Le concept de Fundierung est introduit dans la IIIe Recherche Logique de Husserl et, malgré sa fonctionnalité apparente, il n’est pratiquement plus utilisé dans la suite de son oeuvre. En revanche, ce concept manifeste une puissance latente que le travail de Gian-Carlo Rota permet d’exalter. Entre les mains du mathématicienphilosophe, la Fundierung devient l’un des piliers fondamentaux d’une logique phénoménologique encore in fieri. Une logique qui voudrait prendre ses distances tant avec la « logique philosophique » traditionnelle qu’avec la (...) « logique mathématique » qui s’est désormais imposée en tant que standard de la rigueur et fascine souvent les philosophes. Cet article se propose de décrire comment l’interprétation de Rota enrichit le concept originel de Husserl et de quelle manière sa démarche ouvre la possibilité d’une évolution.The concept of Fundierung introduced by Husserl in his III Logic Research, notwithstanding its seemingly logical functionality, very rarely appears in his subsequent works. Yet this concept shows a latent power that Gian-Carlo Rota’s work succeeds in exalting. In the hands of the mathematician-philosopher, Fundierung becomes one of the fundamental pillars of a phenomenological logic still in embryo, a logic the aim of which is to distance itself from both the traditional ‘philosophical logic’ and the ‘mathematical logic’, the latter having by now become a standard of rigour by which the philosophers are often bewitched. This paper aims to describe how Rota’s interpretation has enhanced Husserl’s original concept and how this can foster a likely great evolution in the future. Il concetto di Fundierung appare nella IIIe Ricerca Logica di Husserl e, malgrado l’apparente funzionalità logica, appare molto raramente nel seguito della sua opera. Tuttavia tale concetto manifesta una potenza latente che il lavoro di Gian-Carlo Rota riesce ad esaltare. Nelle mani del matematico-filosofo, laFundierung diventa uno dei pilastri fondamentali di una logica fenomenologica ancora in fieri. Una logica che vorrebbe distanziarsi tanto dalla “logica filosofica” tradizionale quanto dalla “logica matematica” che ormai si è imposta come standard di rigore e di cui i filosofi subiscono spesso la fascinazione. Questo articolo si propone di descrivere quanto l’interpretazione di Rota arricchisca l’originale concetto husserliano e in che modo ciò permetta una grande possibilità di evoluzione.This article is in French. (shrink)
RésuméGian-Carlo Rota est l’un des rares grands mathématiciens de la deuxième moitié du XX e siècle dont l’intérêt pour la logique formelle soit aussi ouvertement déclaré et ne se soit jamais démenti, depuis sa formation d’étudiant à Princeton jusqu’à ses derniers écrits. Plus exceptionnel encore, il fait partie des rares lecteurs assidus de Husserl à s’être aperçu que la phé-noménologie poursuivait un projet de réforme de la logique formelle. L’article propose d’attester l’existence d’un tel projet chez Husserl ; d’en examiner (...) la réappropriation et les prolongements chez Rota.Gian-Carlo Rota is among the few great mathematicians of the second-half of the XXth century whose interest in formal logic is openly declared and has never flagged, since his training as a student in Princeton up to his last writings. Even more exceptional, he belongs to the rare diligent readers of Husserl, who noticed that phenomenology was pursuing a project of reform of formal logic. This paper propose to testify to the existence of such a project in Husserl; to examine how it is taken over and continued by Rota. Gian-Carlo Rota è uno dei pochi grandi matematici della seconda metà del ventesimo secolo, il cui interesse per la logica formale è, dalla sua formazione come studente a Princeton al suo ultimi scritti, apertamente dichiarato e mai negato. Cosa ancora più eccezionale, Rota è uno dei rari lettori assidui di Husserl ad aver percepito che la fenomenologia stava perseguendo un progetto di riforma della logica formale. L’articolo propone di attestare l’esistenza di un tale progetto in Husserl e di esaminare la sua riappropriazione e le sue estensioni proposte da Gian-Carlo Rota.This article is in French. (shrink)
Shaftesbury señala la belleza de la teoría matemática y le asigna relevancia en el despliegue y en la estructura misma del pensamiento. Esta nota considera a la vez dicha reflexión y los asertos del matemático Gian-Carlo Rota acerca de tópicos análogos e intenta dilucidar, dentro de lo posible, ambas intuiciones.
Gian-Carlo Rota a su concilier un travail mathématique exemplaire et des recherches philosophiques largement inspirées par la phénoménologie husserlienne. Son œuvre philosophique nous semble avoir de fait deux composantes : l’une s’intéresse majoritairement à des phénomènes universels. L’autre se déploie de façon plus subtile en filigrane de ses travaux mathématiques ; sans être thématisée comme telle – comme contribution philosophique –, elle alimente très lar-gement l’aura de Rota dans la communauté mathématique et justifie le rôle qu’il y joue de (...) père fondateur d’une école combinatoire. L’analyse de ces différents moments de sa pensée permet de mieux en cerner les ressorts, l’unité et la portée.Gian-Carlo Rota was able to combine a remarkable mathematical work with philosophical research largely inspired by Husserl’s phenomenology. His philosophical work has two components. One focuses mainly on universal phenomena in mathematics. The other unfolds in a more subtle way in his mathematical work; without being characterized as a proper philosophical contribution, it feeds largely the aura of Rota in the mathematical community and contributes to justify his role of founder of a school of combinatorics.The analysis of these different moments of his thought allows to understand better its origins, unit and scope. Gian-Carlo Rota ha saputo coniugare il propio lavoro matematico esemplare ad una ricerca filosofica in gran parte ispirata dalla fenomenologia di Husserl. La sua opera filosofica ha secondo noi due componenti: una riguarda principalmente i fenomeni universali. L’altra si sviluppa in modo più sottile nel suo lavoro matematico e, senza diventare un tema in quanto tale – come vero e pro-prio contributo filosofico –, alimenta in gran parte l’aura di Rota nella co-munità matematica, contribuendo a giustificare il suo ruolo di fondatore di una scuola combinatoria. L’analisi di questi diversi momenti del suo pensi-ero permette di identificarne meglio le origini, l’unità e la portata.This article is in French. (shrink)
The American Academy of Pediatrics Task Force on Circumcision published its policy statement and technical report on newborn circumcision in September 2012.1 ,2 Since that time, some individuals and groups have voiced objections to the work of the Task Force, while others have conveyed their support. The AAP task force is pleased that the policy statement and technical reports on circumcision have stimulated debate on this topic and welcomes respectful discussion and dialogue about the scientific and ethical issues that surround (...) neonatal circumcision. We believe this is a complex issue that does not lend itself to simplistic solutions. The Task Force encourages those of all viewpoints to contribute to a vibrant, thoughtful and respectful evidence-based dialogue. We appreciate that the free exchange of competing ideas is a necessary component of scientific discovery. We also recognise that all clinical decisions carry ethical dimensions and that a respectful and thoughtful dialogue about these issues is important. However, the Task Force also feels strongly that this debate and the academic literature are demeaned when those with an ideological agenda disseminate inaccurate information, misapply scientific principles, make accusations that are unsupported, communicate in a vitriolic tone, and attempt to discredit and mischaracterise alternative views and those who hold them. Healthy debate and …. (shrink)
This study examined the hypothesis that religiosity would be differentially related to six types of adolescent prosocial behaviour, and that these relations would be mediated by the prosocial value of kindness. Self?report data were collected from 142 high school students (63 per cent female; 91 per cent White; M age?=?16.8, S?=?.80). Religiosity was a significant positive predictor of kindness, as well as compliant, anonymous and altruistic prosocial behaviour, but not public, dire and emotional prosocial behaviour. Associations between religiosity and both (...) compliant and altruistic prosocial behaviours were mediated by kindness. Direct and indirect paths were found between religiosity and anonymous prosocial behaviour. Thus, partial support was found for the mediational hypothesis. Discussion focused on the utility of distinguishing among different types of prosocial behaviours and on the role of religion and values in promoting moral education. (shrink)
This study examined relations between parenting dimensions (involvement, autonomy support and structure) and adolescents' moral values internalisation. A sample of 101 adolescents (71% female; 76% white; M age = 16.10, SD = 1.17) reported on the parenting behaviour of one of their parents and on their own moral values. Four forms of values regulation were assessed (external, introjected, identified and integrated), as well as overall internalisation. Structure was positively linked to external and introjected regulation, involvement was positively associated with identified (...) and integrated regulation and structure was negatively linked to overall internalisation. Additionally, positive interactions were found for autonomy support and involvement predicting identified and integrated regulation. Implications for parenting and moral education are discussed. (shrink)
Today there is a great interest in reconstructing Lenin's thought concerning the relation between vangard and masses. Lenin's definitive theses on the problem are seen to have been outlined in his famous and much discussed work, What Is to Be Done? which, for some, remains the only scientific answer to the problem (not fully developed by Marx and Engels) of the passage from “class-in-itself” to “class-for-itself.” For others, this work, impregnated by intellectualism and idealism, is seen as a classic of (...) the Stalinist era and is held to be the root of all the bureaucratic deviations of the Soviet experience. (shrink)
The necessary starting point in an analysis of Yugoslavia is the level of development of self-management. The 1973 law on collective work, the goal of which was to contain growing technocratic tendencies in the enterprises, has disciplined the powers of the “work units,” the democratic cells which are directed from below (in practice, they are something similar to department assemblies) and which were supposed to provide the most authentic foundation for self-management. These productive units can be compared to Western capitalist (...) firms whose goal, as we know, it to strengthen control over production costs, increase economic efficiency, facilitate management and create a more congenial atmosphere for work. (shrink)
Dieter Senghaas' recent volume on the problem of underdevelopment represents one of the few actual efforts in Western European culture of the last twenty years toward understanding the problem of underdevelopment from a progressive perspective. This exception is all the more relevant since it comes from a German scholar, i.e., an exponent of a scientific climate which is definitely conservative and often openly reactionary. Starting from the empirical discovery of the existence of an unbalanced social division of labor in the (...) world market (pp. 15 and 25), Senghaas is led to the repudiation of the Ricardian law of comparative costs and benefits (p. 27ff). (shrink)
There are three concerns regarding Rachlin's altruism model. First, proximal causal mechanisms such as those identified by cognitive neuroscientists and behavioral neuropharmacologists are not emphasized. Second, there is a lack of clear testable hypotheses. And third, extreme forms of altruism are emphasized rather than common forms. We focus on an overarching theme – proximal mechanisms of individual differences in altruism.
Scholars have noted the need to examine the psychometric properties of measures that can be used in evaluating moral education programs. The present study was designed to examine the best?fitting factor model of a commonly?used measure of prosocial moral reasoning (PROM) across samples from Brazil and the USA, gender and adolescent age groups. The samples consisted of 619 college students (M age = 20.59 years, SD = 4.08; 41% men, 59% women) and 239 middle and high school students (M age (...) = 14.02 years, SD = 3.04; 45% boys, 55% girls) from the USA. There were 114 college students (M age = 21.81, SD = 4.33; 35% men, 65% women) and 136 middle and high school students (M age = 14.93 years, SD = 1.55; 42% boys, 58% girls) from Brazil. A series of (multigroup) confirmatory factor analyses were conducted to test the best fitting factor structure of the PROM and the invariance of this factor structure across culture, gender and age groups. Evidence for measurement invariance was found such that a four?factor model was a slightly better fitting model than the five?factor model across all groups. Discussion focuses on theoretical and methodological implications of the findings. (shrink)
What is quantum mechanics about? The most natural way to interpret quantum mechanics realistically as a theory about the world might seem to be what is called wave function ontology: the view according to which the wave function mathematically represents in a complete way fundamentally all there is in the world. Erwin Schroedinger was one of the first proponents of such a view, but he dismissed it after he realized it led to macroscopic superpositions (if the wave function evolves in (...) time according to the equations that has his name). The Many-Worlds interpretation1 accepts the existence of such macroscopic superpositions but takes it that they can never be observed. Superposed objects and superposed observers split together in different worlds of the type of the one we appear to live in. For these who, like Schroedinger, think that macroscopic superpositions are a problem, the common wisdom is that there are two alternative views: "Either the wave function, as given by the Schroedinger equation, is not everything, or is not right" [Bell 1987]. The deBroglie-Bohm theory, now commonly known as Bohmian Mechanics, takes the first option: the description provided by a Schroedinger-evolving wave function is supplemented by the information provided by the configuration of the particles. The second possibility consists in assuming that, while the wave function provides the complete description of the system, its temporal evolution is not given by the Schroedinger equation. Rather, the usual Schroedinger evolution is interrupted by random and sudden "collapses". The most promising theory of this kind is the GRW theory, named after the scientists that developed it: Gian Carlo Ghirardi, Alberto Rimini and Tullio Weber.. It seems tempting to think that in GRW we can take the wave function ontologically seriously and avoid the problem of macroscopic superpositions just allowing for quantum jumps. In this paper we will argue that such "bare" wave function ontology is not possible, neither for GRW nor for any other quantum theory: quantum mechanics cannot be about the wave function simpliciter. That is, we need more structure than the one provided by the wave function. As a response, quantum theories about the wave function can be supplemented with structure, without taking it as an additional ontology. We argue in reply that such "dressed-up" versions of wave function ontology are not sensible, since they compromise the acceptability of the theory as a satisfactory fundamental physical theory. Therefore we maintain that: 1- Strictly speaking, it is not possible to interpret quantum theories as theories about the wave function; 2- Even if the wave function is supplemented by additional non-ontological structures, there are reasons not to take the resulting theory seriously. Moreover, we will argue that any of the traditional responses to the measurement problem of quantum mechanics (Bohmian mechanics, GRW and Many-Worlds), contrarily to what commonly believed, share a common structure. That is, we maintain that: 3- All quantum theories should be regarded as theories in which physical objects are constituted by a primitive ontology. The primitive ontology is mathematically represented in the theory by a mathematical entity in three-dimensional space, or space-time. (shrink)
It has been observed that whereas painters and musicians are likely to be embarrassed by references to the beauty in their work, mathematicians instead like to engage in discussions of the beauty of mathematics. Professional artists are more likely to stress the technical rather than the aesthetic aspects of their work. Mathematicians, instead, are fond of passing judgment on the beauty of their favored pieces of mathematics. Even a cursory observation shows that the characteristics of mathematical beauty are at variance (...) with those of artistic beauty. For example, courses in art appreciation are fairly common; it is however unthinkable to find any mathematical beauty appreciation courses taught anywhere. The purpose of the present paper is to try to uncover the sense of the term beauty as it is currently used by mathematicians. (shrink)