Background: Prejudices against minorities can be understood as habitually negative evaluations that are kept in spite of evidence to the contrary. Therefore, individuals with strong prejudices might be dominated by habitual or “automatic” reactions at the expense of more controlled reactions. Computational theories suggest individual differences in the balance between habitual/model-free and deliberative/model-based decision-making.Methods: 127 subjects performed the two Step task and completed the blatant and subtle prejudice scale.Results: By using analyses of choices and reaction times in combination with computational (...) modeling, subjects with stronger blatant prejudices showed a shift away from model-based control. There was no association between these decision-making processes and subtle prejudices.Conclusion: These results support the idea that blatant prejudices toward minorities are related to a relative dominance of habitual decision-making. This finding has important implications for developing interventions that target to change prejudices across societies. (shrink)
Production of Presence is a comprehensive version of the thinking of HansUlrich Gumbrecht, one of the most consistently original literary scholars writing today. It offers a personalized account of some of the central theoretical movements in literary studies and in the humanities over the past thirty years, together with an equally personal view of a possible future. Based on this assessment of the past and the future of literary studies and the humanities, the book develops the provocative (...) thesis that, through their exclusive dedication to interpretation, i.e. to the reconstruction and attribution of meaning, the humanities have become incapable of addressing a dimension in all cultural phenomena that is as important as the dimension of meaning. Interpretation alone cannot do justice to the dimension of “presence,” a dimension in which cultural phenomena and cultural events become tangible and have an impact on our senses and our bodies. Production of Presence is a passionate plea for a rethinking and a reshaping of the intellectual practice within the humanities. (shrink)
Considering a range of present-day phenomena, from the immediacy effects of literature to the impact of hypercommunication, globalization, and sports, HansUlrich Gumbrecht notes an important shift in our relationship to history and the ...
The author discusses Niklas Luhmann's concept of ethics and morals. Therefore he sketches the main traits of Luhmann's theory of systems (e.g. the terms autopoiesis, system and environment, code and programme). From the system-theoretical point of view, ethics are characterized as the reflexive theory of morals. Morals are described as the communication of regard or disregard. The author shows which consequences follow from this concept by discussing problems concerning several subsystems at the same time. The problems of Luhmann's theory of (...) morals and ethics are demonstrated by analyzing the concepts of risk and responsibility. Finally, the author demands that ethics should be understood even more as social ethics which reflect upon their social foundation in a more consequent way. (shrink)
This paper presents HansUlrich's account of Christian ethics as an ethics of `vocation'. It is interested in how Ulrich's account of vocational ethics is developed as a critique of professional ethics. Professional ethics is seen as reflecting the structures of ethical deliberation of the social order that produces it, thereby failing to move beyond the realm of `works'. In contrast, the distinguishing characteristic of Ulrich's vocational ethics is shown to be that it is a response (...) to the Word `from outside'. Consequently, a Christian account of professional ethics needs to show how it can retain a `theological difference' that enables it to respond to the Word that `breaks in' to start something new. The paper discusses the transformation of professionalism in a neo-liberal service economy in order to find out how this `breaking in' actually proceeds. Its test case is providing services to people with intellectual disabilities. (shrink)
These conference proceedings consider visual and literary images of ancient Rome created by artists and scholars from Late Antiquity until the present day. The occasion for the conference was the colossal panorama Rome 312 by Yadegar Asisi that was displayed in Leipzig. The papers explore the ways and means by which the idea of Rome was developed by the individual artists and authors and transferred to the cultural context of the epoch and of the personalities involved.
The aim of this essay is to ask whether what it calls the "presence" of things, including things of the past, can be rendered in language, including the language of historians. In Part I the essay adumbrates what it means by presence . It also proposes two ideal types: meaning-cultures , and presence-cultures . In the modern period, linguistic utterance has typically come to be used for, and to be interpreted as, the way by which meaning rather than presence is (...) expressed, thereby creating a gap between language and presence. Thus, in Part II the essay explores ways that this gap might be bridged, examining seven instances in which presence can be "amalgamated" with language. These range from instances in which the physical dimensions of language itself are made manifest, to those through which the physicality of the things to which language refers is supposed to be made evident. Of particular note for theorists of history are those instances in which things can be made present by employing the deictic, poetic, and incantatory potential of linguistic expression. The essay concludes in Part III with a reflection on Heidegger's idea that language is the "house of being," now interpreted as the idea that language can be the medium through which the separation of humans and the things of their environment may be overcome. The hope of achieving presence in language is no less than a reconciliation of humans with their world, including—and of most interest to historians—the things and events of their past. (shrink)
From 1990 on, the London psychologist Max Velmans developed a novel approach to consciousness according to which an experience of an object is phenomenologically identical to an object as experienced. On the face of it I agree; but unlike Velmans I argue that the latter should be understood as comparable, not to a Kantian, but rather to a noematic.
In diesem Buch liefert Hans-Ulrich Wöhler einen repräsentativen geschichtlichen Überblick zum dialektischen Denken in der mittelalterlichen Philosophie. Untersucht werden ausgewählte Texte von Autoren unterschiedlicher sprachlicher, religiöser und philosophischer Provenienz aus dem Zeitraum zwischen dem 6. und dem 17. Jahrhundert. Die den Autor dabei leitende Frage lautet: Inwiefern dachten diese Denker in ihrer Philosophie dialektisch? Im Zentrum des Bandes steht somit die Beschreibung und Rekonstruktion von konkreten Äußerungs- und Anwendungsformen und vor allem von Inhalten eines dialektischen Denkens, unabhängig von (...) ihrer Selbstkennzeichnung durch deren Urheber. Entscheidend für die Beantwortung der Leitfrage ist es, ob und in welcher Weise in den untersuchten Texten ein Verständnis für die Kompatibilität, die Relativität, die Vermittelbarkeit oder auch die Einheit von Gegensätzen artikuliert wird. Der gewählte zeitliche Rahmen integriert in die Darstellung nicht nur einige klassische Vertreter der Philosophie im lateinischen, islamischen und jüdischen Mittelalter, sondern er bezieht zugleich die Perioden der Rezeption und Aneignung des antiken Erbes am Anfang und des kritischen Rekurses darauf am Ende der Epoche ein. (shrink)
Juli Zeh, who enjoys an international reputation, is one of the most gifted and productive writers of Germany today. Her dystopian tale Corpus Delicti: Ein Prozess represents a lively, intelligent, and innovative addition to the genre. It presents a picture of a benevolent dictatorship that demands good health as the highest duty of its citizens, in a sequence of dramatic scenes combining the virtues of a thriller with a dystopia focusing on the present-day preoccupation with health and the body. Most (...) segments are presented as scenes of a trial against a biologist who is accused of rebellion against “The Method,” the ruling order of the future state, whose dominant ideology is “Health as the Principle of State Legitimacy.” Thus metaphysical morality and Enlightenment values such as freedom, democracy, and justice have been replaced by a scientific, secular notion of life as the ultimate criterion and value. (shrink)
Hans-Ulrich Lessing beschäftigt sich in seinem Beitrag „Die Genese Diltheys deskriptiver Psychologie“ mit der Entwicklung der deskriptiven Psychologie im Ausgang von Diltheys Frühschriften zu Schleiermacher, seiner Habilitationsschrift und frühen Berliner Logik-Vorlesungen, seinen Arbeiten zu Novalis bis hin zu allgemein bekannten Hinwendungen Diltheys zum Problem der Psychologie ab 1886, in welcher Dilthey die deskriptive Psychologie als Grundlagenwissenschaft auszuweisen sucht. Ausgehend von einer Explikation der Problemstellung, Methodik und umfassenden Definition deskriptiver Psychologie, betont Lessing Diltheys Opposition zur erklärenden konstruktiven Psychologie, die (...) nach dem Vorbild der Naturwissenschaften von Hypothesen ausgehend versucht, die Vorkommnisse des Seelenlebens durch Kausalzusammenhänge zu erklären. Dem entgegen sieht Dilthey die Aufgabe der deskriptiven Psychologie, welche Lessing als die älteste philosophische Konzeption Diltheys auszuweisen weiß, als eine Erfahrungspsychologie, zu deren Methoden sowohl Beobachtung, Analyse und Vergleich psychischer Vorgänge zur Statuierung von „Gleichförmigkeit des geistigen Lebens“ als auch dessen Individuationen gehören, in der Aufstellung,abschließender‘ Hypothesen. Dabei steht Dilthey, so Lessing, dem Formalismus der erklärenden Psychologie kritisch gegenüber und sucht ihn durch die Berücksichtigung entsprechender Inhalte zu ergänzen, welche für das jeweilige Leben von unschätzbarer Bedeutung sind, worin gleichsam die gewichtige Rolle der Geschichte zum Ausdruck kommt. (shrink)
Summary Ordinary language philosophers frequently draw on the fact that an appropriately selected sentential combination of the form p but not q can, or cannot, be uttered without absurdity; however, they do so without sufficient reflection on the methodology of such combination tests, which results in considerable shortcomings even in practical application. To improve things, I shall discuss two criteria for distinguishing âpragmaticâ from ânon-pragmaticâ implications and for separating the latter into âlinguisticâ (âsemanticâ and âsyntacticalâ) and ânon-linguisticâ ones (2â3); consider (...) the bearing of the principle of âsense-constancyâ on the applicability of combination tests (4); and call attention to the important, though merely heuristic, function of investigating pragmatic, as opposed to semantic, implications (5.1â5.2). Finally, I shall hint at a striking analogy between the linguistic (yet non-empirical) method of combination tests, the phenomenological method of âfictional variationâ, and the empirical method of âconjectures and refutationsâ (5.3). (shrink)
The University of Leipzig was founded in the year 1409. In the faculty of arts - the heart and the basis of the old university as a whole - there were numerous controversies during the first century of its existence. From the very beginning it competed with the older University of Prague, its historic mother, for an independent manner of philosophical thinking. The so-called » Wegestreit « between the via moderna and the via antiqua , and the » Poetenstreit « (...) between traditional and new humanistic patterns of science and philosophy were constituents of late medieval philosophy in Germany. Especially the various forms of academic disputation, that is ordinary, extraordinary and quodlibetal disputations, played an important part within the first hundred years of existence of this university, specifically its faculty of arts. The famous disputation between Johann Eck and Martin Luther at Leipzig in the year 1519 was one of the culminating points of this practice. Considerable work remains to be done on the exploration of late medieval philosophy. The analysis of the collection of medieval philosophical manuscripts originating from the old University of Leipzig could provide some new material for our historical knowledge of this period. (shrink)