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Summary 'Interpretations' of quantum mechanics are traditionally characterized by their responses to the measurement problem: how can the deterministic unitary quantum dynamics, expressed in the Schrodinger equation, give rise to particular sequences of measurement outcomes with probabilities given by the Born rule? But the main competing responses to the measurement problem are not interpretations of some agreed core theory; rather, they are logically incompatible theories which generally posit some additional dynamical structure over and above the unitary dynamics. For example, Bohmian mechanics adds 'hidden variables', such as particles with precise locations, which are guided by a field with the same structure as the unitary quantum state; and dynamical collapse theories posit a new stochastic dynamical process of state collapse. An important exception is Everettian quantum mechanics, or the 'many worlds interpretation', which adds no new structure and instead attempts to recover determinate measurement outcomes perspectivally.
Key works Bell 2004 set the scene for almost all contemporary discussions, and was an eloquent advocate of Bohmian mechanics. Saunders et al 2010 contains in-depth discussion of the pros and cons of the Everett interpretation.
Introductions Albert 1992 is a vivid and entertaining introduction to the measurement problem. Goldstein 2008 gives a thorough account of Bohmian mechanics. Vaidman 2008 does the same for Everettian quantum mechanics.
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  1. Luigi Accardi (1999). The Quantum Probabilistic Approach to the Foundations of Quantum Theory: Urns and Chamaleons. In Maria Luisa Dalla Chiara (ed.), Language, Quantum, Music. 95--104.
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  2. Fernando Lopez Aguilar (2008). Quantum Neurology: A Key Within Physics Toward the Knowledge of the Consciousness? Pensamiento 64 (242):693-713.
  3. Y. Aharonov & D. Albert (1987). The Issue of Retrodiction in Bohm's Theory. In Basil J. Hiley & D. Peat (eds.), Quantum Implications: Essays in Honour of David Bohm. Methuen. 223.
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  4. David Z. Albert (1990). The Quantum Mechanics of Self–Measurement. In W. Zurek (ed.), Complexity, Entropy, and the Physics of Information. Addison-Wesley. 8--471.
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  5. Valia Allori, Fundamental Physical Theories: Mathematical Structures Grounded on a Primitive Ontology.
    In my dissertation I analyze the structure of fundamental physical theories. I start with an analysis of what an adequate primitive ontology is, discussing the measurement problem in quantum mechanics and theirs solutions. It is commonly said that these theories have little in common. I argue instead that the moral of the measurement problem is that the wave function cannot represent physical objects and a common structure between these solutions can be recognized: each of them is about a clear three-dimensional (...)
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  6. Constantin Antonopoulos (2005). Making the Quantum of Relevance. Journal for General Philosophy of Science 36 (2):223 - 241.
    The two Heisenberg Uncertainties (UR) entail an incompatibility between the two pairs of conjugated variables E, t and p, q. But incompatibility comes in two kinds, exclusive of one another. There is incompatibility defineable as: (p → -q) & (q → -p) or defineable as [(p → -q) & (q → -p)] ↔ r. The former kind is unconditional, the latter conditional. The former, in accordance, is fact independent, and thus a matter of logic, the latter fact dependent, and thus (...)
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  7. A. Arensburg & L. P. Horwitz (1992). A First-Order Equation for Spin in a Manifestly Relativistically Covariant Quantum Theory. Foundations of Physics 22 (8):1025-1039.
    Relativistic quantum mechanics has been formulated as a theory of the evolution ofevents in spacetime; the wave functions are square-integrable functions on the four-dimensional spacetime, parametrized by a universal invariant world time τ. The representation of states with spin is induced with a little group that is the subgroup of O(3, 1) leaving invariant a timelike vector nμ; a positive definite invariant scalar product, for which matrix elements of tensor operators are covariant, emerges from this construction. In a previous study (...)
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  8. J. C. Aron (1981). Stochastic Foundation for Microphysics. A Critical Analysis. Foundations of Physics 11 (9-10):699-720.
    The stochastic scheme proposed in a previous paper as subjacent to quantum mechanics is analyzed in the light of the difficulties and criticisms encountered by similar attempts. It is shown that the limitation of the domain where the theory is valid gives a reply to the criticisms, but restricts its practical usefulness to the description of basic features. A stochastic approach of the hadron mass spectrum, allowing the scheme to emerge in the domain of experimental verification (to be worked out (...)
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  9. Richard T. W. Arthur (1981). Book Review:Quantum Mechanics, a Half Century Later J.L. Lopes, M. Paty. [REVIEW] Philosophy of Science 48 (1):156-.
  10. Alain Aspect & Robin Kaiser (1990). Linear Momentum Conservation in Coherent Population Trapping: A Case Study for a Quantum Filtering Process. [REVIEW] Foundations of Physics 20 (12):1413-1428.
    We discuss the question of linear momentum conservation when an atom coupled to a laser field enters into a state which is not an eigenstate of the linear momentum. Such a situation happens in the recently demonstrated laser cooling of atoms by velocity selective coherent population trapping. We show that this process can be understood as a filtering of the atomic state by the laser field taken as a classical measuring apparatus. In a different approach, the laser field can be (...)
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  11. D. Atkinson (1998). The Light of Quantum Mechanics. Dialectica 52 (2):103–126.
    It is argued that while classical probability theory, as it is encapsulated in the axioms of Kolmogorov and in his criterion for the independence of two events, can consistently be employed in quantum mechanics, this can only be accomplished at an exorbitant price. By considering rst the classic two-slit experiment, and then the passage of one photon through three polarizers, the applicability of Kolmogorov's last axiom is called into question, but the standard rebu of the Copenhagen interpretation is shown to (...)
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  12. Harald Atmanspacher, Complementarity in Bistable Perception.
    The idea of complementarity already appears in William James’ (1890a, p. 206) Principles of Psychology in the chapter on “the relations of minds to other things”. Later, in 1927, Niels Bohr introduced complementarity as a fundamental concept in quantum mechanics. It refers to properties (observables) that a system cannot have simultaneously, and which cannot be simultaneously measured with arbitrarily high accuracy. Yet, in the context of classical physics they would both be needed for an exhaustive description of the system.
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  13. Michael N. Audi (1973). Book Review:Perspectives in Quantum Theory: Essays in Honor of Alfred Lande Wolfgang Yourgrau, Alwyn Van Der Merwe. [REVIEW] Philosophy of Science 40 (2):323-.
  14. Jürgen Audretsch & Klaus Mainzer (eds.) (1990). Wieviele Leben Hat Schrödingers Katze? Bibliographisches Institut.
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  15. Iep Author, Quantum Mechanics, Interpretations Of.
    Interpretations of Quantum Mechanics Quantum mechanics is a physical theory developed in the 1920s to account for the behavior of matter on the atomic scale. It has subsequently been developed into arguably the most empirically successful theory in the history of physics. However, it is hard to understand quantum mechanics as a description of the … Continue reading Quantum Mechanics, Interpretations of →.
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  16. Arnon Avron (1984). On Modal Systems Having Arithmetical Interpretations. Journal of Symbolic Logic 49 (3):935-942.
  17. Guido Bacciagaluppi (2010). Collapse Theories as Beable Theories. Manuscrito 33 (1):19-54.
    I discuss the interpretation of spontaneous collapse theories, with particular reference to Bell's suggestion that the stochastic jumps in the evolution of the wave function should be considered as local beables of the theory. I develop this analogy in some detail for the case of non-relativistic GRW-type theories, using a generalisation of Bell's notion of beables to POV measures. In the context of CSL-type theories, this strategy appears to fail, and I discuss instead Ghirardi and co-workers' mass-density interpretation and its (...)
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  18. Guido Bacciagaluppi & Meir Hemmo (1994). Making Sense of Approximate Decoherence. PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1994:345 - 354.
    In realistic situations where a macroscopic system interacts with an external environment, decoherence of the quantum state, as derived in the decoherence approach, is only approximate. We argue that this can still give rise to facts, provided that during the decoherence process states that are, respectively, always close to eigenvectors of pointer position and record observable are correlated. We show in a model that this is always the case.
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  19. Alexander Bach (1988). The Concept of Indistinguishable Particles in Classical and Quantum Physics. Foundations of Physics 18 (6):639-649.
    The consequences of the following definition of indistinguishability are analyzed. Indistinguishable classical or quantum particles are identical classical or quantum particles in a state characterized by a probability measure, a statistical operator respectively, which is invariant under any permutation of the particles. According to this definition the particles of classical Maxwell-Boltzmann statistics are indistinguishable.
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  20. J. E. Baggott (2011). The Quantum Story: A History in 40 Moments. Oxford University Press.
    Prologue: Stormclouds : London, April 1900 -- Quantum of action: The most strenuous work of my life : Berlin, December 1900 ; Annus Mirabilis : Bern, March 1905 ; A little bit of reality : Manchester, April 1913 ; la Comédie Française : Paris, September 1923 ; A strangely beautiful interior : Helgoland, June 1925 ; The self-rotating electron : Leiden, November 1925 ; A late erotic outburst : Swiss Alps, Christmas 1925 -- Quantum interpretation: Ghost field : Oxford, August (...)
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  21. M. Bahrami & A. Shafiee (2010). Postponing the Past: An Operational Analysis of Delayed-Choice Experiments. [REVIEW] Foundations of Physics 40 (1):55-92.
    The prominent characteristic of a delayed-choice effect is to make the choice between complementary types of phenomena after the relevant interaction between the system and measuring instrument has already come to an end. In this paper, we first represent a detailed comparative analysis of some early delayed-choice propositions and also most of the experimentally performed delayed-choice proposals in a coherent and unified quantum mechanical formulation. Taking into the account the represented quantum mechanical descriptions and also the rules of probability theory, (...)
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  22. Leslie Ballentine (2008). Classicality Without Decoherence: A Reply to Schlosshauer. [REVIEW] Foundations of Physics 38 (10):916-922.
    Schlosshauer has criticized the conclusion of Wiebe and Ballentine (Phys. Rev. A 72:022109, 2005) that decoherence is not essential for the emergence of classicality from quantum mechanics. I reply to the issues raised in his critique, which range from the interpretation of quantum mechanics to the criterion for classicality, and conclude that the role of decoherence in these issues is much more restricted than is often claimed.
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  23. W. Balzer (1981). Piron's Foundation of Quantum Mechanics (Comment on His Paper). Erkenntnis 16 (3):403 - 406.
  24. Gergely Bana & Thomas Durt (1997). Proof of Kolmogorovian Censorship. Foundations of Physics 27 (10):1355-1373.
  25. William Band & James L. Park (1970). The Empirical Determination of Quantum States. Foundations of Physics 1 (2):133-144.
    A common approach to quantum physics is enshrouded in a jargon which treats state vectors as attributes of physical systems and the concept of state preparation as a filtration scheme wherein a process involving measurement selects from a primordial assembly of systems those bearing some prescribed vector of interest. By contrast, the empirical experiences with which quantum theory is actually concerned relate measurement and preparation in quite an opposite manner. Reproducible preparation schemes are logically and temporally anterior to measurement acts. (...)
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  26. R. L. Barnette (1978). Does Quantum Mechanics Disprove the Principle of the Identity of Indiscernibles? Philosophy of Science 45 (3):466-470.
  27. Jeffrey A. Barrett (2001). The Strange World of Quantum Mechanics Daniel F. Styer. [REVIEW] British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 52 (2):393-396.
  28. Jeffrey A. Barrett, On the Nature of Measurement Records in Relativistic Quantum Field Theory.
    A resolution of the quantum measurement problem would require one to explain how it is that we end up with determinate records at the end of our measurements. Metaphysical commitments typically do real work in such an explanation. Indeed, one should not be satisfied with one's metaphysical commitments unless one can provide some account of determinate measurement records. I will explain some of the problems in getting determinate records in relativistic quantum field theory and pay particular attention to the relationship (...)
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  29. Jeffrey A. Barrett (2000). The Persistence of Memory: Surreal Trajectories in Bohm's Theory. Philosophy of Science 67 (4):680-703.
    In this paper I describe the history of the surreal trajectories problem and argue that in fact it is not a problem for Bohm's theory. More specifically, I argue that one can take the particle trajectories predicted by Bohm's theory to be the actual trajectories that particles follow and that there is no reason to suppose that good particle detectors are somehow fooled in the context of the surreal trajectories experiments. Rather than showing that Bohm's theory predicts the wrong particle (...)
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  30. J. Acacio De Barros, J. P. R. F. De Mendonça & N. Pinto-Neto (2007). Realism in Energy Transition Processes: An Example From Bohmian Quantum Mechanics. Synthese 154 (3):349 - 370.
    In this paper we study in details a system of two weakly coupled harmonic oscillators from the point of view of Bohm's interpretation of quantum mechanics. This system may be viewed as a simple model for the interaction between a photon and a photodetector. We obtain exact solutions for the general case. We then compute approximate solutions for the case where one oscillator is initially in its first excited state (a single photon) reaching the other oscillator in its ground state (...)
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  31. S. Bartalucci, S. Bertolucci, M. Bragadireanu, M. Cargnelli, C. Curceanu, S. Di Matteo, J.-P. Egger, C. Guaraldo, M. Iliescu, T. Ishiwatari, M. Laubenstein, J. Marton, E. Milotti, D. Pietreanu, T. Ponta, A. Romero Vidal, D. L. Sirghi, F. Sirghi, L. Sperandio, O. Vazquez Doce, E. Widmann & J. Zmeskal (2010). The VIP Experimental Limit on the Pauli Exclusion Principle Violation by Electrons. Foundations of Physics 40 (7):765-775.
    In this paper we describe an experimental test of the validity of the Pauli Exclusion Principle (for electrons) which is based on a straightforward idea put forward a few years ago by Ramberg and Snow (Phys. Lett. B 238:438, 1990). We perform a very accurate search of X-rays from the Pauli-forbidden atomic transitions of electrons in the already filled 1S shells of copper atoms. Although the experiment has a very simple structure, it poses deep conceptual and interpretational problems. Here we (...)
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  32. A. O. Barut (1992). How to Avoid “Quantum Paradoxes”. Foundations of Physics 22 (1):137-142.
    The “theorems” showing the impossibility of ascribing to individual quantum systems a definite value of a set of observables, not necessarily commuting,1–4 are based on the tacit assumption that eachindividual spin component has a discrete dichotomic value. We show explicitly that it is possible to introduce continuous hidden variables for individual spins which avoid these quantum paradoxes without changing any of the observed quantum mechanical results.
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  33. A. O. Barut (1988). Combining Relativity and Quantum Mechanics: Schrödinger's Interpretation of Ψ. [REVIEW] Foundations of Physics 18 (1):95-105.
    The incongruence between quantum theory and relativity theory is traced to the probability interpretation of the former. The classical continium interpretation of ψ removes the difficulty. How quantum properties of matter and light, and in particular the radiative problems, like spontaneous emission and Lamb shift, may be accounted in a first quantized Maxwell-Dirac system is discussed.
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  34. Angelo Bassi (ed.) (2006). Quantum Mechanics: Are There Quantum Jumps? Trieste, Italy, 5 Spetember -2005 and on the Present Status of Quantum Mechanics Lošinj, Croatia 7-9 September 2005. [REVIEW] American Institute of Physics.
    This conference brought together experts in different fields related to the foundations of quantum mechanics, ranging from mathematical physics to experimental physics, as well as the philosophy of science. The major topics discussed are: collapse models, Bohemian mechanics and their relativistic extensions, other alternative formulation of quantum mechanics, properties of entanglement, statistical physics and probability theory, new experimental results, as well as philosophical and epistemological issues.
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  35. James D. Bastable (1978). Mechanics of the Mind. Philosophical Studies 26:232-234.
  36. J. Barretto Bastos Filho & F. Selleri (1995). Propensity, Probability, and Quantum Physics. Foundations of Physics 25 (5):701-716.
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  37. J. Batouli & M. El Baz (2014). Classical Interpretation of a Deformed Quantum Oscillator. Foundations of Physics 44 (2):105-113.
    Following the same procedure that allowed Shcrödinger to construct the (canonical) coherent states in the first place, we investigate on a possible classical interpretation of the deformed harmonic oscillator. We find that, these oscillator, also called q-oscillators, can be interpreted as quantum versions of classical forced oscillators with a modified q-dependant frequency.
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  38. Friedrich Beck (2001). Quantum Brain Dynamics and Consciousness. In P. Loockvane (ed.), The Physical Nature of Consciousness. John Benjamins.
  39. Friedrich Beck (1998). Synaptic Transmission, Quantum-State Selection, and Consciousness. In Stuart R. Hameroff, Alfred W. Kaszniak & A. C. Scott (eds.), Toward a Science of Consciousness II. MIT Press.
  40. Friedrich Beck (1994). Quantum Mechanics and Consciousness. Journal of Consciousness Studies 1 (2):253-255.
    The first issue of JCS published an interview with Roger Penrose on his recent book Shadows of the Mind: A Search for the Missing Science of Consciousness . In it Professor Penrose, among other subjects, presented his views on the role of quantum mechanics on our way towards a better understanding of brain functioning and its relation to consciousness. In this note we comment on some aspects of his reasoning.
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  41. Friedrich Beck & John C. Eccles (2003). Quantum Processes in the Brain: A Scientific Basis of Consciousness. In Naoyuki Osaka (ed.), Neural Basis of Consciousness. John Benjamins. 49--141.
  42. Hugo Bedau & Paul Oppenheim (1961). Complementarity in Quantum Mechanics: A Logical Analysis. Synthese 13 (3):201 - 232.
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  43. D. Bedford & D. Wang (1983). Comments on “On the Quantum Mechanical Superposition of Macroscopically Distinguishable States”. Foundations of Physics 13 (10):987-988.
    The substance of the authors' disagreement with the views of D. Gutkowski and M. V. Valdes Franco is presented.
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  44. Donald Bedford & Derek Wang (1976). Environment, Consciousness, and Quantum Measurement. Foundations of Physics 6 (5):599-605.
    It is shown that (a) the conscious observer plays no essential part in the measurement process, and (b) environmental perturbations of whatever kind fail to account for the evolution of systems into “mixtures” or “dynamically decoupled” systems.
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  45. V. P. Belavkin (1994). Nondemolition Principle of Quantum Measurement Theory. Foundations of Physics 24 (5):685-714.
    We give an explicit axiomatic formulation of the quantum measurement theory which is free of the projection postulate. It is based on the generalized nondemolition principle applicable also to the unsharp, continuous-spectrum and continuous-in-time observations. The “collapsed state-vector” after the “objectification” is simply treated as a random vector of the a posterioristate given by the quantum filtering, i.e., the conditioning of the a prioriinduced state on the corresponding reduced algebra. The nonlinear phenomenological equation of “continuous spontaneous localization” has been derived (...)
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  46. Mara Beller (1996). The Rhetoric of Antirealism and the Copenhagen Spirit. Philosophy of Science 63 (2):183-204.
    This paper argues against the possibility of presenting a consistent version of the Copenhagen Interpretation of Quantum Physics, characterizing its founders' philosophical pronouncements including those on the realism-antirealism issue, as a contingent collection of local, often contradictory, moves in changing theoretical and sociopolitical circumstances. The paper analyzes the fundamental differences of opinion between Bohr and the mathematical physicists, Heisenberg and Born, concerning the foundational doctrine of the "indispensability of classical concepts", and their related disagreements on "quantum reality." The paper concludes (...)
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  47. Darrin W. Belousek (2003). Non‐Seperability, Non‐Supervenience, and Quantum Ontology. Philosophy of Science 70 (4):791-811.
    An argument to the effect that quantum mechanics commits us to the existence of non-supervenient relations, and therefore that we should admit such relations into our quantum ontology as fundamental entities, has been given by Teller and reformulated by French. This paper aims, first, to explicate and evaluate that argument; second, to extend its premises in order to assess its relevance for other interpretations of quantum mechanics; and, third, to clarify its implications for holism and individuation in quantum ontology.
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  48. Darrin W. Belousek (2000). Statistics, Symmetry, and (In)Distinguishability in Bohmian Mechanics. Foundations of Physics 30 (1):153-164.
    This paper continues an earlier work by considering in what sense and to what extent identical Bohmian-mechanical particles in many-particle systems can be considered indistinguishable. We conclude that while whether identical Bohmian-mechanical particles ace considered to be “statistically (in)distinguishable” is a matter of theory choice underdetermined by logic and experiment, such particles are in any case “physically distinguishable.”.
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  49. Darrin W. Belousek (2000). Statistics, Symmetry, and the Conventionality of Indistinguishability in Quantum Mechanics. Foundations of Physics 30 (1):1-34.
    The question to be addressed is, In what sense and to what extent do quantum statistics for, and the standard formal quantum-mechanical description of, systems of many identical particles entail that identical quantum particles are indistinguishable? This paper argues that whether or not we consider identical quantum particles as indistinguishable is a matter of theory choice underdetermined by logic and experiment.
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  50. Darrin W. Belousek (1997). Perspectives on Quantum Reality: A Critical Survey. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B 28 (3):415-420.
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