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Summary 'Interpretations' of quantum mechanics are traditionally characterized by their responses to the measurement problem: how can the deterministic unitary quantum dynamics, expressed in the Schrodinger equation, give rise to particular sequences of measurement outcomes with probabilities given by the Born rule? But the main competing responses to the measurement problem are not interpretations of some agreed core theory; rather, they are logically incompatible theories which generally posit some additional dynamical structure over and above the unitary dynamics. For example, Bohmian mechanics adds 'hidden variables', such as particles with precise locations, which are guided by a field with the same structure as the unitary quantum state; and dynamical collapse theories posit a new stochastic dynamical process of state collapse. An important exception is Everettian quantum mechanics, or the 'many worlds interpretation', which adds no new structure and instead attempts to recover determinate measurement outcomes perspectivally.
Key works Bell 2004 set the scene for almost all contemporary discussions, and was an eloquent advocate of Bohmian mechanics. Saunders et al 2010 contains in-depth discussion of the pros and cons of the Everett interpretation.
Introductions Albert 1992 is a vivid and entertaining introduction to the measurement problem. Goldstein 2008 gives a thorough account of Bohmian mechanics. Vaidman 2008 does the same for Everettian quantum mechanics.
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  1. Southern Africa (1995). 1. Historical Review of the Causal Interpretation. Foundations of Physics 25 (10-12):1413.
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  2. Constantin Antonopoulos (2005). Making the Quantum of Relevance. Journal for General Philosophy of Science 36 (2):223 - 241.
    The two Heisenberg Uncertainties (UR) entail an incompatibility between the two pairs of conjugated variables E, t and p, q. But incompatibility comes in two kinds, exclusive of one another. There is incompatibility defineable as: (p → -q) & (q → -p) or defineable as [(p → -q) & (q → -p)] ↔ r. The former kind is unconditional, the latter conditional. The former, in accordance, is fact independent, and thus a matter of logic, the latter fact dependent, and thus (...)
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  3. D. M. Appleby, Åsa Ericsson & Christopher A. Fuchs (2011). Properties of QBist State Spaces. Foundations of Physics 41 (3):564-579.
    Every quantum state can be represented as a probability distribution over the outcomes of an informationally complete measurement. But not all probability distributions correspond to quantum states. Quantum state space may thus be thought of as a restricted subset of all potentially available probabilities. A recent publication (Fuchs and Schack, arXiv:0906.2187v1, 2009) advocates such a representation using symmetric informationally complete (SIC) measurements. Building upon this work we study how this subset—quantum-state space—might be characterized. Our leading characteristic is that the inner (...)
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  4. Jonas Rafael Becker Arenhart (2011). A Discussion on Finite Quasi-Cardinals in Quasi-Set Theory. Foundations of Physics 41 (8):1338-1354.
    Quasi-set theory Q is an alternative set-theory designed to deal mathematically with collections of indistinguishable objects. The intended interpretation for those objects is the indistinguishable particles of non-relativistic quantum mechanics, under one specific interpretation of that theory. The notion of cardinal of a collection in Q is treated by the concept of quasi-cardinal, which in the usual formulations of the theory is introduced as a primitive symbol, since the usual means of cardinal definition fail for collections of indistinguishable objects. In (...)
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  5. A. Arensburg & L. P. Horwitz (1992). A First-Order Equation for Spin in a Manifestly Relativistically Covariant Quantum Theory. Foundations of Physics 22 (8):1025-1039.
    Relativistic quantum mechanics has been formulated as a theory of the evolution ofevents in spacetime; the wave functions are square-integrable functions on the four-dimensional spacetime, parametrized by a universal invariant world time τ. The representation of states with spin is induced with a little group that is the subgroup of O(3, 1) leaving invariant a timelike vector nμ; a positive definite invariant scalar product, for which matrix elements of tensor operators are covariant, emerges from this construction. In a previous study (...)
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  6. Frank Arntzenius (2003). Is Quantum Mechanics Pointless? Philosophy of Science 70 (5):1447-1457.
    There exist well‐known conundrums, such as measure‐theoretic paradoxes and problems of contact, which, within the context of classical physics, can be used to argue against the existence of points in space and space‐time. I examine whether quantum mechanics provides additional reasons for supposing that there are no points in space and space‐time.
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  7. J. C. Aron (1981). Stochastic Foundation for Microphysics. A Critical Analysis. Foundations of Physics 11 (9-10):699-720.
    The stochastic scheme proposed in a previous paper as subjacent to quantum mechanics is analyzed in the light of the difficulties and criticisms encountered by similar attempts. It is shown that the limitation of the domain where the theory is valid gives a reply to the criticisms, but restricts its practical usefulness to the description of basic features. A stochastic approach of the hadron mass spectrum, allowing the scheme to emerge in the domain of experimental verification (to be worked out (...)
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  8. Jerrold L. Aronson (1997). Dispositions as the Foundation for Feynman's Formulation of Quantum Mechanics. Dialectica 51 (1):35–64.
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  9. Richard T. W. Arthur (1981). Book Review:Quantum Mechanics, a Half Century Later J.L. Lopes, M. Paty. [REVIEW] Philosophy of Science 48 (1):156-.
  10. Masanari Asano, Masanori Ohya & Andrei Khrennikov (2011). Quantum-Like Model for Decision Making Process in Two Players Game. Foundations of Physics 41 (3):538-548.
    In experiments of games, players frequently make choices which are regarded as irrational in game theory. In papers of Khrennikov (Information Dynamics in Cognitive, Psychological and Anomalous Phenomena. Fundamental Theories of Physics, Kluwer Academic, Norwell, 2004; Fuzzy Sets Syst. 155:4–17, 2005; Biosystems 84:225–241, 2006; Found. Phys. 35(10):1655–1693, 2005; in QP-PQ Quantum Probability and White Noise Analysis, vol. XXIV, pp. 105–117, 2009), it was pointed out that statistics collected in such the experiments have “quantum-like” properties, which can not be explained in (...)
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  11. Alain Aspect & Robin Kaiser (1990). Linear Momentum Conservation in Coherent Population Trapping: A Case Study for a Quantum Filtering Process. [REVIEW] Foundations of Physics 20 (12):1413-1428.
    We discuss the question of linear momentum conservation when an atom coupled to a laser field enters into a state which is not an eigenstate of the linear momentum. Such a situation happens in the recently demonstrated laser cooling of atoms by velocity selective coherent population trapping. We show that this process can be understood as a filtering of the atomic state by the laser field taken as a classical measuring apparatus. In a different approach, the laser field can be (...)
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  12. Mahdi Atiq, Mozafar Karamian & Mahdi Golshani (2009). A New Way for the Extension of Quantum Theory: Non-Bohmian Quantum Potentials. [REVIEW] Foundations of Physics 39 (1):33-44.
    Quantum Mechanics is a good example of a successful theory. Most of atomic phenomena are described well by quantum mechanics and cases such as Lamb Shift that are not described by quantum mechanics, are described by quantum electrodynamics. Of course, at the nuclear level, because of some complications, it is not clear that we can claim the same confidence. One way of taking these complications and corrections into account seems to be a modification of the standard quantum theory. In this (...)
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  13. D. Atkinson (1998). The Light of Quantum Mechanics. Dialectica 52 (2):103–126.
    It is argued that while classical probability theory, as it is encapsulated in the axioms of Kolmogorov and in his criterion for the independence of two events, can consistently be employed in quantum mechanics, this can only be accomplished at an exorbitant price. By considering rst the classic two-slit experiment, and then the passage of one photon through three polarizers, the applicability of Kolmogorov's last axiom is called into question, but the standard rebu of the Copenhagen interpretation is shown to (...)
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  14. David Atkinson, Quantum Mechanics and Retrocausality.
    The classical electrodynamics of point charges can be made finite by the introduction of effects that temporally precede their causes. The idea of retrocausality is also inherent in the Feynman propagators of quantum electrodynamics. The notion allows a new understanding of the violation of the Bell inequalities, and of the world view revealed by quantum mechanics. Published in The Universe, Visions and Perspectives, edited by N. Dadhich and A. Kembhavi, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2000, pages 35-50.
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  15. Harald Atmanspacher (1989). The Aspect of Information Production in the Process of Observation. Foundations of Physics 19 (5):553-577.
    The physical process of observation is considered from a specific information theoretical viewpoint. Using the modified concept of an information based on infinite alternatives, a formalism is derived describing the elementary transfer of one bit of information. This bit of information is produced on a virtual (nonreal) sub-quantum level of physical description. The interpretation of the formalism yields the following, complementary points: (i) the effect of spatiotemporal delocalization on the sub-quantum level, and (ii) a possible access to the concept of (...)
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  16. Michael N. Audi (1973). Book Review:Perspectives in Quantum Theory: Essays in Honor of Alfred Lande Wolfgang Yourgrau, Alwyn Van Der Merwe. [REVIEW] Philosophy of Science 40 (2):323-.
  17. Jürgen Audretsch & Klaus Mainzer (eds.) (1990). Wieviele Leben Hat Schrödingers Katze? Bibliographisches Institut.
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  18. Gennaro Auletta (2005). Quantum Information and Inferential Reasoning. Foundations of Physics 35 (1):155-156.
    Information may be extracted from a quantum–mechanical system only by means of inference. For this reason, the observer, although not required as such for obtaining an eigenstate of the measured observable on a given system, is necessary for obtaining information.
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  19. Gennaro Auletta (2005). Quantum Information as a General Paradigm. Foundations of Physics 35 (5):787-815.
    Quantum–mechanical systems may be understood in terms of information. When they interact, they modify the information they carry or represent in two, and only two, ways: by selecting a part of the initial amount of (potential) information and by sharing information with other systems. As a consequence, quantum systems are informationally shielded. These features are shown to be general features of nature. In particular, it is shown that matter arises from quantum–mechanical processes through the constitution of larger ensembles that share (...)
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  20. Samuel Avery (2010). Buddha and the Quantum: Hearing the Voice of Every Cell. Sentient Publications.
    The ache -- Buddha -- What is there? -- Planck -- Quantum meditation -- Body to light; light to world -- Einstein -- The quantum screen -- Dimensional interchange -- Self -- You -- Appearance.
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  21. Guido Bacciagaluppi (2013). Insolubility Theorems and EPR Argument. European Journal for Philosophy of Science 3 (1):87-100.
    I present a very general and simple argument—based on the no-signalling theorem—showing that within the framework of the unitary Schrödinger equation it is impossible to reproduce the phenomenological description of quantum mechanical measurements (in particular the collapse of the state of the measured system) by assuming a suitable mixed initial state of the apparatus. The thrust of the argument is thus similar to that of the ‘insolubility theorems’ for the measurement problem of quantum mechanics (which, however, focus on the impossibility (...)
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  22. Guido Bacciagaluppi (2000). Delocalized Properties in the Modal Interpretation of a Continuous Model of Decoherence. Foundations of Physics 30 (9):1431-1444.
    I investigate the character of the definite properties defined by the Basic Rule in the Vermaas and Dieks' (1995) version of the modal interpretation of quantum mechanics, specifically for the case of the continuous model of decoherence by Joos and Zeh (1985). While this model suggests that the characteristic length that might be associated with the localisation of an individual system is the coherence length of the state (which converges rapidly to the thermal de Broglie wavelength), I show in an (...)
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  23. Guido Bacciagaluppi & Michael Dickson (1999). Dynamics for Modal Interpretations. Foundations of Physics 29 (8):1165-1201.
    An outstanding problem in so-called modal interpretations of quantum mechanics has been the specification of a dynamics for the properties introduced in such interpretations. We develop a general framework (in the context of the theory of stochastic processes) for specifying a dynamics for interpretations in this class, focusing on the modal interpretation by Vermaas and Dieks. This framework admits many empirically equivalent dynamics. We give some examples, and discuss some of the properties of one of them. This approach is applicable (...)
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  24. Alexander Bach (1988). The Concept of Indistinguishable Particles in Classical and Quantum Physics. Foundations of Physics 18 (6):639-649.
    The consequences of the following definition of indistinguishability are analyzed. Indistinguishable classical or quantum particles are identical classical or quantum particles in a state characterized by a probability measure, a statistical operator respectively, which is invariant under any permutation of the particles. According to this definition the particles of classical Maxwell-Boltzmann statistics are indistinguishable.
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  25. Manuel Bächtold (2008). Interpreting Quantum Mechanics According to a Pragmatist Approach. Foundations of Physics 38 (9):843-868.
    The aim of this paper is to show that quantum mechanics can be interpreted according to a pragmatist approach. The latter consists, first, in giving a pragmatic definition to each term used in microphysics, second, in making explicit the functions any theory must fulfil so as to ensure the success of the research activity in microphysics, and third, in showing that quantum mechanics is the only theory which fulfils exactly these functions.
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  26. John C. Baez (1989). Is Life Improbable? Foundations of Physics 19 (1):91-95.
    E. P. Wigner's argument that the probability of the existence of self-reproducing units, e.g., organisms, is zero according to standard quantum theory is stated and analyzed. Theorems are presented which indicate that Wigner's mathematical result in fact should not be interpreted as asserting the improbability of self-reproducing units.
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  27. J. E. Baggott (2011). The Quantum Story: A History in 40 Moments. Oxford University Press.
    Prologue: Stormclouds : London, April 1900 -- Quantum of action: The most strenuous work of my life : Berlin, December 1900 ; Annus Mirabilis : Bern, March 1905 ; A little bit of reality : Manchester, April 1913 ; la Comédie Française : Paris, September 1923 ; A strangely beautiful interior : Helgoland, June 1925 ; The self-rotating electron : Leiden, November 1925 ; A late erotic outburst : Swiss Alps, Christmas 1925 -- Quantum interpretation: Ghost field : Oxford, August (...)
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  28. J. E. Baggott (2004). Beyond Measure: Modern Physics, Philosophy, and the Meaning of Quantum Theory. Oxford University Press.
    Quantum theory is one the most important and successful theories of modern physical science. It has been estimated that its principles form the basis for about 30 per cent of the world's manufacturing economy. This is all the more remarkable because quantum theory is a theory that nobody understands. The meaning of Quantum Theory introduces science students to the theory's fundamental conceptual and philosophical problems, and the basis of its non-understandability. It does this with the barest minimum of jargon and (...)
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  29. M. Bahrami & A. Shafiee (2010). Postponing the Past: An Operational Analysis of Delayed-Choice Experiments. [REVIEW] Foundations of Physics 40 (1):55-92.
    The prominent characteristic of a delayed-choice effect is to make the choice between complementary types of phenomena after the relevant interaction between the system and measuring instrument has already come to an end. In this paper, we first represent a detailed comparative analysis of some early delayed-choice propositions and also most of the experimentally performed delayed-choice proposals in a coherent and unified quantum mechanical formulation. Taking into the account the represented quantum mechanical descriptions and also the rules of probability theory, (...)
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  30. C. Baladrón (2011). Study on a Possible Darwinian Origin of Quantum Mechanics. Foundations of Physics 41 (3):389-395.
    A sketchy subquantum theory deeply influenced by Wheeler’s ideas (Am. J. Phys. 51:398–404, 1983) and by the de Broglie-Bohm interpretation (Goldstein in Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 2006) of quantum mechanics is further analyzed. In this theory a fundamental system is defined as a dual entity formed by bare matter and a methodological probabilistic classical Turing machine. The evolution of the system would be determined by three Darwinian informational regulating principles. Some progress in the derivation of the postulates of quantum mechanics (...)
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  31. Mark Balaguer (1996). Towards a Nominalization of Quantum Mechanics. Mind 105 (418):209-226.
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  32. L. E. Ballentine (1992). Can One Detect the State of an Individual System? Foundations of Physics 22 (3):333-342.
    Some interpretations of quantum mechanics regard a mixed quantum state as a ensemble, each individual member of which has a definite but unknown state vector. Other interpretations ascribe a state vector only to anensemble of similarly prepared systems, but not to anindividual. Previous attempts to detect the hypothetical individual state vectors have failed, essentially because the state operator (density matrix) enters the relevant equations linearly. An example from nonlinear dynamics, in which a density matrix enters nonlinearly, is examined because it (...)
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  33. L. E. Ballentine (1990). Limitations of the Projection Postulate. Foundations of Physics 20 (11):1329-1343.
    The projection postulate, which prescribes “collapse of the state vector” upon measurement, is not an essential part of quantum mechanics. Rather it is only an optional discarding of certain branches of the state vector that are expected to be irrelevant for the purpose at hand. However, its use is hazardous, and there are examples of repeated measurements for which the conventional application of the projection postulate leads to incorrect results.
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  34. L. E. Ballentine (1973). Can the Statistical Postulate of Quantum Theory Be Derived?—A Critique of the Many-Universes Interpretation. Foundations of Physics 3 (2):229-240.
    The attempt to derive (rather than assume) the statistical postulate of quantum theory from the many-universes interpretation of Everett and De Witt is analyzed The many-universes interpretation is found to be neither necessary nor sufficient for the task.
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  35. Leslie Ballentine (2008). Classicality Without Decoherence: A Reply to Schlosshauer. [REVIEW] Foundations of Physics 38 (10):916-922.
    Schlosshauer has criticized the conclusion of Wiebe and Ballentine (Phys. Rev. A 72:022109, 2005) that decoherence is not essential for the emergence of classicality from quantum mechanics. I reply to the issues raised in his critique, which range from the interpretation of quantum mechanics to the criterion for classicality, and conclude that the role of decoherence in these issues is much more restricted than is often claimed.
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  36. A. Baltag & S. Smets (2008). A Dynamic-Logical Perspective on Quantum Behavior. Studia Logica 89 (2):187 - 211.
    In this paper we show how recent concepts from Dynamic Logic, and in particular from Dynamic Epistemic logic, can be used to model and interpret quantum behavior. Our main thesis is that all the non-classical properties of quantum systems are explainable in terms of the non-classical flow of quantum information. We give a logical analysis of quantum measurements (formalized using modal operators) as triggers for quantum information flow, and we compare them with other logical operators previously used to model various (...)
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  37. Alexandru Baltag & Sonja Smets, The Logic of Quantum Programs.
    We present a logical calculus for reasoning about information flow in quantum programs. In particular we introduce a dynamic logic that is capable of dealing with quantum measurements, unitary evolutions and entanglements in compound quantum systems. We give a syntax and a relational semantics in which we abstract away from phases and probabilities. We present a sound proof system for this logic, and we show how to characterize by logical means various forms of entanglement (e.g. the Bell states) and various (...)
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  38. W. Balzer (1981). Piron's Foundation of Quantum Mechanics (Comment on His Paper). Erkenntnis 16 (3):403 - 406.
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  39. Gergely Bana & Thomas Durt (1997). Proof of Kolmogorovian Censorship. Foundations of Physics 27 (10):1355-1373.
  40. William Band & James L. Park (1976). New Information-Theoretic Foundations for Quantum Statistics. Foundations of Physics 6 (3):249-262.
    When the state of a physical system is not fully determined by available data, it should be possible nevertheless to make a systematic guess concerning the unknown state by applying the principles of information theory. The resulting theoretical blend of informational and mechanical constructs should then constitute a modern structure for statistical physics. Such a program has been attempted by a number of authors, most notably Jaynes, with seeming success. However, we demonstrated in a recent publication that the standard list (...)
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  41. William Band & James L. Park (1970). The Empirical Determination of Quantum States. Foundations of Physics 1 (2):133-144.
    A common approach to quantum physics is enshrouded in a jargon which treats state vectors as attributes of physical systems and the concept of state preparation as a filtration scheme wherein a process involving measurement selects from a primordial assembly of systems those bearing some prescribed vector of interest. By contrast, the empirical experiences with which quantum theory is actually concerned relate measurement and preparation in quite an opposite manner. Reproducible preparation schemes are logically and temporally anterior to measurement acts. (...)
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  42. R. L. Barnette (1978). Does Quantum Mechanics Disprove the Principle of the Identity of Indiscernibles? Philosophy of Science 45 (3):466-470.
  43. Jeffrey A. Barrett (2006). A Quantum-Mechanical Argument for Mind–Body Dualism. Erkenntnis 65 (1):97 - 115.
    I argue that a strong mind–body dualism is required of any formulation of quantum mechanics that satisfies a relatively weak set of explanatory constraints. Dropping one or more of these constraints may allow one to avoid the commitment to a mind–body dualism but may also require a commitment to a physical–physical dualism that is at least as objectionable. Ultimately, it is the preferred basis problem that pushes both collapse and no-collapse theories in the direction of a strong dualism in resolving (...)
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  44. Jeffrey A. Barrett (2005). The Preferred-Basis Problem and the Quantum Mechanics of Everything. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 56 (2):199-220.
    argued that there are two options for what he called a realistic solution to the quantum measurement problem: (1) select a preferred set of observables for which definite values are assumed to exist, or (2) attempt to assign definite values to all observables simultaneously (1810–1). While conventional wisdom has it that the second option is ruled out by the Kochen-Specker theorem, Vink nevertheless advocated it. Making every physical quantity determinate in quantum mechanics carries with it significant conceptual costs, but it (...)
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  45. Jeffrey A. Barrett (2001). The Strange World of Quantum Mechanics Daniel F. Styer. [REVIEW] British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 52 (2):393-396.
  46. Jeffrey A. Barrett (1997). On Everett's Formulation of Quantum Mechanics. The Monist 80 (1):70 - 96.
    Everett wanted a formulation of quantum mechanics that (i) took the linear dynamics to be a complete and accurate description of the time-evolution of all physical systems and (ii) logically entailed the same subjective appearances predicted by the standard formulation of quantum mechanics. While most everyone would agree with this description of Everett's project, there is little agreement on exactly how his relative-state formulation was supposed to work. In this paper, I consider two very different readings of Everett: the bare (...)
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  47. Jeffrey A. Barrett (1996). Empirical Adequacy and the Availability of Reliable Records in Quantum Mechanics. Philosophy of Science 63 (1):49-64.
    In order to judge whether a theory is empirically adequate one must have epistemic access to reliable records of past measurement results that can be compared against the predictions of the theory. Some formulations of quantum mechanics fail to satisfy this condition. The standard theory without the collapse postulate is an example. Bell's reading of Everett's relative-state formulation is another. Furthermore, there are formulations of quantum mechanics that only satisfy this condition for a special class of observers, formulations whose empirical (...)
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  48. Jeffrey A. Barrett (1995). The Single-Mind and Many-Minds Versions of Quantum Mechanics. Erkenntnis 42 (1):89 - 105.
    There is a long tradition of trying to find a satisfactory interpretation of Everett's relative-state formulation of quantum mechanics. Albert and Loewer recently described two new ways of reading Everett: one we will call the single-mind theory and the other the many-minds theory. I will briefly describe these theories and present some of their merits and problems. Since both are no-collapse theories, a significant merit is that they can take advantage of certain properties of the linear dynamics, which Everett (...)
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  49. Jeffrey A. Barrett (2005). Relativistic Quantum Mechanics Through Frame-Dependent Constructions. Philosophy of Science 72 (5):802-813.
    This paper is concerned with the possibility and nature of relativistic hidden-variable formulations of quantum mechanics. Both ad hoc teleological constructions of spacetime maps and frame-dependent constructions of spacetime maps are considered. While frame-dependent constructions are clearly preferable, they provide neither mechanical nor causal explanations for local quantum events. Rather, the hiddenvariable dynamics used in such constructions is just a rule that helps to characterize the set of all possible spacetime maps. But while having neither mechanical nor causal explanations of (...)
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  50. S. Bartalucci, S. Bertolucci, M. Bragadireanu, M. Cargnelli, C. Curceanu, S. Di Matteo, J.-P. Egger, C. Guaraldo, M. Iliescu, T. Ishiwatari, M. Laubenstein, J. Marton, E. Milotti, D. Pietreanu, T. Ponta, A. Romero Vidal, D. L. Sirghi, F. Sirghi, L. Sperandio, O. Vazquez Doce, E. Widmann & J. Zmeskal (2010). The VIP Experimental Limit on the Pauli Exclusion Principle Violation by Electrons. Foundations of Physics 40 (7):765-775.
    In this paper we describe an experimental test of the validity of the Pauli Exclusion Principle (for electrons) which is based on a straightforward idea put forward a few years ago by Ramberg and Snow (Phys. Lett. B 238:438, 1990). We perform a very accurate search of X-rays from the Pauli-forbidden atomic transitions of electrons in the already filled 1S shells of copper atoms. Although the experiment has a very simple structure, it poses deep conceptual and interpretational problems. Here we (...)
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