(Axiological Systems in the XXI century: A Collage. The downfall of axiological systems based on beliefs and the co-existence of varied beliefs in the spiritual market) - DOI – 10.5752/P.2175-5841.2012v10n28p1295 Resumen Pretendemos mostrar como los sistemas axiológicos de creencias provenientes de las religiones no están vigentes en la actualidad. Para ello mostramos algunos datos del Banco Mundial que muestran como los sistemas heterónomos de creencias no funcionan como orientadores de la vida personal y social del individuo. También facilitamos información sobre (...) la disminución de los que se autoadscriben como pertenecientes a un sistema de creencias y además demostramos mediante las estadísticas que no existe relación entre autoadscribirse como miembro de un sistema de creencias y mantener unas determinadas creencias. Clarificamos la noción de creencia comúnmente utilizada como supuesto acrítico y otros usos del lenguaje corriente y del lenguaje científico. Utilizamos estadísticas de Catalunya, España, y de algunos países de Europa y América. Concluimos que si los sistemas axiológicos de los individuos no vienen determinados por las religiones, entonces ¿qué sistemas axiológicos tenemos que sean capaces de cohesionar y motivar los individuos hacia fines valiosos comunes? Palabras clave : Sistemas Axiológicos. Creencias. Religión. Cualidad humana. Estadísticas. España católicaWe aim at showing why axiological systems coming from religion are not operative currently. To do this we show World Bank data where it is manifested that heteronomous systems of beliefs are not in force to orient the personal and social life of the individuals. We also communicate the declining numbers of those that register themselves as believers and we also reveal that there is no relationship between registering oneself as a believer in an axiological system and effectively holding and “believing” the beliefs of that axiological system. We clarify the common use of the term belief as a non-critical assumption, and other uses of the term in natural language and scientific language. We use statistical data for Catalonia, Spain and some countries of Europe and America. We conclude by asking if individuals’ axiological systems are not determined by religions, then What axiological systems do we have able to cohere and motivate individuals towards valuable common futures? Keywords: Axiological systems. Beliefs, Religion. Human Quality. Statistics. Spain Catholic. (shrink)
A key aim in biology and psychology is to identify fundamental principles underpinning the behavior of animals, including humans. Analyses of human language and the behavior of a range of non-human animal species have provided evidence for a common pattern underlying diverse behavioral phenomena: Words follow Zipf's law of brevity (the tendency of more frequently used words to be shorter), and conformity to this general pattern has been seen in the behavior of a number of other animals. It has been (...) argued that the presence of this law is a sign of efficient coding in the information theoretic sense. However, no strong direct connection has been demonstrated between the law and compression, the information theoretic principle of minimizing the expected length of a code. Here, we show that minimizing the expected code length implies that the length of a word cannot increase as its frequency increases. Furthermore, we show that the mean code length or duration is significantly small in human language, and also in the behavior of other species in all cases where agreement with the law of brevity has been found. We argue that compression is a general principle of animal behavior that reflects selection for efficiency of coding. (shrink)
L'utilitarisme té com a criteri bàsic aconseguir el màxim bé per al màxim nombre possible de persones. L'utilitarisme dóna molta importància a la recerca de la felicitat personal. Aquest llibre en descriu les tesis bàsiques i respon a les principals acusacions que ha rebut.
Na questão do livre-arbítrio, Raimundo Lúlio parte, sem dúvida, de colocações agostinianas referentes às três potências da alma. Mas o pensador mallorquino vive num mundo onde a noção de individuo adquiriu espaços antes desconhecidos. Entretanto, comparando o pensamento de Lúlio, com o de Abelardo e de Duns Scotus, parece que ele se encontra bem mais próximo de Agostinho que do *individualismo' dos pensadores medievais.
A ‘companions in guilt’ strategy against moral error theory aims to show that the latter proves too much: if sound, it supports an implausible error-theoretic conclusion in other areas such as epistemic or practical reasoning. Christopher Cowie [2016 Cowie, C. 2016. Good News for Moral Error Theorists: A Master Argument Against Companions in Guilt Strategies, Australasian Journal of Philosophy 94/1: 115–30.[Taylor & Francis Online], [Web of Science ®] [Google Scholar]] has recently produced what he claims is a ‘master argument’ against (...) all such strategies. The essence of his argument is that CG arguments cannot work because they are afflicted by internal incoherence or inconsistency. I argue, first, that Cowie's master argument does not succeed. Beyond this, I argue that there is no good reason to think that any such argument—one that purports to identify an internal incoherence in CG arguments—can succeed. Second, I argue that the main substantive area of disagreement between error theorists and CG theorists essentially concerns the conceptual profile of epistemic reasons—specifically, whether they are strongly categorical—not the ontological question of whether such reasons exist. I then develop an argument in favour of the CG theorist's position by considering the moral error theorist's arguments in support of the conceptual claim that moral reasons are strongly categorical. These include, notably, criticisms made by Joyce  and Olson  of Finlay's  ‘end relational’ view of morality, according to which moral reasons are relative to some end or standard, hence not strongly categorical. Examining these criticisms, I argue that, based on what moral error theorists have said regarding the conceptual profile of moral reasons, there is a strong case to be made that moral reasons are strongly categorical if and only if epistemic reasons are. (shrink)
It is widely supposed that evolutionary debunking arguments against morality constitute a type of epistemological objection to our moral beliefs. In particular, the debunking force of such arguments is not supposed to depend on the metaphysical claim that moral facts do not exist. In this paper I argue that this standard epistemological construal of EDAs is highly misleading, if not mistaken. Specifically, I argue that the most widely discussed EDAs all make key and controversial metaphysical claims about the nature of (...) morality or the possibility of moral truth that belie their apparently epistemological character. I show that the debunking force of these EDAs derives largely from metaphysical claims about morality and their implications for the possibility of moral reduction, rather than from epistemological worries associated with the existence of an causal/non-moral explanation of our moral judgments. The paper briefly concludes with a dilemma that I believe confronts all EDAs such as those discussed in this paper: either such arguments are unsound, or else they prove too much, debunking our knowledge of science and the external world, as well as morality. (shrink)
The Qur’an has been transmitted as both a written text and an oral recital. This has led to the development of a reading tradition that permits numerous different vocalisations to be made upon the basic skeletal text of the established ʿUthmānī codex. Ibn al-Jazarī chose ten early readers whom he felt were most representative of this tradition and whose readings are treated as canonical up until this day. One of these, the Kufan linguist al-Kisāʾī has been characterised in the literature (...) as more focused on the grammar of the Qur’an than his reader peers. This article explores al-Kisāʾī’s process of ikhtiyār when deciding between various possible readings. The sample for analysis consists of Kisāʾī’s tafarrudāt, the approximately fifty cases in which his reading differs from the other nine readers. By comparing his reading with the comments of early scholars of Qur’anic linguistics, especially his near-contemporary al-Farrāʾ, it is possible to construct a typology of the suspected principal reasons for al-Kisāʾī’s tafarrudāt. Not only are many of these based on grammatical preferences, but they demonstrate a significant degree of consistency. Furthermore, analysis of a cluster of readings with implications for the interpretation of the sharīʿa provides evidence for a subtle exegetical dimension to al-Kisāʾī’s work as a reader-grammarian. (shrink)
Estudio intertextual del "Llibre d'amic i amat" en los ámbitos de la espiritualidad, de la teología y de la literatura vernacular, sobre todo mediante referencias a la patrística latina, el pensamiento de cistercienses y victorianos, la "legenda" de "Ami et amile", etc. se adopta el método de la filiaciones, pero con rectificaciones notables: no basta con señalar el parentesco de motivos y temas, etapa que debe prolongarse por un estudio de la función y el sentido de dichos elementos en la (...) arquitectura, el sistema de un pensamiento. Se pone de realce, asimismo, la importancia de compaginar filosofía y poética, en torno a lo que pudiera ser una tipología del "exemplum" en el opúsculo luliano. (shrink)
Page generated Fri Jul 30 14:07:43 2021 on philpapers-web-65948fd446-wp78j
cache stats: hit=8656, miss=9539, save= autohandler : 1380 ms called component : 1365 ms search.pl : 1233 ms render loop : 841 ms next : 438 ms initIterator : 389 ms addfields : 352 ms publicCats : 314 ms retrieve cache object : 114 ms menu : 81 ms save cache object : 71 ms autosense : 36 ms match_cats : 33 ms quotes : 28 ms prepCit : 20 ms search_quotes : 14 ms applytpl : 5 ms intermediate : 1 ms match_other : 1 ms match_authors : 1 ms init renderer : 0 ms setup : 0 ms auth : 0 ms writelog : 0 ms