Whereas liberals tend to emphasize harm as the decisive criterion for legitimizing criminalisation, moralists take a qualified notion of wrongfulness as sufficient even when no harm is at hand. This comment takes up Andreas von Hirsch ’s “dual element approach” requiring both harm and wrongfulness as necessary conditions for criminalisation and argues that Joel Feinberg’s account of harming as violation of moral rights is perfectly compatible with it. Subsequently, two issues from the liberalism-moralism debate on criminalisation are examined: The difficulty (...) of how to determine wrongfulness beyond the scope of harming, and the so far disregarded question of whether the democratic legislator is free within the framework of constitution to criminalise whatever conduct he wants to prevent irrespective of philosophical constraints. (shrink)
Ob “nicht etwa eine vernünftigere Anordnung von Kreisen zu finden sei, von welchen alle erscheinende Ungleichmäßigkeit abhinge”, ist die Frage, die Copernicus umtreibt. Eine einheitliche, eine systematische Berechnung aller Planetenbewegungen – auch der der sogenannten irrenden Sterne – sucht Copernicus durch die Einführung einer Hypothese, die über eine bloß mathematische Annahme hinausgeht, zu begründen. Die Erkenntnis der einheitlichen Weltgestalt und des festen Ebenmaßes ihrer Teile hat die Annahme eines die systematische Einheit konstituierenden Prinzips zur Voraussetzung. Als dieses Prinzip versteht Copernicus (...) die Erdbewegung. So schließt Copernicus, daß entweder die Erde nicht ruhe oder eine vernünftige Ordnung der Planeten nicht zu begründen sei. Für Bruno und Schelling ist das Prinzip zur Ordnung des Universums keine mathematische Hypothese, sondern ein naturphilosophisches Prinzip. Schelling schließt sich Bruno in der Behauptung an, daß eine Ordnung nur unter der Voraussetzung möglich sei, daß das Subjekt wie das Objekt der Ordnung sich auf ein Prinzip zurückführen ließen. Damit droht die Kopernikanische Wende auf den Kopf gestellt zu werden. (shrink)
Vom 15. bis 19. September 2010 fand in Sarajevo der XXVIII. Internationale Hegel-Kongress der Internationalen Hegel-Gesellschaft zum Thema „Hegel und die Moderne” statt. Der Band dokumentiert den ersten Teil der dort gehaltenen Plenar- und Sektionsvorträge zu den thematischen Schwerpunkten: Hegels Begriff der Moderne, Subjektivität und Individualität, Staat, Recht und Gesellschaft, Religion sowie Kunst. Mit Beiträgen u.a. von Eduardo Álvarez, Samir Arnautovic, Claudia Bickmann, Gilles Campagnolo, Paul Cruysberghs, Ingolf Dalferth, Giovanno Gerardi, Aliki Lavranu, Yoshihiro Niji, Pedro Novelli, Andrzej Przylebski, Erzsebet Rózsa, (...) Alberto Siani, Pirmin Stekeler-Weithofer und Violetta Waibl. (shrink)
Der Beitrag untersucht Gerhard Richters Gemälde "Betty" (1988, WV 663-5) als bildliche Darstellung der elementaren Verletzlichkeit menschlichen Lebens. Als Theorie solcher Verletzlichkeit wird die politische Philosophie Judith Butlers herangezogen, methodisch orientiert sich die Untersuchung an Überlegungen der Bildhermeneutik Gottfried Boehms. So entwickelt der Beitrag den Gedanken einer präreflektiver normativer Verpflichtung, der in Richters Gemälde anschaulich wird. Zum Vergleich wird die Interpretation eines Gemäldes von Werner Scholz herangezogen (Antigone), die Hans-Georg Gadamer entwickelt hat.
An essay concerning the representation of images in art, photography, and painting concerning analysis of Gerhard Richter's painting reader. It offers a debate that representation should be regarded as an act of formation and a performative concept. The author presents analysis of painting which leads the reader into the problem of painted images, such as the constitution of an image by a complex relationship among memory, reading, and blindness.
I argue that No-Ought-From-Is (in the sense that I believe it) is a relatively trivial affair. Of course, when people try to derive substantive or non-vacuous moral conclusions from non-moral premises, they are making a mistake. But No-Non-Vacuous-Ought-From-Is is meta-ethically inert. It tells us nothing about the nature of the moral concepts. It neither refutes naturalism nor supports non-cognitivism. And this is not very surprising since it is merely an instance of an updated version of the conservativeness of logic (in (...) a logically valid inference you don’t get out what you haven’t put in): so long as the expressions F are non-logical, you cannot get non-vacuous F-conclusions from non-F premises. However, the triviality of No-Non-Vacuous-Ought-From-Is is important and its non-profundity profound. No-Ought-From-Is is widely supposed to tell us something significant about the nature of the moral concepts. If, in fact, it tells us nothing, this is a point well worth shouting from the housetops. This brings me to my dispute with Gerhard Schurz who has proved a related version of No-Ought-From-Is, No-Ought-Relevant-Ought-From-Is, a proof which relaxes my assumption that ‘ought’ should not be treated as a logical constant. But if ought is not a logical expression then it does not really matter much that No-Ought-From-Is would be salvageable even if it were. Furthermore, Schurz’s proof depends on special features of the moral concepts and this might afford the basis for an abductive argument to something like non-cognitivism. As an error theorist, and therefore a cognitivist, I object. Finally I take a dim view of deontic logic. Many of its leading principles are false, bordering on the nonsensical, and even the reasonably plausible ones are subject to devastating counter-examples. (shrink)
I summarize and evaluate the aims of the collection From Individual to Collective Intentionality: New Essays edited by Sara Rachel Chant, Frank Hindriks and Gerhard Preyer in the context of the on-going debate about collective intentionality and group agency. I then consider the individual essays contained therein, both from the perspective of how they advance the collection’s goals and the coherence of their individual arguments.
This introduction provides an overview of the life, career, and social thought of Gerhard Lenski. Following a preliminary description of Lenski's contributions, this essay is divided into two sections. The first section examines the origins, education, and biographical influences on Lenski as a major social theorist as well as the intellectual foundation of his sociological theories. The second section presents Lenski's work, impact, and legacy and sets the stage for the original essays that are grouped around four of six (...) key areas of Lenski's work, which has had enormous impact on both American and international sociology: (1) teaching sociology; (2) "status crystallization" and "status inconsistency"; (3) sociology of religion and "the religious factor"; (4) social stratification, "power and privilege"; (5) gender stratification in comparative-historical perspective; and (6) ecological-evolutionary theory. While these six areas do not correspond neatly to the progressive phases of Lenski's theory development and sociological career, they are interconnected and reflect Lenski's central concerns in asking the big questions about human societies and in providing explanations for understanding the processes of social change, differentiation, and inequality among and within human societies, across time and space, from hunting and gathering to postindus trial societies. (shrink)
This paper is intended as a contribution to a recent vigorous debate in The Times , between the distinguished journalist Bernard Levin, the eminent Oxford economist Wilfred Beckerman and the Archbishop of York, John Habgood, among others. The debate concerns morality, ‘free will’ and determinism. As a former German Jew, who lost close relatives at Auschwitz and who suffered personally severely in my youth under daily virulent Nazi persecution , I obviously cannot remain strictly detached and neutral. Yet, I shall (...) attempt to retain as much neutrality as possible, since I think that the main rivals in this debate have all some very relevant, interesting and valid things to say. Let me also state other, probably very relevant, biases. I am an ardent Zionist . In addition, I am a diehard mechanistic materialist as regards basic philosophy, although I am tolerant of other people's religious feelings, because I realize that my materialism is as metaphysical as their religious views. With this as background let me return to the technical issues. Obviously, in a philosophical journal one can write at a level above that of The Times , where there is, perhaps, insufficient room to debate philosophical, biological, physical and other niceties in some depth. (shrink)
Authors have contrasted social change and history many times, especially in terms of the significance of the event in accounting for the broadest contours of human societies' evolution. After recasting Gerhard Lenski's ecological-evolutionary theory in a critical fashion, by emphasizing its engagement with alternativity and by introducing a different approach to structure, I reconsider the salience of the event in the developmentalist project and suggest that ecological-evolutionary theory can be quite helpful in posing new questions about an eventful sociology. (...) By rethinking communism's collapse in 1989 and terrorism's explosion in 2001 within Lenski's theoretical frame, one can suggest critical transformations of theory and research on the evolution of human societies. (shrink)
From 1933 until 1945, the Hebrew Bible and the connection between Christianity and Judaism came under attack in Nazi Germany. Gerhard von Rad defended the importance of the Old Testament in a courageous struggle that profoundly influenced his interpretation of the book of Deuteronomy.
In his seminal Theology of the Old Testament, Gerhard von Rad argues that the testimonial character of the Old Testament provides it with a coherent framework of theological interpretation. Von Rad defines “testimony” as the dynamic interplay between Israel's memory and the expectation of a God who is revealed in the history of the chosen people.
There have been books written since 1997 both on Hume’s ethics and on metaethics generally which make no mention of Gerhard Schurz’s The Is-Ought Problem. I don’t say that they are ipso facto bad books since they may have merits which make up for this glaring defect. But Schurz’s magnificent The Is-Ought Problem is a major contribution to both logic and metaethics and ethicists who disregard it do so at their intellectual peril.
Of the generation of post-1960s artists who looked to photography for a new set of conceptual tools, Gerhard Richter stands apart because he has uniquely professed a desire to “use painting as a means to photography,” that is, to bring painting to the structure and sensibility of the photograph.2 To ascribe sensibility or perceptive acuity to a process so mechanical as photography may strike the reader as either romantically fey or even offensively anthropomorphizing, given that the aesthetic questions at (...) stake have exactly to do with philosophy's “mind-independent” designation of the medium. But the metaphor has pedigree among historians of photography, having been articulated by Walter Benjamin in his “Little History of Photography,” where he characterizes photography as a medium possessed of an “optical unconscious,” a nature specifically “other” in its ability to present the “spark of contingency, of the here and now, with which reality has seared the subject.”3 It is precisely on the basis of this picture making outside of human agency, Benjamin insists, that “the dubious project of authenticating photography in terms of painting” fails, for it is an attempt to “legitimize the photographer before the very tribunal he was in the process of overturning.”4 Certainly, it is from this premise of photography's revolutionary capacity that the first critical assessments of the work of “artists using photography” proceeded in the 1970s and continued through the 1980s into the present decade.5 This is particularly important to keep in mind when assessing what has been called the recent turn to the pictorial in photographic practices because this move has been accompanied by, on one hand, a general pulling away from easily legible, unambivalent documentary content in photographic practices—a tendency that may itself be considered part of a quietly growing, renewed interest in the critical capacity of painting among a new generation of artists—and, on the other, a nuanced exploration of the appropriative lessons of postmodernism, manifested in recent interest in the repurposing of found, or what Benjamin might call “other-determined,” imagery.6. (shrink)
D’abord formé par Nicolai Hartman et Rudolf Bultmann, Gerhard Krüger fut l’un des élèves les plus doués de Heidegger. Il a suivi d’un œil critique et avisé les soubresauts de sa pensée. S’il fut séduit par la résurrection de la question de l’être et celle de la métaphysique chez Heidegger, comme par sa critique du sujet moderne, c’est une tout autre conception de l’être, de la métaphysique et de l’existence humaine qu’il lui opposait. Il le fit notamment dans ses (...) livres remarquables sur Kant et sur Platon que l’on peut lire comme des contestations rigoureuses de la conception heideggérienne de l’histoire de la métaphysique, mais aussi de sa vision de la philosophie.First influenced by Nicolai Hartmann and Rudolf Bultmann, Gerhard Krüger was one of Heidegger’s most gifted students and one who followed the unfolding of his thought with utmost critical acumen. He was impressed by Heidegger’s resurrection of the question of Being and of metaphysics, and by his destruction of the modern subject, but it is a wholly different idea of Being, metaphysics and human existence that he opposed to Heidegger. He did so in landmark studies on Kant and Plato which can be read as cogent counter-proposals to Heidegger’s view of the history of metaphysics and his understanding of philosophy. (shrink)
An excellent comparison of the thought of the major figure in the "classic period of Roman Catholic theology" with that of "the central figure of seventeenth century [Protestant] theology." Aquinas's views on creation are succinctly summarized and provide a useful background for the exposition of Gerhard's theology. The author finds the different quality of these two theological outlooks to lie in Aquinas's awareness of man's "richness" and Gerhard's emphasis of man's "inner contradictoriness." That is to say, whereas Aquinas (...) sees the world as "reflecting the abundance of God's resourcefulness and ordering love," Gerhard sees more of creation's inner contradictions: "man trying to save himself though unable to do so...." One hopes that more such comparative studies in Catholic-Protestant thought will be forthcoming.—B. P. H. (shrink)
From the perspective of Heilsgeschichte, Gerhard von Rad saw clearly that Genesis 22 deals with the possible annihilation of the covenant promise. A fresh approach to Genesis corroborates this view and demonstrates that innerbiblical exegesis has shaped the message of Genesis 22.
Gerhard von Rad's concept of preaching is based on a biblical and homiletical hermeneutic that draws on some key insights of Karl Barth's dialectical theology. Von Rad's sermons were deeply informed by the older, liberal tradition and its concern for a distinctly “modern” way of preaching. This essay sketches the development of his concept of preaching as it relates to his work as an Old Testament scholar and university preacher.
In his book on “Die Wissenschaftstheorie der Soziologie”, Frankfurt sociologist Gerhard Wagner outlines nothing less than a new research program for Sociology: Sociology as “social physics”, based on the diagnosis that sociology—due to its inner fragmentation and its pre-paradigmatic stage—is threatened to lose the character of a science and needs a restart. This restart would require the development of a research program that can provide an internal theoretical integration and an external connection to scientific developments that are supported by (...) principles of general scientific realism. Wagner develops this new core, the “social physics”, with reference to recent positions in the philosophy of science and classical sociology. Hence the title of the book is slightly misleading—it is not a treatise on the epistemological problems of sociology but rather an outline of a social theoretical research program substantiated by current research in the philosophy of science.Let us first turn .. (shrink)
In this essay, I offer thoughts on the constitution of images in art, especially as they are constituted in painting and in photography. Utilizing ideas from Gadamer, Derrida and Adorno, I shall argue that representation should be conceived as a performative concept and as an act of formation; i.e., as a process rather thanas something "fixed." My reflections will be carried out in connection with a careful analysis of Gerhard Richter's painting Reader, which is a painting of a photograph (...) that depicts a female who is reading. I demonstrate how a close analysis of this fascinating painting leads us deeper into the problem of painted images, insofar as it enacts what it is about, namely, the constitution of itself as an innige by means of a complex and enigmatic relationship between seeing, reading, memory, inner, outer, gaze and blindness. (shrink)
Am 22. Januar 2006 ist Gerhard Funke, der Herausgeber der Kant-Studien und langjährige frühere Erste Vorsitzende der Kant-Gesellschaft in seinem 92sten Lebensjahr verstorben. Bis in sein neuntes Lebensjahrzehnt war Gerhard Funke auf dem Feld von Philosophie und Wissenschaften tätig. So konnte er noch 1994 zu seiner großen Freude an der 450-Jahrfeier der „Albertina“ in Königsberg als Festredner teilnehmen. Eine seiner späteren Publikationen ist die Abhandlung von 1998 über „Interpretation“ bei der Mainzer Akademie der Wissenschaften, deren tatkräftiges Mitglied er (...) über Jahrzehnte war. (shrink)
In their paper on the influence of meta-induction to the wisdom of the crowd, Paul Thorn and Gerhard Schurz argue that adding meta-inductive methods to a group influences the group positively, whereas replacing independend methods of a group with meta-inductive ones may have a negative impact. The first fact is due to an improvement of average ability of a group, the second fact is due to an impairment of average diversity within a group by meta-induction. In this paper some (...) critical remarks to meta-inductive group expansion and replacement are made. In particular it is stressed that both ability and diversity are of equal importance to a group’s performance. (shrink)