This study examines the impact of ethical climate types (professionalism, caring, rules, instrumental, efficiency, and independence) on various facets of job satisfaction (pay, promotions, co-workers, supervisors, and work itself) in a large non-profit organization. Professionalism was the most reported and efficiency was the least reported ethical climate type in the organization. Among various facets of job satisfaction, respondents were most satisfied with their work and least satisfied with their pay. None of the climate types significantly influenced satisfaction with pay. A (...) professional climate significantly influenced satisfaction with promotions, supervisors, and work. It also significantly influenced overall job satisfaction. Those respondents who believed that their organization had caring climate were more satisfied with their supervisors. An instrumental climate had a significant negative influence on overall job satisfaction and satisfaction with promotions, co-workers, and supervisors. Rules, efficiency, and independence climate types did not significantly affect any facets of job satisfaction. (shrink)
This study examines the ethical climate and ethical practices of successful managers (n=206 managers) of a large non-profit organization. The influence of different dimensions of ethical climate on perceived ethical practices of successful managers were also investigated. Results show that a majority of the respondents perceive successful managers as ethical. Compared to previous research, managers in our sample were less optimistic about the relationship between success and ethical behavior. Those who believed that their organization had a caring climate perceived a (...) strong positive link between success and ethical behavior. Those who believed that their organization had an instrumental climate perceived a strong negative link between success and ethical behavior. (shrink)
This study examined the impact of sex, age, and level of education on the perception of various business practices by managers of a large non-profit organization. Female managers perceived the acceptance of gifts and favors in exchange for preferential treatment significantly more unethical than male managers. Older managers (40 plus) perceived five practices significantly more unethical than younger managers (giving gifts/favors in exchange for preferential treatment, divulging confidential information, concealing ones error, falsifying reports, and calling in sick to take a (...) day off). The practice of padding expense account by over 10% was reported to be significantly more unethical by managers with a graduate degree. (shrink)
This study examines factors impacting ethical behavior of 203 hospital employees in Midwestern and Northwestern United States. Ethical behavior of peers had the most significant impact on ethical behavior. Ethical behavior of successful managers, professional education in ethics and sex of the respondents also significantly impacted ethical behavior. Nurses were significantly more ethical than other employees. Race of the respondent did not impact ethical behavior. Overclaiming scales indicated that social desirability bias did not significantly impact the results of our study. (...) Implications of this study for researchers and practitioners are discussed. (shrink)
This study examines factors impacting ethical behavior of 103 hospital nurses. The level of emotional intelligence and ethical behavior of peers had a significant impact on ethical behavior of nurses. Independence climate had a significant impact on ethical behavior of nurses. Other ethical climate types such as professional, caring, rules, instrumental, and efficiency did not impact ethical behavior of respondents. Implications of this study for researchers and practitioners are discussed.
This research investigates the impact of various factors on ethical behavior of 180 not-for-profit hospital employees. Ethical behavior of peers, ethical behavior of successful managers, and emotional intelligence had a significant positive impact on ethical behavior of respondents. Physicians and hospital employees with political connections within the organization were significantly less ethical than other employees. The results have many implications for researchers and healthcare practitioners.
This study examined the impact of gender on perceptions of various business practices by male and female Russian managers. Female managers considered various activities such as doing personal business on company time, falsifying time/quality/quantity reports, padding an expense account more than 10 percent, calling in sick to take a day off, and pilfering organization materials and supplies more unethical than male managers. Female managers also perceived the acceptance of gifts and favors in exchange for preferential treatment more unethical than male (...) managers. (shrink)
Based on organizational justice theories and cognitive dissonance theories, the authors hypothesized that: (a) perceived top management support for ethical behaviors will be positively correlated with all facets of job satisfaction (supervision, pay, promotion, work, co-workers, and overall); and (b) the correlation will be highest with the facet of supervision. Empirical results (n = 77 middle level managers from two organizations in South India) supported only the second hypothesis. Implications for managing a global workforce are discussed.
This study investigated employee perceptions of ethical climates in a sample of Russian organizations and the relationship between ethical climate and behaviors believed to characterize successful managers. A survey of managerial employees in Russia (n = 136) indicates that "rules" was the most reported and "independence" was the least reported ethical climate type. Those who perceived a strong link between success and ethical behavior report high levels of a "caring" climate and low levels of an "instrumental" climate. Implications for practitioners (...) and researchers are discussed. (shrink)
This study examines perceptions of ethical climate and ethical practices of 118 successful Chinese managers among business students and managen in the Zhejiang province of China. The impact of different ethical climate types on perceived ethical practices of successful managers was also investigated. The "rules'* was the most reported, and '' independence'' was the least reported, among the various climate types. A majority of the respondents perceive successful managers as ethical. In addition, those who believed that their organization had a (...) "rules" climate perceived a strong positive link between success and ethical behavior. None of the other climate types had an impact on the link between success and ethical behavior. (shrink)
This study explores if managerial dependencies and organizational independence impact ethical behavior of employees. Survey data was collected from 203 employees working for three hospitals in Midwestern and Northwestern United States. Managerial dependencies like specialized expertise, political connections, and performance visibility significantly impacted ethical behavior. Organizational independence and ethical behavior of peers also had a significant impact on ethical behavior. Implications of this study for researchers and practitioners are discussed.
A survey of middle level managers in India (n=150) showed that when respondents perceived that successful managers in their organization behaved unethically their levels of job satisfaction were reduced. Reduction in satisfaction with the facet of supervision was the most pronounced (than with pay or promotion or co-worker or work). Results are interpreted within the framework of cognitive dissonance theory. Implications for ethics training programs (behavioral and cognitive) as well as international management are discussed.
This study examines the impact of impression management and overclaiming on self-reported ethical conduct of 174 managers (67 male, 107 female) who worked for a large not-for-profit organization. As anticipated, impression management and overclaiming positively influenced perceived unethical conduct of managers. Female managers were more prone to impression management than male managers. There was no significant difference in perceived unethical conduct or level of overclaiming of male and female managers.
This study examines factors impacting organizational commitment of 214 employees working at a Chinese state-owned steel company. Ethical behavior of peers and ethical behavior of successful managers had a significant impact on organizational commitment. The four facets of job satisfaction (pay, coworker, supervision, and work itself) had a significant impact on organizational commitment. Respondent’s age also significantly impacted organizational commitment. Perceptions of ethical behavior of successful managers, satisfaction with work, and gender were significantly correlated with social desirability bias.
This study examines factors impacting ethical behavior of 208 employees of a Chinese state-owned steel company. Only rules climate had a significant impact on ethical behavior of respondents. Other ethical climate types such as professional, caring, instrumental, independence, and efficiency did not impact ethical behavior of respondents. Ethical behavior of peers, ethical behavior of successful managers, and overclaiming had a significant impact on ethical behavior of subjects.
This research uses structural equation modeling (SEM) to examine the direct and indirect relationships among caring climate, job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and job performance of 476 employees working in a Chinese insurance company. The SEM result showed that caring climate had a significant direct impact on job satisfaction, organizational command, and job performance. Caring climate also had a significant indirect impact on organizational commitment through the mediating role of job satisfaction, and on job performance through the mediating role of job (...) satisfaction and organizational commitment. In addition, job satisfaction had significant direct impact on organizational commitment, through which it also had a significant indirect impact on job performance. Finally, organizational commitment had a significant direct impact on job performance. (shrink)
This study examines the impact of various ethical climate types and job satisfaction on organizational commitment of 144 employees working at a Chinese private construction company. Both caring and independence climate types had a significant positive impact on organizational commitment. Instrumental climate had a significant negative impact on organizational commitment. Other climate types (professional, rules, and efficiency) had no significant impact on organizational commitment. Overall job satisfaction had a significant positive impact on organizational commitment. Overclaiming was significantly correlated with organizational (...) commitment, caring climate, rules climate, and job satisfaction. (shrink)
Design and Development of software controlled stand-alone instruments have been identified as the most vital component of national and international programs on earthquake hazard and risk management. For in depth investigation and studies, the development of precise instruments designed around computer is emerging very fast. Interfacing of personal computer with seismic instrument is an important design task. A design technique based on minimum hardware has been worked out around the parallel printer interface of computer. Hardware and Software for this purpose (...) has been designed to make the instrument interact with computer through parallel port interface. Incorporation of software for seismic signal analysis has been considered the extremely powerful tool to view and analyze seismic data collected by seismic instruments. In this paper efforts have been made to describe the various design aspects for interfacing of Seismic Data Recorder and Analyser to computer through parallel printer port and computation steps incorporated in the software tool for seismic data analysis. (shrink)
Theories of interpersonal conflict analysis and resolution originate from sociology, social psychology and political science. These theories took shape during twentieth century after World War I and World War II. Some of the prominent conflict resolution theories are Burton’s ‘human needs theory’, Roger Fisher’s ‘principled-negotiation’ and Lederach’s ‘Conflict transformation’. Conflict is an inevitable part of living because it is related to situations of scarce resources, division of functions, power relations and role-differentiation. In the organizational environment, awareness of each employee’s nature (...) is critical to success. When such employees are self-aware, workplace conflict can be minimized and can become productive to the organization. This study develops a new three energy framework of personality for conflict analysis and resolution. This framework is based on the ‘ guna’ concept of Bhagavad Gita, an ancient Hindu scripture. The term ‘ guna’ indicates the ‘inherent energy’ with which the human mind functions. These three energies are: Positive Energy, Dynamic Energy and Potential Energy. People work under influence of these three energies all the time and go through various physical, emotional and intellectual experiences. The quality and quantity of these experiences determines their personality, pattern of behaviours and conduct. (shrink)
It is shown that the facts of behavior which Freud sought to encompass by his distinction of Primary and Secondary Process can be formulated in terms of Skinner's system of behavior. This is illustrated by considering the 'primary process' behavior in dreaming, some of whose characteristics according to Freud are: it is illogical and random; visual images predominate in primary process thinking; it is highly charged with affect compared to 'secondary process' thinking; it shows 'condensation' — the fusing together of (...) two or more images into a single image. It is shown that all of these properties can be derived from Skinner's account of behavior. It is then pointed out that both Freud and Skinner have pointed to similar controlling variables of behavior, utilized mainly similar processes, and drawn many of the same distinctions. Implications for contemporary criticisms of Skinner's account of 'thinking' are pointed out. The above is preceded by a preliminary argument that since both Freud and Skinner performed functional analyses of behavior, it should be possible to compare the two accounts if the 'superfluous' middle term — the intrapsychic apparatus — in Freud's account is ignored. It is pointed out that in extrapolating his system to human behavior, Skinner has described in terms of his own system some of the characteristically 'Freudian' facts of behavior, and his formulations on the phenomena of 'repression' are summarized. The Skinnerian formulation of the primary and secondary process distinction is then presented in support of the argument that other facts of behavior which have not been discussed by Skinner can nevertheless be represented within his system of behavior. (shrink)
Prostate cancer is one of the the most common cancers in men. A blood test called prostate-specific antigen has a potential to pick up this cancer very early and is used for screening of this disease. However, screening for prostate cancer is a matter of debate. Level 1 evidence from randomised controlled trials suggests a reduction in cancer-specific mortality from PCa screening. However, there could be an associated impact on quality of life due to a high proportion of overdiagnosis and (...) overtreatment as part of the screening. The US Preventive Services Task Force in 2012 recommended that PSA-based PCa screening should not to be offered at any age. However, considering the current evidence, USPSTF recently revised its recommendation to offer the PSA test to men aged 55–69 years with shared decision-making, in line with earlier guidelines from the American Cancer Society and the American Urological Association. A shared decision making is necessary since the PSA test could potentially harm an individual. However, the literature suggests that clinicians often neglect a discussion on this issue before ordering the test. This narrative discusses the main controversies regarding PCa screening including the PSA threshold for biopsy, the concept of overdiagnosis and overtreatment, the practical difficulties of active surveillance, the current level 1 evidence on the mortality benefit of screening, and the associated pitfalls. It offers a detailed discussion on the ethics involved in the PSA test and highlights the barriers to shared decision-making and possible solutions. (shrink)
This "case study" examines the shaping of a research interest. It turns on the Partition of the South Asian subcontinent in 1947, leading to the Independence and establishment of the sovereign states of Pakistan and India. The Partition was a climax within a pattern of recurrent violence in the name of Hindus and Muslims for several generations before 1947, a pattern that recurs at lower intensity continually. This study explores the emerging of an interest in the social origins of the (...) Partition out of several decades of the author's personal experience. It tracks the origins of a sense of difference between the religiously defined social categories to the medieval period--though the Mughal period saw wide-ranging cooperative activity too. The colonial period saw a major change of phase, with heightened insecurities amidst large changes in polity, economy, and society, and the rise of influential institutions for religious revival on both sides. Amidst comprehensive enlargements in the scales of organisations, communications, and activities, the sense of opposition between groups, defined in religious terms, grew; and so too the frequency and intensity of aggression across the divide. The violence in 1947 was exceptionally brutal and large in scale; but the underlying attitudes had long been in the making. To take full measure of that long inception, one needs to summon the resources not only of history but also of a wide array of other social sciences. (shrink)
Technology and social change are interdependent. The information technology (IT) revolution has redefined social equation shifting the focus from material to knowledge power. While developed countries have harnessed their resources with the growth of knowledge societies, the developing and least developed countries have lagged behind in progress. In this paper, the authors have examined the roles of Information and Communications Technologies (ICT), government and international agencies and human-centered approaches to arrive at a conceptual model of knowledge community in developing countries. (...) This paper explores need for knowledge community in developing countries to suggest an integrative framework to harness local knowledge. (shrink)
This study investigates factors impacting perceptions of ethical conduct of peers of 293 students in four US universities. Self-reported ethical behavior and recognition of emotions in others (a dimension of emotional intelligence) impacted perception of ethical behavior of peers. None of the other dimensions of emotional intelligence were significant. Age, Race, Sex, GPA, or type of major (business versus nonbusiness) did not impact perception of ethical behavior of peers. Implications of the results of the study for business schools and industry (...) professionals are discussed. (shrink)