Results for 'Shakoor Muhammad'

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  1.  8
    Suicide and “Do Not Resuscitate”: An Ethical Dilemma.Muhammad Tariq Shakoor, Abdul Ahad, Samia Ayub & James Kruer - forthcoming - Clinical Ethics:147775092095955.
    Advance directives allow people to accept or decline medical interventions and to appoint surrogate decision makers if they become incapacitated. Living wills are written in ambiguous terms and require interpretation by clinical providers. Living wills cannot cover all conceivable end-of-life decisions. There is too much variability in clinical decision making to make an all-encompassing living will possible. While there are many limitations of advance directives, this article reviews some of the most troublesome ethical dilemmas with regard to advance directives.
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  2.  11
    Hybridized Symbiotic Organism Search Algorithm for the Optimal Operation of Directional Overcurrent Relays.Muhammad Sulaiman, Ashfaq Ahmad, Asfandyar Khan & Shakoor Muhammad - 2018 - Complexity 2018:1-11.
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  3.  16
    Improved Solutions for the Optimal Coordination of DOCRs Using Firefly Algorithm.Muhammad Sulaiman, Waseem, Shakoor Muhammad & Asfandyar Khan - 2018 - Complexity 2018:1-15.
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  4.  2
    Membaca Pemahaman Hadis Muḥammad Al-Ghazālī Dan Yūsuf Al-Qarḍāwī: Studi Kasus Pemikiran Suryadi.Muhammad Alfatih Suryadilaga - 2020 - Refleksi 19 (2).
    The understanding of ḥadīth as a part of the problem that develops in society becomes the most important part of ḥadīth study. Its existence becomes an interesting study and produces a variety of certain thoughts studied in various scientific works. One of the thoughts on the understanding of the ḥadīth is examined by Suryadi in his dissertation that has been published under the title of contemporary methods of understanding the ḥadīth Prophet’s perspective Muḥammad al-Ghazālī and Yūsuf al-Qarḍāwī. This article discusses (...)
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  5.  43
    Natural Categories and Human Kinds: Classification in the Natural and Social Sciences.Muhammad Ali Khalidi - 2013 - Cambridge University Press.
    The notion of 'natural kinds' has been central to contemporary discussions of metaphysics and philosophy of science. Although explicitly articulated by nineteenth-century philosophers like Mill, Whewell and Venn, it has a much older history dating back to Plato and Aristotle. In recent years, essentialism has been the dominant account of natural kinds among philosophers, but the essentialist view has encountered resistance, especially among naturalist metaphysicians and philosophers of science. Informed by detailed examination of classification in the natural and social sciences, (...)
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  6.  14
    From Analytic Philosophy to an Ampler and More Flexible Pragmatism: Muhammad Asghari Talks with Susan Haack.Muhammad Asghari & Susan Haack - 2020 - Philosophical Investigations 14 (32):21-28.
    In this interview, which took place in July 2020, Muhammad Asghari, an associate professor in the Department of Philosophy at the University of Tabriz, asked eleven questions to Professor Susan Haack, a distinguished professor of philosophy at the University of Miami. This American philosopher eagerly and patiently emailed me the answers to the questions. The questions in this interview are mainly about analytic philosophy and pragmatist philosophy.This interview was conducted via personal email between me and Professor Susan Haack in (...)
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  7.  1
    Reconceptualizing the teaching of ethics in a global classroom.Shakoor Ward - 2020 - International Journal of Ethics Education 5 (1):39-50.
    Educational courses and professional trainings in ethical leadership and decision making appear to be increasing globally. Many scholars and academicians view that ethics cannot be taught due to a lack of consensus, consistency, and global standardization of what is ethical. Often the leading resources and educational material are arguably grounded in values and norms, which may not be in harmony with the values and norms of target audiences in various international, and domestic settings where classrooms may have a global student (...)
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  8.  17
    Muhammad Shahidullah Felicitation Volume.A. A. & Muhammad Enamul Haq - 1968 - Journal of the American Oriental Society 88 (2):359.
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  9. Abu Call Ahmad Ibn Muhammad Miskawayh.Muhammad Miskawayh - 1999 - In Seyyed Hossein Nasr & Mehdi Amin Razavi (eds.), An Anthology of Philosophy in Persia. Oxford University Press. pp. 1--274.
  10.  15
    Three Shadow Plays by Muḥammad Ibn DāniyālThree Shadow Plays by Muhammad Ibn Daniyal.Everett K. Rowson, Muḥammad Ibn Dāniyāl, Paul Kahle & Muhammad Ibn Daniyal - 1994 - Journal of the American Oriental Society 114 (3):462.
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  11.  10
    Muḥammad Ibn Ḥabīb's "Matronymics of Poets"Muhammad Ibn Habib's "Matronymics of Poets".G. Levi Della Vida, Muḥammad Ibn Ḥabīb & Muhammad Ibn Habib - 1942 - Journal of the American Oriental Society 62 (3):156.
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  12. Three Kinds of Social Kinds.Muhammad Ali Khalidi - 2015 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 90 (1):96-112.
    Could some social kinds be natural kinds? In this paper, I argue that there are three kinds of social kinds: 1) social kinds whose existence does not depend on human beings having any beliefs or other propositional attitudes towards them ; 2) social kinds whose existence depends in part on specific attitudes that human beings have towards them, though attitudes need not be manifested towards their particular instances ; 3) social kinds whose existence and that of their instances depend in (...)
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  13. Natural Kinds as Nodes in Causal Networks.Muhammad Khalidi - 2018 - Synthese 195 (4):1379-1396.
    In this paper I offer a unified causal account of natural kinds. Using as a starting point the widely held view that natural kind terms or predicates are projectible, I argue that the ontological bases of their projectibility are the causal properties and relations associated with the natural kinds themselves. Natural kinds are not just concatenations of properties but ordered hierarchies of properties, whose instances are related to one another as causes and effects in recurrent causal processes. The resulting account (...)
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  14.  6
    Penafsiran Modern Ayat-Ayat Waris: Perbandingan Muḥammad Shaḥrūr Dan Munawir Sjadzali.Muhammad Iqbal Piliang & M. Najib Tsauri - 2019 - Refleksi 18 (1):94-132.
    This paper discusses inheritance discourse based on verses of the Koran according to modern interpreters, Muḥammad Shaḥrūr with Munawir Sjadzali. Both interpreters are appointed because they can be considered to have tried in their respective contexts to answer the emergence of ambiguous attitudes in implementing inheritance law from Muslim societies. Muḥammad Shaḥrūr understands and applies it in a way that is different from the opinions and concepts, as seen in the 'four classical patterns of calculation' as well as in social (...)
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  15.  11
    Penafsiran Modern Ayat-Ayat Waris: Perbandingan Muḥammad Shaḥrūr Dan Munawir Sjadzali.Muhammad Iqbal Piliang & M. Najib Tsauri - 2019 - Refleksi 18 (1):78-116.
    This paper discusses inheritance discourse based on verses of the Qur’an according to modern interpreters, Muḥammad Shaḥrūr with Munawir Sjadzali. Both interpreters are appointed because they can be considered to have tried in their respective contexts to answer the emergence of ambiguous attitudes in implementing inheritance law from Muslim societies. Muḥammad Shaḥrūr understands and applies it in a way that is different from the opinions and concepts, as seen in the 'four classical patterns of calculation' as well as in social (...)
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  16. Interactive Kinds.Muhammad Ali Khalidi - 2010 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 61 (2):335-360.
    This paper examines the phenomenon of ‘interactive kinds’ first identified by Ian Hacking. An interactive kind is one that is created or significantly modified once a concept of it has been formulated and acted upon in certain ways. Interactive kinds may also ‘loop back’ to influence our concepts and classifications. According to Hacking, interactive kinds are found exclusively in the human domain. After providing a general account of interactive kinds and outlining their philosophical significance, I argue that they are not (...)
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  17. The Educational Philosophy of Elijah Muhammad: Education for a New World.Abul Pitre & Tynnetta Muhammad - 2007 - Upa.
    Features new to the second edition include a foreword by Tynnetta Muhammad, wife and student of Elijah Muhammad; opening comments by world renowned mathematician Dr. Abdulalim Sahabazz; a new chapter co-authored with Dr. Dorothy Blake Fardan; plus guided questions and power point notes to stimulate discourse around Elijah Muhammad's educational ideas.
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  18. Natural Kinds and Crosscutting Categories.Muhammad Ali Khalidi - 1998 - Journal of Philosophy 95 (1):33.
    There are many ways of construing the claim that some categories are more “natural" than others. One can ask whether a system of categories is innate or acquired by learning, whether it pertains to a natural phenomenon or to a social institution, whether it is lexicalized in natural language or requires a compound linguistic expression. This renders suspect any univocal answer to this question in any particular case. Yet another question one can ask, which some authors take to have a (...)
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  19.  20
    Kadizadeli Ottoman Scholarship, Muḥammad Ibn ʿAbd Al-Wahhāb, and the Rise of the Saudi State.James Muhammad Dawud Currie - 2015 - Journal of Islamic Studies 26 (3):265-288.
  20.  13
    Pembacaan baru konsep talak: Studi pemikiran Muhammad sa‘id al-‘asymāwī.Muhammad Fauzinuddin Faiz - 2016 - Epistemé: Jurnal Pengembangan Ilmu Keislaman 10 (2).
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  21. Muslim Character: An American-English Translation of Muhammad Al-Ghazali's Khuluq Al-Muslim.Muḥammad Ghazālī - 2004 - Library of Islam.
     
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  22.  13
    Muhammad Al-Qadiri's Nashr Al-Mathani: The Chronicles.Hanna E. Kassis, Norman Cigar & Muhammad al-Qadiri - 1985 - Journal of the American Oriental Society 105 (1):161.
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  23. Innate Cognitive Capacities.Muhammad ali KhAlidi - 2007 - Mind and Language 22 (1):92-115.
    This paper attempts to articulate a dispositional account of innateness that applies to cognitive capacities. After criticizing an alternative account of innateness proposed by Cowie (1999) and Samuels (2002), the dispositional account of innateness is explicated and defended against a number of objections. The dispositional account states that an innate cognitive capacity (output) is one that has a tendency to be triggered as a result of impoverished environmental conditions (input). Hence, the challenge is to demonstrate how the input can be (...)
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  24.  23
    Love, Passion and Class in the Fiction of Muḥammad Ḥusayn HaykalLove, Passion and Class in the Fiction of Muhammad Husayn Haykal.Charles D. Smith, Muḥammad Ḥusayn Haykal & Muhammad Husayn Haykal - 1979 - Journal of the American Oriental Society 99 (2):249.
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  25. Nature and Nurture in Cognition.Muhammad Ali Khalidi - 2002 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 53 (2):251-272.
    This paper advocates a dispositional account of innate cognitive capacities, which has an illustrious history from Plato to Chomsky. The "triggering model" of innateness, first made explicit by Stich ([1975]), explicates the notion in terms of the relative informational content of the stimulus (input) and the competence (output). The advantage of this model of innateness is that it does not make a problematic reference to normal conditions and avoids relativizing innate traits to specific populations, as biological models of innateness are (...)
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  26.  69
    Dynamics in Action: Intentional Behavior as a Complex System. [REVIEW]Muhammad Ali Khalidi & Alicia Juarrero - 2001 - Philosophical Review 110 (3):469.
    Action theory has given rise to some perplexing puzzles in the past half century. The most prominent one can be summarized as follows: What distinguishes intentional from unintentional acts? Thanks to the ingenuity of philosophers and their thought experiments, we know better than to assume that the difference lies in the mere presence of an intention, or in its causal efficacy in generating the action. The intention might be present and may also cause the intended behavior, yet the behavior may (...)
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  27.  14
    A Texture-Based Interpretation Workflow with Application to Delineating Salt Domes.Muhammad Amir Shafiq, Zhen Wang, Ghassan AlRegib, Asjad Amin & Mohamed Deriche - 2017 - Interpretation: SEG 5 (3):SJ1-SJ19.
    We propose a texture-based interpretation workflow and apply it to delineate salt domes in 3D migrated seismic volumes. First, we compute an attribute map using a novel seismic attribute, 3D gradient of textures, which measures the dissimilarity between neighboring cubes around each voxel in a seismic volume across the time or depth, crossline, and inline directions. To evaluate the texture dissimilarity, we introduce five 3D perceptual and nonperceptual dissimilarity functions. Second, we apply a global threshold on the 3D-GoT volume to (...)
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  28.  52
    Board Age and Gender Diversity: A Test of Competing Linear and Curvilinear Predictions. [REVIEW]Muhammad Ali, Yin Lu Ng & Carol T. Kulik - 2014 - Journal of Business Ethics 125 (3):1-16.
    The inconsistent findings of past board diversity research demand a test of competing linear and curvilinear diversity–performance predictions. This research focuses on board age and gender diversity, and presents a positive linear prediction based on resource dependence theory, a negative linear prediction based on social identity theory, and an inverted U-shaped curvilinear prediction based on the integration of resource dependence theory with social identity theory. The predictions were tested using archival data on 288 large organizations listed on the Australian Securities (...)
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  29.  41
    Attitudes of Medical Students Towards Incentives Offered by Pharmaceutical Companies- Perspective From a Developing Nation- a Cross Sectional Study.Usman Tariq Siddiqui, Amarah Shakoor, Sarah Kiani, Farwa Ali, Maryam Sharif, Arun Kumar, Qasim Raza, Naseer Khan, Sardar Mohammed Alamzaib & Syed Farid-ul-Husnain - 2014 - BMC Medical Ethics 15 (1):36.
    A training physician has his first interaction with a pharmaceutical representative during medical school. Medical students are often provided with small gifts such as pens, calendars and books, as well as free lunches as part of drug promotion offers. Ethical impact of these transactions as perceived by young medical students has not been investigated in Pakistan before. This study aimed to assess the association of socio-demographic variables with the attitudes of medical students towards pharmaceutical companies and their incentives.
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  30.  77
    Innateness as a Natural Cognitive Kind.Muhammad Ali Khalidi - 2016 - Philosophical Psychology 29 (3):319-333.
    Innate cognitive capacities are widely posited in cognitive science, yet both philosophers and scientists have criticized the concept of innateness as being hopelessly confused. Despite a number of recent attempts to define or characterize innateness, critics have charged that it is associated with a diverse set of properties and encourages unwarranted inferences among properties that are frequently unrelated. This criticism can be countered by showing that the properties associated with innateness cluster together in reliable ways, at least in the context (...)
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  31.  86
    Carving Nature at the Joints.Muhammad Ali Khalidi - 1993 - Philosophy of Science 60 (1):100-113.
    This paper discusses a philosophical issue in taxonomy. At least one philosopher has suggested thc taxonomic principle that scientific kinds are disjoint. An opposing position is dcfcndcd here by marshalling examples of nondisjoint categories which belong to different, cocxisting classification schcmcs. This dcnial of thc disjoinmcss principle can bc recast as thc claim that scientific classification is "int<-:rcst—rclativc". But why would anyone have held that scientific categories arc disjoint in the first place'? It is argued that this assumption is nccdcd (...)
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  32.  7
    Prediction of Life-Story Narrative for End-of-Life Surrogate’s Decision-Making is Inadequate: A Q-Methodology Study.Muhammad M. Hammami, Kafa Abuhdeeb, Muhammad B. Hammami, Sophia J. S. De Padua & Areej Al-Balkhi - 2019 - BMC Medical Ethics 20 (1):28.
    Substituted judgment assumes adequate knowledge of patient’s mind-set. However, surrogates’ prediction of individual healthcare decisions is often inadequate and may be based on shared background rather than patient-specific knowledge. It is not known whether surrogate’s prediction of patient’s integrative life-story narrative is better. Respondents in 90 family pairs rank-ordered 47 end-of-life statements as life-story narrative measure and completed instruments on decision-control preference and healthcare-outcomes acceptability as control measures, from respondent’s view and predicted pair’s view. They also scored their confidence in (...)
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  33. Against Functional Reductionism in Cognitive Science.Muhammad Ali Khalidi - 2005 - International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 19 (3):319 – 333.
    Functional reductionism concerning mental properties has recently been advocated by Jaegwon Kim in order to solve the problem of the 'causal exclusion' of the mental. Adopting a reductionist strategy first proposed by David Lewis, he regards psychological properties as being 'higher-order' properties functionally defined over 'lower-order' properties, which are causally efficacious. Though functional reductionism is compatible with the multiple realizability of psychological properties, it is blocked if psychological properties are subdivided or crosscut by neurophysiological properties. I argue that there is (...)
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  34. Muḥīuddīn Ibn-I ʻarabī Aur Un Ke Afkār: Maʻ Sayyid Muḥammad Jonpūrī, Aḥmad Shāh Abdālī ..Muḥammad ʻAbādullāh Ak̲h̲tar - 2005 - Tak̲h̲līqāt.
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  35. Knowledge, Language, Thought, and the Civilization of Islam: Essays in Honor of Syed Muhammad Naquib Al-Attas.MohdNor Wan Daud, Muhammad Zainiy Uthman & Muhammad Naguib Al-Attas (eds.) - 2010 - Utm Press.
  36. Practical Philosophy of the Muhammadan People: Exhibited in its Professed Connexion with the European, so as to Render Either an Introduction to the Other: Being a Translation of the Akhlak-I Jalaly ... From the Persian of Fakir Jany Muhammad Asaad.Jalāl al-Dīn Muḥammad ibn Asʻad Dawānī - 1839 - Karimsons.
     
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  37. Innateness and Domain Specificity.Muhammad Ali Khalidi - 2001 - Philosophical Studies 105 (2):191-210.
    There is a widespread assumption in cognitive science that there is anintrinsic link between the phenomena of innateness and domain specificity. Many authors seem to hold that given the properties of these two phenomena, it follows that innate mental states are domain-specific, or that domain-specific states are innate. My aim in this paper is to argue that there are no convincing grounds for asserting either claim. After introducing the notions of innateness and domain specificity, I consider some possible arguments for (...)
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  38. Two Concepts of Concept.Muhammad Ali Khalidi - 1995 - Mind and Language 10 (4):402-22.
    Two main theories of concepts have emerged in the recent psychological literature: the Prototype Theory (which considers concepts to be self-contained lists of features) and the Theory Theory (which conceives of them as being embedded within larger theoretical networks). Experiments supporting the first theory usually differ substantially from those supporting the second, which suggests that these the· ories may be operating at different levels of explanation and dealing with different entities. A convergence is proposed between the Theory Theory and the (...)
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  39.  92
    Should We Eliminate the Innate? Reply to Griffiths and Machery.Muhammad Ali Khalidi - 2009 - Philosophical Psychology 22 (4):505 – 519.
    Griffiths and Machery (2008) have argued that innateness is a folk notion that obstructs inquiry and has no place in contemporary science. They support their view by criticizing the canalization account of innateness (Ariew, 1999, 2006). In response, I argue that the criticisms they raise for the canalization account can be avoided by another recent account of innateness, the triggering account, which provides an analysis of the concept as it applies to cognitive capacities (Khalidi, 2002, 2007; Stich, 1975). I also (...)
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  40.  31
    Cortical Signal Analysis and Advances in Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Signal: A Review.Muhammad A. Kamran, Malik M. Naeem Mannan & Myung Yung Jeong - 2016 - Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 10.
  41.  4
    Dementia in the Bangladeshi Diaspora in England: A Qualitative Study of the Myths and Stigmas About Dementia.Muhammad Zakir Hossain & Hafiz T. A. Khan - 2019 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 25 (5):769-778.
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  42. Crosscutting Psycho-Neural Taxonomies: The Case of Episodic Memory.Muhammad Ali Khalidi - 2017 - Philosophical Explorations 20 (2):191-208.
    I will begin by proposing a taxonomy of taxonomic positions regarding the mind–brain: localism, globalism, revisionism, and contextualism, and will go on to focus on the last position. Although some versions of contextualism have been defended by various researchers, they largely limit themselves to a version of neural contextualism: different brain regions perform different functions in different neural contexts. I will defend what I call “environmental-etiological contextualism,” according to which the psychological functions carried out by various neural regions can only (...)
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  43.  10
    Stability and Convergence Analysis of Direct Adaptive Inverse Control.Muhammad Shafiq, Muhammad A. Shafiq & Hassan A. Yousef - 2017 - Complexity:1-12.
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  44.  26
    Patients’ Perceived Purpose of Clinical Informed Consent: Mill’s Individual Autonomy Model is Preferred.Muhammad M. Hammami, Eman A. Al-Gaai, Yussuf Al-Jawarneh, Hala Amer, Muhammad B. Hammami, Abdullah Eissa & Mohammad A. Qadire - 2014 - BMC Medical Ethics 15 (1):2.
    Although informed consent is an integral part of clinical practice, its current doctrine remains mostly a matter of law and mainstream ethics rather than empirical research. There are scarce empirical data on patients’ perceived purpose of informed consent, which may include administrative routine/courtesy gesture, simple honest permission, informed permission, patient-clinician shared decision-making, and enabling patient’s self decision-making. Different purposes require different processes.
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  45.  28
    Mirat-I-Ahmadi; A Persian History of Gujerat (English Translation) Translated From the Persian Original of Ali Muhammad Khan.Burton Stein, M. F. Lokhandwala & Ali Muhammad Khan - 1967 - Journal of the American Oriental Society 87 (1):76.
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  46.  75
    Review: Muhammad Ali Khalidi's Natural Categories and Human Kinds: Classification in the Natural and Social Sciences. [REVIEW]Matthew H. Slater - 2015 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 66 (4):1017-1023.
  47.  12
    Islam rahmatan lil alamin perspektif kh. hasyim muzadi.Muhammad Makmun Rasyid - 2016 - Epistemé: Jurnal Pengembangan Ilmu Keislaman 11 (1).
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  48.  84
    Consenting Options for Posthumous Organ Donation: Presumed Consent and Incentives Are Not Favored. [REVIEW]Muhammad M. Hammami, Hunaida M. Abdulhameed, Kristine A. Concepcion, Abdullah Eissa, Sumaya Hammami, Hala Amer, Abdelraheem Ahmed & Eman Al-Gaai - 2012 - BMC Medical Ethics 13 (1):32-.
    Background Posthumous organ procurement is hindered by the consenting process. Several consenting systems have been proposed. There is limited information on public relative attitudes towards various consenting systems, especially in Middle Eastern/Islamic countries. Methods We surveyed 698 Saudi Adults attending outpatient clinics at a tertiary care hospital. Preference and perception of norm regarding consenting options for posthumous organ donation were explored. Participants ranked (1, most agreeable) the following, randomly-presented, options from 1 to 11: no-organ-donation, presumed consent, informed consent by donor-only, (...)
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  49.  19
    Information Disclosure in Clinical Informed Consent: “Reasonable” Patient’s Perception of Norm in High-Context Communication Culture.Muhammad M. Hammami, Yussuf Al-Jawarneh, Muhammad B. Hammami & Mohammad Al Qadire - 2014 - BMC Medical Ethics 15 (1):3.
    The current doctrine of informed consent for clinical care has been developed in cultures characterized by low-context communication and monitoring-style coping. There are scarce empirical data on patients' norm perception of information disclosure in other cultures.
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  50.  10
    Pragmatist Inquiry in to Consumer Behaviour Research.Muhammad H. Majeed - 2019 - Philosophy of Management 18 (2):189-201.
    Consumers occasionally buy commodity products without much thought but purchase high involvement products or services after rigorous information collection and detailed comparisons of the different options. At the core, research on consumer behavior comprises studies on the cognitive processes involved in consumer purchasing decisions and the way buying decisions are made. The discipline of consumer research and marketing has remained dominated by positivist, empiricist, and realist philosophies. Since consumer behaviour is a social phenomenon, the researchers have used logical positivist and (...)
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