Sutton ( 2010 ) claims that on our analysis (2007), the problem in the two-envelope paradox is an error in counterfactual reasoning. In fact, we distinguish two formulations of the paradox, only one of which, on our account, involves an error in conditional reasoning. According to Sutton, it is conditional probabilities rather than subjunctive conditionals that are essential to the problem. We argue, however, that his strategy for assigning utilities on the basis of conditional probabilities leads to absurdity. In addition, (...) we show that a crucial presupposition of Sutton’s argument — namely, that one can know that envelope A contains n simply on the basis of a stipulation — is mistaken. (shrink)
Each contributor to this book has used personal experience as the basis from which to frame his individual sociological perspectives. Because they have personalized their work, their accounts are real, and recognizable as having come from 'real' persons, about 'real' experiences. There are no objectively-distanced disembodied third person entities in these accounts. These writers are actual people whose stories will make you laugh, cry, think, and want to know more.
Ethical self-management; an introduction to systematic personality psychology, by M. C. Katz.--Four axiological proofs of the infinite value of man, by R. S. Hartman.--Some thoughts regarding the current philosophy of the behavioral sciences, by C. R. Rogers.--Autonomy and community, by D. Lee.--Synergy in the society and in the individual, by A. H. Maslow.--Human nature: its cause and effect; a theoretical framework for understanding human motivation, by M. C. Katz.--Mental health; a generic attitude, by G. W. Allport.--Love feelings in (...) courtship couples; an analysis, by R. P. Hattis.--Economic policies and human well-being, by W. A. Weisskopf.--The great transformation, by H. F. W. Perk.--Contingencies of reinforcement in the design of a culture, by B. F. Skinner.--For further reading. (shrink)
Edited proceedings of an interdisciplinary symposium on consciousness held at the University of Cambridge in January 1978. Includes a foreword by Freeman Dyson. Chapter authors: G. Vesey, R.L. Gregory, H.C. Longuet-Higgins, N.K. Humphrey, H.B. Barlow, D.M. MacKay, B.D. Josephson, M. Roth, V.S. Ramachandran, S. Padfield, and (editorial summary only) E. Noakes. A scanned pdf is available from this web site (philpapers.org), while alternative versions more suitable for copying text are available from https://www.repository.cam.ac.uk/handle/1810/245189. -/- Page numbering convention for the pdf version (...) viewed in a pdf viewer is as follows: 'go to page n' accesses the pair of scanned pages 2n and 2n+1. Applicable licence: CC Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.0. (shrink)
H. B. D. Kettlewell's field experiments on industrial melanism in the peppered moth, Biston betularia, have become the best known demonstration of natural selection in action. I argue that textbook accounts routinely portray this research as an example of controlled experimentation, even though this is historically misleading. I examine how idealized accounts of Kettlewell's research have been used by professional biologists and biology teachers. I also respond to some criticisms of David Rudge to my earlier discussions of this case study, (...) and I question Rudge's claims about the importance of purely observational studies for the eventual acceptance and popularization of Kettlewell's explanation for the evolution of industrial melanism. (shrink)
Merleau-Ponty had projected a work of considerable dimensions, according to Lefort, which was to have borne the title now given to this posthumous volume. Though the chapters he had actually written out and the notes de travail selected by Lefort for this edition seem to be only introductory parts and suggestions of the larger work, they are already considerable in richness, depth and difficulty. Here we find Merleau-Ponty returning to the problems of his earlier works, showing why the problems posed (...) in the Phenomenology of Perception were "insoluble"; examining in ever greater depth the thought of Descartes, Leibniz, Kant, Hegel, Husserl, Heidegger and Sartre; uncovering the naiveté of scientific thinking and the false sophistication of reflective, dialectical and intuitionistic philosophies. He has moved well beyond phenomenology in the strict sense, toward his own interrogation ontologique and a theory of logic. Lefort has done an extraordinary and exemplary job of organizing, editing and annotating the manuscripts. —A. B. D. and C. D. (shrink)
H.B.D. Kettlewell is best known for his pioneering work on the phenomenon of industrial melanism, which began shortly after his appointment in 1951 as a Nuffield Foundation research worker in E.B. Ford's newly formed sub-department of genetics at the University of Oxford. In the years since, a legend has formed around these investigations, one that portrays them as a success story of the 'Oxford School of Ecological Genetics', emphasizes Ford's intellectual contribution, and minimizes reference to assistance provided by others. The (...) following essay reviews the important influence Ford, E.A. Cockayne, and P.M. Sheppard played in Kettlewell's research, leading up to his most famous experiments in 1953. It documents several reasons for doubting that Ford was as intellectually involved in the design of these investigations as he has previously been portrayed. It clarifies Kettlewell's intellectual contribution to the investigations for which he is famous, as well as the pivotal roles Cockayne and Sheppard played in the design, execution and interpretation of these investigations. (shrink)
In addition to facing the known competitors in the formal economy, entrepreneurs must also be concerned with rivalry emanating from the informal economy. The informal economy is characterized by actions outside the normal scope of commerce, such as unsanctioned payments and gift-giving, as means of influencing competition. Scholars and policy makers alike have an interest in mitigating the impacts of such informal activity in that it might present an obstacle for legitimate commerce. Received theory suggests that country institutions can enable (...) and constrain productive activity, and, in doing so, influence competitive obstacles in a country. Leveraging 13,670 responses from entrepreneurs distributed across 59 countries, we provide evidence that two particular types of enabling institutions, countries’ property rights regulations and cooperative actions, are useful for lowering the obstacles presented by informal activity. We also find evidence that two constraining institutions, economic and financial regulations lead to more obstacles presented by informal activity. We describe implications for entrepreneurs, policy makers, and future researchers stemming from these findings. (shrink)
Science naively presupposes the intelligibility of the universe, necessary laws, and a universal truth. The author reflects on these presuppositions to arrive at a demonstration of God's existence. In a vigorous and exclamatory style, he condemns the alternative views of idealism, phenomenology, and philosophies of science which cannot rationally justify their faith in a universal truth. The only rational basis for these presuppositions is a theistic God--the "Vérité mesurante" and "Pensée fondatrice" of scientific reason.--A. B. D.
A reprint of the book published in 1942, with the addition of an appendix and a new preface. Beginning with the concrete and conceptual aspects of the person and showing how the principles of logic are embodied in human experience, the author describes the ontological and logical connections between the world, man and God.--A. B. D.
In my first study of the borrowings from Athenian sacred treasure to finance the Archidamian War I assumed, in common with others, certain irregularities in the stoichedon order of IG. i. 324. The text has subsequently been amplified and improved by Tod, notably with the addition of one amount of interest due to Athena and of the total amounts of principal credited to the Other Gods and to all the gods . This further expansion, however, has introduced additional irregularities, the (...) restoration [τάδε τος λλοις θεος έλοσι τόκο ]ν νδεκα τεα[ιν:…] being too long by one letter in line 120 and the restoration [τάδε πασι τος θεος έλοσι τόκο ν] νδεκα τεσ[ιν:…] being likewise too long in line 123. (shrink)
This paper considers the neuropsychology of religious and spiritual experiences. This requires a review of our current understanding of brain function as well as an integrated synthesis to derive a neuropsychological model of spiritual experiences. Religious and spiritual experiences are highly complex states that likely involve many brain structures including those involved in higher order processing of sensory and cognitive input as well as those involved in the elaboration of emotions and autonomic responses. Such an analysis can help elucidate the (...) biological correlates of these experiences and provide new information regarding the function of the human brain. (shrink)
The two epigraphical monuments which have preserved parts of the treaties of alliance between Athens, on the one hand, and Rhegion and Leontinoi, respectively, on the other, must be studied together, for both treaties had their old preambles erased in 433/2 and their validity reaffirmed as of that year. The new preambles, both dating from the same day, were inscribed in the erasures and juxtaposed, somewhat awkwardly, before the body of the old texts thatstill remained.
Aristotle's rejection of the Platonic ideas robbed him of Plato's unity of Being and Value as well. By an extensive, clear interpretation and analysis of the whole Aristotelian corpus, Oates shows that Aristotle lacks a coherent theory of value. While considerations of value unavoidably occur in the Metaphysics, just as ontological ones do in the Ethics, nowhere in Aristotle is there a unification of axiology and ontology. For this reason, Oates argues, the Nicomachean Ethics fails to be a theory of (...) moral good. The book is a temperate, perhaps non-controversial critique of Aristotle, and its polished, easy style makes it a pleasure to read.—A. B. D. (shrink)
A bi-lingual edition of poems and a "free philosophical treatise" by a poet-logician who is now imprisoned somewhere in Russia. In this choppy and compressed treatise, written hours before he was arrested, the writer discusses some pseudo-problems of philosophy, argues against the principle of excluded middle, and states the real problem of philosophy as being the relationship between the subconscious and consciousness.--A. B. D.
These fragmentary and often repetitious papers-some of them published before Schutz's death--are organized under three headings: 1) On the Methodology of the Social Sciences, 2) Phenomenology and the Social Sciences, and 3) Symbol, Reality and Society. Schutz elaborates the structures of the "natural attitude," earlier described by Husserl, and defends the irreducible reality of the Lebenswelt which is necessarily presupposed by science, knowledge, language, and the interpretation of signs. Intersubjectivity is at the core of the Lebenswelt and Schutz ably criticizes (...) the inadequate work done by Husserl, Scheler and Sartre on the problem of the other. The tone of all the papers is expository and critical rather than original, as if Schutz was preparing his own views by "working through" a host of other writers.--A. B. D. (shrink)
This second, more cohesive volume of Schutz's papers goes beyond the critical and inconclusive work of Volume I, to advance, not quite a theory, but certain postulates for the interpretation of social phenomena. Schutz contends that the social scientist, normally an impartial observer, must also assume the standpoint of the subject: he must ask what is the meaning and rationality of social action for the actor himself. From such a bi-polar perspective Schutz describes the situations of "The Stranger," "The Homecomer," (...) and "The Well-Informed Citizen." In the longest paper he analyzes the meaning of equality both for those who are and for those who are not equal. These papers are perceptive—the best in the volume.—A. B. D. (shrink)
This brief work valuably shows how a distinguished historian ascertains the causes of his historical facts. Koht, a Norwegian European historian, eschews any philosophy of history, claiming only that the nature of man is permanent through historical change. Drawing from his own historical research he discusses the significance of the different forces of history. These are religion, economics, class consciousness, the power of the state, war, revolt, science, and internationalism. No one force or cause is primary.—A. B. D.
A far less exhaustive work than Richardson's scholarly tome, but more focused than Vycinas' ventriloquial interpretation, Guilead's book concentrates on the theme of freedom in Sein und Zeit and in Heidegger's later works. The author is in full control of Heidegger's terminology and he succinctly reports how Heidegger uncovers and destroys the subjectivism of modern philosophy, as represented by Descartes, Leibniz, Kant, Nietzsche, and Marx. Guilead contends that the germ of the "Kehre" was already present in Sein und Seit [[sic]]. (...) Heidegger's later thought shows that man is a cosmic being, a relation to Being, and his freedom can not be rooted in subjectivity but in the realization of his authentic cosmic being, in his "habitation," "dwelling," and "building." The author finds two problems in Heidegger's philosophy: a lack of real otherness in beings, and a danger of humanizing Being. But are they not one problem?—A. B. D. (shrink)
This is really only a detailed exposition of Division I of Being and Time and a summary of the problem of Division II. There are references to Heidegger's later works and to Husserl, but no critical comparison is made. In its clarity and no-nonsense English, it is handy for a first reader of Being and Time.—A. B. D.
This book must have been a joy "to write": the author relishes playing with variations of Zeno's 'bisection' paradox to vindicate the reality of an Actual Infinite. The Infinite is a "lush" concept and though mathematical rigor forbids it, the world demands it. Benardete traces the development of mathematics through Aristotle, Leibniz, Gauss, Cantor, and Brouwer, and he examines recent developments in hyper-mathematics. Siding with Cantor, he argues that mathematics is no longer a formal discipline. It is teleological and it (...) requires a rich ontology of the Infinite. He criticizes modern philosophy, particularly Kant and the later Wittgenstein, for rejecting the "cosmological horizon," for ruling out the Actual Infinite. Even a non-mathematician will understand his lively discussions of "random numbers," the "long run," nondenumerable and denumerable infinites, and the significance of the Lowenheim-Skolem theorem.—A. B. D. (shrink)
Based on the Mahlon Powell lectures given at Indiana University, this slim, well translated book is surprisingly rich and visionary in its pursuit of a metaphysics of language. Dufrenne, a phenomenologist, argues that positivistic and syntactical linguistics wrongly ignore the phenomenon of living speech, while formal logic, seeking to rid itself of its natural and intuitive origins, is necessarily rooted in them. What is needed is a phenomenology of human speech which would lead to a metaphysics of man's spoken intercourse (...) with the world. In the end, poetry has the last word.--A. B. D. (shrink)