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R. J. R. Blair [21]R. James R. Blair [3]R. G. Blair [3]R. Blair [3]
Roger D. Blair [2]R. James Blair [2]Ralph Blair [1]Robert James Richard Blair [1]

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  1. A Cognitive Developmental Approach to Morality: Investigating the Psychopath.R. Blair - 1995 - Cognition 57 (1):1-29.
    Various social animal species have been noted to inhibit aggressive attacks when a conspecific displays submission cues. Blair (1993) has suggested that humans possess a functionally similar mechanism which mediates the suppression of aggression in the context of distress cues. He has suggested that this mechanism is a prerequisite for the development of the moral/conventional distinction; the consistently observed distinction in subject's judgments between moral and conventional transgressions. Psychopaths may lack this violence inhibitor. A causal model is developed showing how (...)
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  2. The Psychopath. Emotion and the Brain.R. J. R. Blair, D. Mitchell & K. Blair - 2005 - Blackwell.
    Psychopaths continue to be demonised by the media and estimates suggest that a disturbing percentage of the population has psychopathic tendencies. This timely and controversial new book summarises what we already know about psychopathy and antisocial behavior and puts forward a new case for its cause - with far-reaching implications. Presents the scientific facts of psychopathy and antisocial behavior. Addresses key questions, such as: What is psychopathy? Are there psychopaths amongst us? What is wrong with psychopaths? Is psychopathy due to (...)
     
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  3.  95
    The Amygdala and Ventromedial Prefrontal Cortex in Morality and Psychopathy.R. J. R. Blair - 2007 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 11 (9):387-392.
  4.  87
    Responding to the Emotions of Others: Dissociating Forms of Empathy Through the Study of Typical and Psychiatric Populations.R. J. R. Blair - 2005 - Consciousness and Cognition 14 (4):698-718.
    Empathy is a lay term that is becoming increasingly viewed as a unitary function within the field of cognitive neuroscience. In this paper, a selective review of the empathy literature is provided. It is argued from this literature that empathy is not a unitary system but rather a loose collection of partially dissociable neurocognitive systems. In particular, three main divisions can be made: cognitive empathy , motor empathy, and emotional empathy. The two main psychiatric disorders associated with empathic dysfunction are (...)
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  5. What Emotional Responding is to Blame It Might Not Be to Responsibility.R. J. R. Blair - 2007 - Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 14 (2):pp. 149-151.
  6. Somatic Markers and Response Reversal: Is There Orbitofrontal Cortex Dysfunction in Boys With Psychopathic Tendencies?R. J. R. Blair, E. Colledge & D. G. V. Mitchell - 2001 - Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology 29 (6):499-511.
    This study investigated the performance of boys with psychopathic tendencies and comparison boys, aged 9 to 17 years, on two tasks believed to be sensitive to amygdala and orbitofrontal cortex func- tioning. Fifty-one boys were divided into two groups according to the Psychopathy Screening Device (PSD, P. J. Frick & R. D. Hare, in press) and presented with two tasks. The tasks were the gambling task (A. Bechara, A. R. Damasio, H. Damasio, & S. W. Anderson, 1994) and the Intradimensional/ (...)
     
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  7.  17
    The Emergence of Psychopathy: Implications for the Neuropsychological Approach to Developmental Disorders.R. BlaiR - 2006 - Cognition 101 (2):414-442.
  8. The Cognitive Neuroscience of Psychopathy and Implications for Judgments of Responsibility.R. James R. Blair - 2008 - Neuroethics 1 (3):149-157.
    Psychopathy is a developmental disorder associated with specific forms of emotional dysfunction and an increased risk for both frustration-based reactive aggression and goal-directed instrumental antisocial behavior. While the full behavioral manifestation of the disorder is under considerable social influence, the basis of this disorder appears to be genetic. At the neural level, individuals with psychopathy show atypical responding within the amygdala and ventromedial prefrontal cortex. Moreover, the roles of the amygdala in stimulus-reinforcement learning and responding to emotional expressions and vmPFC (...)
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  9.  9
    Theta Band Activity in Response to Emotional Expressions and its Relationship with Gamma Band Activity as Revealed by MEG and Advanced Beamformer Source Imaging.Qian Luo, Xi Cheng, Tom Holroyd, Duo Xu, Frederick Carver & R. James Blair - 2013 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.
  10. Risky Decisions and Response Reversal: Is There Evidence of Orbitofrontal Cortex Dysfunction in Psychopathic Individuals?D. G. V. Mitchell, E. Colledge & R. J. R. Blair - 2002 - Neuropsychologia 40:2013–2022.
    This study investigates the performance of psychopathic individuals on tasks believed to be sensitive to dorsolateral prefrontal and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) functioning. Psychopathic and non-psychopathic individuals, as defined by the Hare psychopathy checklist revised (PCL-R) [Hare, The Hare psychopathy checklist revised, Toronto, Ontario: Multi-Health Systems, 1991] completed a gambling task [Cognition 50 (1994) 7] and the intradimensional/extradimensional (ID/ED) shift task [Nature 380 (1996) 69]. On the gambling task, psychopathic participants showed a global tendency to choose disadvantageously. Specifically, they showed an (...)
     
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  11. Passive Avoidance Learning in Individuals with Psychopathy: Modulation by Reward but Not by Punishment.R. J. R. Blair, D. G. V. Mitchell, A. Leonard, S. Budhani, K. S. Peschardt & C. Newman - 2004 - Personality and Individual Differences 37:1179–1192.
    This study investigates the ability of individuals with psychopathy to perform passive avoidance learning and whether this ability is modulated by level of reinforcement/punishment. Nineteen psychopathic and 21 comparison individuals, as defined by the Hare Psychopathy Checklist Revised (Hare, 1991), were given a passive avoidance task with a graded reinforcement schedule. Response to each rewarding number gained a point reward specific to that number (i.e., 1, 700, 1400 or 2000 points). Response to each punishing number lost a point punishment specific (...)
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  12.  37
    Moral Judgment and Psychopathy.R. J. R. Blair - 2011 - Emotion Review 3 (3):296-298.
    Recent interest in emotion as the basis for moral development began with work involving individuals with psychopathic tendencies, and a recent paper with this population has allowed fresh insights (Glenn, Iyer, Graham, Koleva, & Haidt, 2009). Two main conclusions suggested by this paper are: (i) that systems involved in different forms of morality can be differentiated; and (ii) that systems involved in justice reasoning likely include amygdala and/or ventromedial prefrontal cortex, even if the specifics of their functional contribution to justice (...)
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  13.  18
    A Cognitive Neuroscience Approach to Generalized Anxiety Disorder and Social Phobia.Karina S. Blair & R. J. R. Blair - 2012 - Emotion Review 4 (2):133-138.
  14.  38
    Affect and the Moral‐Conventional Distinction.R. J. R. Blair - 1997 - Journal of Moral Education 26 (2):187-196.
    Abstract The effect of inducing negative, positive or neutral affect on the recall of moral and conventional transgressions and positive moral and conventional acts was examined. It was found that inducing negative affect was associated with higher recall of moral transgressions while inducing positive affect was associated with higher recall of positive moral acts. Affect induction condition did not have a significant effect on the recall of the conventional transgressions or positive acts. The results are interpreted within the Violence Inhibition (...)
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  15.  13
    Should Affective Arousal Be Grounded in Perception-Action Coupling?R. J. R. Blair - 2011 - Emotion Review 3 (1):109-110.
    Decety (2011) considers the cognitive neuroscience of empathy and, in particular, his three-component model of empathic responding. His position is highly influential with its emotional awareness/understanding and emotional regulation components representing clear extensions of previous theorizing on empathy. In this brief commentary, I will critically consider the third of his components: affective arousal. In particular, I will consider the implications of the literature to the proposed computations, based on perception—action coupling, that underlie this component of his model. I will suggest (...)
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  16.  43
    Anti-Linguisticism and Phenomenology.R. G. Blair - 1976 - Idealistic Studies 6 (1):69-84.
    I propose to examine the possible relevance of phenomenological method to the consideration of another approach to philosophy which is usually thought of as the descendant of a tradition of thought quite alien to it. This second approach I shall call “the anti-linguistic method.” The name constitutes a terminological safeguard against the dangerous step of ascribing a definite methodological view to the Wittgenstein of the Investigations, although the anti-linguistic method seems to me to be close to what Wittgenstein’s method would (...)
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  17. Dolan, RJ, 109 Fletcher, EC., 109 Frackowiak, RSJ, 109 Frith, CD, 109 Frith, U., 109.W. Badecker, S. C. Baker, J. M. Beale, R. J. R. Blair, F. Cara, N. Chater, F. C. Keil, M. Miozzo, P. Mitchell & Da Norman - 1995 - Cognition 57:329.
     
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  18.  21
    Putting Cognition Into Sociopathy.R. J. R. Blair & John Morton - 1995 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 18 (3):548-548.
    We make three suggestions with regard to Mealey's work. First, her lack of a cognitive analysis of the sociopath results in underspecified mappings between sociobiology and behavior. Second, the developmental literature indicates that Mealey's implicit assumption, that moral socialisation is achieved through punishment, is invalid. Third, we advance the use of causal modelling to map the developmental relationships between biology, cognition, and behaviour.
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  19.  7
    Imagination and Freedom in Spinoza and Sartre.R. G. Blair - 1970 - Journal of the British Society for Phenomenology 1 (2):13-16.
  20. Did Cain Fail to Represent the Thoughts of Abel Before He Killed Him.R. James & R. Blair - 2003 - In B. Repacholi & V. Slaughter (eds.), Individual Differences in Theory of Mind: Implications for Typical and Atypical Development. Hove, E. Sussex: Psychology Press. pp. 143--170.
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  21.  8
    Thurstone's Method of Study of the Learning Curve.R. V. Blair - 1918 - Psychological Review 25 (1):81-83.
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  22.  9
    An Economic Analysis of the Joint Purchasing Safety Zone.Roger D. Blair & Jill Boylston Herndon - 1995 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 23 (2):177-185.
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  23.  8
    An Economic Analysis of the Joint Purchasing Safety Zone.Roger D. Blair & Jill Boylston Herndon - 1995 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 23 (2):177-185.
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  24.  2
    A Note on Eva Schaper's and Patrick A. Heelan's Papers.R. G. Blair - 1972 - Journal of the British Society for Phenomenology 3 (3):284-285.
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  25.  12
    Computations in Extraversion.C. Fine & R. J. R. Blair - 1999 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22 (3):521-523.
    We make two suggestions with regard to Depue & Collins's target article. First, regarding the functioning of MOC13, we provide data indicating that, contrary to D&C's apparent position, this structure is not necessary for instrumental conditioning. Second, we suggest that D&C's approach would be advanced by reference to formal computational theory, in particular the work of Grossberg. We suggest that an integration of Grossberg 's and D&C's models can provide a more complete account of extraversion.
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  26.  4
    The Relationship Between Theory of Mind and Aggression.Robert James Richard Blair - 2003 - In B. Repacholi & V. Slaughter (eds.), Individual Differences in Theory of Mind: Implications for Typical and Atypical Development. Hove, E. Sussex: Psychology Press.
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  27.  2
    The Effects of Unlabeled and Labeled Picture Cues on Very Young Children’s Memory for Location.Robert Blair, Marion Perlmutter & Nancy Angrist Myers - 1978 - Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 11 (1):46-48.
  28. Asmuth, J., B51.J. Atkinson, E. Balaban, E. Barenholtz, D. Bavelier, R. J. R. Blair, K. Breckenridge, N. Burgess, B. Butterworth, J. Call & J. Collins - 2006 - Cognition 101:545-546.
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  29. Ethics & Gay Christians.Ralph Blair - 1982 - R. Blair.
  30. Note on Schapers, E and Heelans, Pa Papers.Rg Blair - 1972 - Journal of the British Society for Phenomenology 3 (3):284-285.
     
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  31. The Anatomy of Melancholy: Volume I.Thomas C. Faulkner, Nicholas K. Kiessling & Rhonda L. Blair (eds.) - 1989 - Clarendon Press.
    Robert Burton's The Anatomy of Melancholy is one of the last great works of English prose to have remained unedited. The present volume inaugurates an authoritative edition of the work, which is being prepared by scholars on both sides of the Atlantic. It will be followed by two further volumes of text with textual apparatus, and two volumes of commentary. Burton concentrated a lifetime of inquiry into the Anatomy, describing and analysing melancholy and its causes - devoting especial attention to (...)
     
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  32. Callous-Unemotional Traits Modulate the Neural Response Associated with Punishing Another Individual During Social Exchange: A Preliminary Investigation.Stuart F. White, Sarah J. Brislin, Harma Meffert, Stephen Sinclair & R. James R. Blair - 2013 - Journal of Personality Disorders 27 (1):99–112.
    The current study examined whether Callous-Unemotional (CU) traits, a core component of psychopathy, modulate neural responses of participants engaged in a social exchange game. In this task, participants were offered an allocation of money and then given the chance to punish the offerer. Twenty youth participated and responses to both offers and the participant’s punishment (or not) of these offers were examined. Increasingly unfair offers were associated with increased dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) activity but this responsiveness was not modulated (...)
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  33. Reduced Amygdala Response in Youths With Disruptive Behavior Disorders and Psychopathic Traits: Decreased Emotional Response Versus Increased Top-Down Attention to Nonemotional Features.Stuart F. White, Abigail A. Marsh, Katherine A. Fowler, Julia C. Schechter, Christopher Adalio, Kayla Pope, Stephen Sinclair, Daniel S. Pine & R. James R. Blair - 2012 - American Journal of Psychiatry 169 (7):750-758.
    Youths with disruptive behavior disorders and psychopathic traits showed reduced amygdala responses to fearful expressions under low attentional load but no indications of increased recruitment of regions implicated in top- down attentional control. These findings suggest that the emotional deficit observed in youths with disruptive behavior disorders and psychopathic traits is primary and not secondary to increased top- down attention to nonemotional stimulus features.
     
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  34.  15
    Emotion-Based Learning Systems and the Development of Morality.R. J. R. Blair - 2017 - Cognition 167:38-45.
    In this paper it is proposed that important components of moral development and moral judgment rely on two forms of emotional learning: stimulus-reinforcement and response-outcome learning. Data in support of this position will be primarily drawn from work with individuals with the developmental condition of psychopathy as well as fMRI studies with healthy individuals. Individuals with psychopathy show impairment on moral judgment tasks and a pronounced increased risk for instrumental antisocial behavior. It will be argued that these impairments are developmental (...)
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