilpotent operators in the algebra underlying the implicate order.
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  27. H. -H. V. Borzeszkowski & H. -J. Treder (1998). Dark Matter Versus Mach's Principle. Foundations of Physics 28 (2):273-290.
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  28. A. Bouda (2001). List of Contents: Volume 14, Number 1, February 2001. Foundations of Physics 31 (4).
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  29. Roger Boudet (1999). A Relativistic Calculation of the Matrix Elements Used in the Photoeffect and the Lamb Shift. Foundations of Physics 29 (1):49-66.
    By using the general expression of the matrix elements of the transitions S1/2-P1/2, S1/2-P3/2, established in previous papers, and the Sommerfeld and Schur method of integration, the matrix elements of the transitions 1S1/2-continuum are carried out, in a first step, without retardation.
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  30. Roger Boudet & Bruno Blaive (2000). Exact Relativistic Calculation with Retardation of the Matrix Elements Used in the Photoeffect of Hydrogenic Atoms. Foundations of Physics 30 (8):1283-1300.
    The general expressions with retardation of the matrix elements for a central potential of the transitions S1/2−P1/2 and S1/2−P3/2 have been established previously for all the cases of degeneracies. Here, they are calculated, for any Z, as combinations of hypergeometric series, for the transitions between 1S1/2 and the continuum (photoeffect). A verification of the results is achieved for the approximation Z2α2≪κ2 by using the integral representation in the complex plane of the confluent hypergeometric functions and the residues theorem.
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  31. Stephen Boughn (2009). Nonquantum Gravity. Foundations of Physics 39 (4):331-351.
    One of the great challenges for 21st century physics is to quantize gravity and generate a theory that will unify gravity with the other three fundamental forces of nature. This paper takes the (heretical) point of view that gravity may be an inherently classical, i.e., nonquantum, phenomenon and investigates the experimental consequences of such a conjecture. At present there is no experimental evidence of the quantum nature of gravity and the likelihood of definitive tests in the future is not at (...)
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  32. Alain Boutot (1993). Catastrophe Theory and its Critics. Synthese 96 (2):167 - 200.
    Catastrophe theory has been sharply criticized because it does not seem to have practical applications nor does it seem to allow us to increase our power over Nature. I want to rehabilitate the theory by foregoing the controversy raised by scientists about its practical efficiency. After a short exposition of the theory's mathematical formalism and a detailed analysis of the main objections that have been raised against it, I argue that theory is not only to be judged on its practical (...)
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  33. R. Boyd (1995). The Faith of a Physicist. Foundations of Physics 25:1641-1644.
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  34. M. Božić & Z. Marić (1993). A Search for the Classical Model of Spin. Foundations of Physics 23 (5):819-835.
    The study of the motion of the magnetic top—a classical spherical top which carries magnetic moment proportional to its angular momentum, is motivated and inspired by the quantum mechanical relation between spin angular momentum and spin magnetic moment. Inversely, the magnetic top, taken to be the classical model of quantum spin, implies the description of spin states by probability amplitudes of the top orientation angles, instead of by Pauli spinors. This opens new possibilities for the interpretation of many interesting spin (...)
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  35. M. Brack (2001). Festschrift in Honor of the 75th Birthday of Martin Gutzwiller Ed A Inomata Et Al. Foundations of Physics 31:209.
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  36. Matthias Brack (2001). Bifurcation Cascades and Self-Similarity of Periodic Orbits with Analytical Scaling Constants in Hénon–Heiles Type Potentials. Foundations of Physics 31 (2):209-232.
    We investigate the isochronous bifurcations of the straight-line librating orbit in the Hénon–Heiles and related potentials. With increasing scaled energy e, they form a cascade of pitchfork bifurcations that cumulate at the critical saddle-point energy e=1. The stable and unstable orbits created at these bifurcations appear in two sequences whose self-similar properties possess an analytical scaling behavior. Different from the standard Feigenbaum scenario in area preserving two-dimensional maps, here the scaling constants α and β corresponding to the two spatial directions (...)
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  37. Katherine Brading (2008). Leo Corry. David Hilbert and the Axiomatization of Physics (1898–1918). Philosophia Mathematica 16 (1):113-129.
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  38. V. B. Braginsky & F. Ya Khalili (1986). How to Evade the Confrontation with the Uncertainty Relations. Foundations of Physics 16 (4):379-382.
    It is demonstrated that one can in principle register an arbitrarily small force acting on a free particle by employing only measurements of its coordinates.
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  39. Carl Brannen (2010). Spin Path Integrals and Generations. Foundations of Physics 40 (11):1681-1699.
    The spin of a free electron is stable but its position is not. Recent quantum information research by G. Svetlichny, J. Tolar, and G. Chadzitaskos have shown that the Feynman position path integral can be mathematically defined as a product of incompatible states; that is, as a product of mutually unbiased bases (MUBs). Since the more common use of MUBs is in finite dimensional Hilbert spaces, this raises the question “what happens when spin path integrals are computed over products of (...)
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  40. Andrea Bressan (2010). The Spin Structure of the Nucleon; A COMPASS Perspective. Foundations of Physics 40 (7):1030-1041.
    The COMPASS experiment at CERN is carrying on an experimental investigation of the spin structure of the nucleon, covering both longitudinal and transverse spin phenomena. In the first case, the central topic is the direct measurement of the gluon polarisation with the hope to solve the spin crisis first observed by EMC. The result shows that Δg/g is small around x g ≃0.1, and its first moment should not be larger than 0.2—0.3 in absolute value. About transverse spin effects, evidence (...)
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  41. Percy Bridgman (1980). The Logic of Modern Physics. Arno Press.
  42. Dieter R. Brill (1986). Barrier Penetration and Initial Values in Kaluza-Klein Theories. Foundations of Physics 16 (7):637-649.
    Topology change is discussed as a barrier penetration process and illustrated by explicit calculations in Witten's Kaluza-Klein bubble geometry. Initial values are given for other bubble geometries, including ones with negative total mass.
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  43. Fabio Briscese, Yeinzon Rodríguez & Guillermo A. González (2012). On the True Nature of Renormalizability in Horava-Lifshitz Gravity. Foundations of Physics 42 (11):1444-1451.
    We argue that the true nature of the renormalizability of Horava-Lifshitz gravity lies in the presence of higher order spatial derivatives and not in the anisotropic Lifshitz scaling of space and time. We discuss the possibility of constructing a higher order spatial derivatives model that has the same renormalization properties of Horava-Lifshitz gravity but that does not make use of the Lifshitz scaling. In addition, the state-of-the-art of the Lorentz symmetry restoration in Horava-Lifshitz-type theories of gravitation is reviewed.
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  44. Jan Broekaert (2008). A Spatially-VSL Gravity Model with 1-PN Limit of GRT. Foundations of Physics 38 (5):409-435.
    In the static field configuration, a spatially-Variable Speed of Light (VSL) scalar gravity model with Lorentz-Poincaré interpretation was shown to reproduce the phenomenology implied by the Schwarzschild metric. In the present development, we effectively cover configurations with source kinematics due to an induced sweep velocity field w. The scalar-vector model now provides a Hamiltonian description for particles and photons in full accordance with the first Post-Newtonian (1-PN) approximation of General Relativity Theory (GRT). This result requires the validity of Poincaré’s Principle (...)
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  45. Jan Broekaert (2005). A Modified Lorentz-Transformation–Based Gravity Model Confirming Basic GRT Experiments. Foundations of Physics 35 (5):839-864.
    Implementing Poincaré’s geometric conventionalism a scalar Lorentz-covariant gravity model is obtained based on gravitationally modified Lorentz transformations (or GMLT). The modification essentially consists of an appropriate space-time and momentum-energy scaling (“normalization”) relative to a nondynamical flat background geometry according to an isotropic, nonsingular gravitational affecting function Φ(r). Elimination of the gravitationally unaffected S 0 perspective by local composition of space–time GMLT recovers the local Minkowskian metric and thus preserves the invariance of the locally observed velocity of light. The associated energy-momentum (...)
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  46. H. R. Brown (1994). Conscious Mind in the Physical World. Foundations of Physics 24:807-807.
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  47. Dagmar Bruß & Chiara Macchiavello (2005). How the First Partial Transpose Was Written. Foundations of Physics 35 (11):1921-1926.
    We tell the tale of the first writing of a partial transpose, without guaranteeing historical authenticity.
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  48. Paolo Budinich (2002). From the Geometry of Pure Spinors with Their Division Algebras to Fermion Physics. Foundations of Physics 32 (9):1347-1398.
    The Cartan equations defining simple spinors (renamed “pure” by C. Chevalley) are interpreted as equations of motion in compact momentum spaces, in a constructive approach in which at each step the dimensions of spinor space are doubled while those of momentum space increased by two. The construction is possible only in the frame of the geometry of simple or pure spinors, which imposes contraint equations on spinors with more than four components, and then momentum spaces result compact, isomorphic to invariant-mass-spheres (...)
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  49. L. Burakovsky (1998). Glueball Spectroscopy in Regge Phenomenology. Foundations of Physics 28 (10):1595-1605.
    We show that linear Regge trajectories for mesons and glueballs, and the cubic mass spectrum associated with them, determine a relation between the masses of the ρ meson and the scalar glueball, $M(0^{ + + } ) = 3/\sqrt 2 M(\rho )$ , which implies $M(0^{ + + } ) = 1650_ \pm 10$ MeV. We also discuss relations between the masses of the scalar, tensor and 3-- glueballs, $M(2^{ + + } ) = \sqrt 2 M(0^{ + + } (...)
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  50. L. Burakovsky (1997). Towards Resolution of the Scalar Meson Nonet Enigma. Foundations of Physics 27 (2):315-330.
    By the application of a linear mass spectrum to a composite system of both the pseudoscalar and scalar meson nonets, we find three relations for the masses of the scalar states which suggest the $q\bar q$ assignment for the scalar meson nonet a0(1320), K 0 * (1430), f0(1500), and f0 ′(980).
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