Results for 'unobserved covariates'

170 found
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  1.  62
    Strengthening the Case for Disease Management Effectiveness: Un‐Hiding the Hidden Bias.Ariel Linden, John L. Adams & Nancy Roberts - 2006 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 12 (2):140-147.
  2.  80
    Evaluating Disease Management Programme Effectiveness: An Introduction to Instrumental Variables.Ariel Linden & John L. Adams - 2006 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 12 (2):148-154.
  3.  22
    Propensity Score Weighting for Causal Inference with Clustered Data.Shu Yang - 2018 - Journal of Causal Inference 6 (2).
    Propensity score weighting is a tool for causal inference to adjust for measured confounders in observational studies. In practice, data often present complex structures, such as clustering, which make propensity score modeling and estimation challenging. In addition, for clustered data, there may be unmeasured cluster-level covariates that are related to both the treatment assignment and outcome. When such unmeasured cluster-specific confounders exist and are omitted in the propensity score model, the subsequent propensity score adjustment may be biased. In this (...)
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  4. The Problem of Unobserved Anomalies.Seungbae Park - 2018 - Filosofija. Sociologija 29 (1):4-12.
    Scientific antirealism, the view that successful theories are empirically adequate, is untenable in light of the problem of unobserved anomalies that since past scientists could not observe the anomalies that caused the replacement of past theories with present theories, present scientists also cannot observe the anomalies that will cause the replacement of present theories with future theories. There are several moves that antirealists would be tempted to make to get around the problem of unobserved anomalies. All of them, (...)
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  5.  25
    Biosocial Covariates of Adult Male Body Mass Index in Central India.Rajesh K. Gautam - 2007 - Journal of Biosocial Science 39 (6):875-893.
  6.  8
    Covariates of Age at First Birth in Guyana: A Hazards Model Analysis.K. Vaninadha Rao & Komanduri S. Murty - 1987 - Journal of Biosocial Science 19 (4):427-438.
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  7. Explaining the Unobserved—Why Quantum Mechanics Ain’T Only About Information.Amit Hagar & Meir Hemmo - 2006 - Foundations of Physics 36 (9):1295-1234.
    A remarkable theorem by Clifton, Bub and Halvorson (2003) (CBH) characterizes quantum theory in terms of information--theoretic principles. According to Bub (2004, 2005) the philosophical significance of the theorem is that quantum theory should be regarded as a ``principle'' theory about (quantum) information rather than a ``constructive'' theory about the dynamics of quantum systems. Here we criticize Bub's principle approach arguing that if the mathematical formalism of quantum mechanics remains intact then there is no escape route from solving the measurement (...)
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  8.  25
    Learning Measurement Models for Unobserved Variables.Ricardo Silva, Richard Scheines, Clark Glymour & Peter Spirtes - unknown
  9.  8
    Covariates of Child Mortality in Mali: Does the Health-Seeking Behaviour of the Mother Matter?Joseph Masudi Uchudi - 2001 - Journal of Biosocial Science 33 (1):33-54.
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  10.  10
    BUCKLE: A Model of Unobserved Cause Learning.Christian C. Luhmann & Woo-Kyoung Ahn - 2007 - Psychological Review 114 (3):657-677.
  11.  24
    Robust Model Selection and Estimation for Censored Survival Data with High Dimensional Genomic Covariates.Guorong Chen, Sijian Wang, Guannan Sun & Huanxue Pan - 2019 - Acta Biotheoretica 67 (3):225-251.
    When relating genomic data to survival outcomes, there are three main challenges that are the censored survival outcomes, the high-dimensionality of the genomic data, and the non-normality of data. We propose a method to tackle these challenges simultaneously and obtain a robust estimation of detecting significant genes related to survival outcomes based on Accelerated Failure Time model. Specifically, we include a general loss function to the AFT model, adopt model regularization and shrinkage technique, cope with parameters tuning and model selection, (...)
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  12.  7
    Toddlers Infer Unobserved Causes for Spontaneous Events.Paul Muentener & Laura Schulz - 2014 - Frontiers in Psychology 5.
  13.  32
    Counterfactual Graphical Models for Longitudinal Mediation Analysis With Unobserved Confounding.Ilya Shpitser - 2013 - Cognitive Science 37 (6):1011-1035.
    Questions concerning mediated causal effects are of great interest in psychology, cognitive science, medicine, social science, public health, and many other disciplines. For instance, about 60% of recent papers published in leading journals in social psychology contain at least one mediation test (Rucker, Preacher, Tormala, & Petty, 2011). Standard parametric approaches to mediation analysis employ regression models, and either the “difference method” (Judd & Kenny, 1981), more common in epidemiology, or the “product method” (Baron & Kenny, 1986), more common in (...)
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  14.  20
    Age Effects and Gaze Patterns in Recognising Emotional Expressions: An in-Depth Look at Gaze Measures and Covariates.Nora A. Murphy & Derek M. Isaacowitz - 2010 - Cognition and Emotion 24 (3):436-452.
  15. Covariates of Age at First Birth in Guyana: A Hazards Model Analysis.K. Vaninadha Rao - 1987 - Journal of Biosocial Science 19 (4):427.
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  16.  6
    Complexity in the Acceptance of Sustainable Search Engines on the Internet: An Analysis of Unobserved Heterogeneity with FIMIX-PLS.Pedro Palos-Sanchez, Felix Martin-Velicia & Jose Ramon Saura - 2018 - Complexity 2018:1-19.
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  17.  21
    Causal Inference When Observed and Unobserved Causes Interact.Benjamin M. Rottman & Woo-Kyoung Ahn - 2009 - In N. A. Taatgen & H. van Rijn (eds.), Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. pp. 1477--1482.
    When a cause interacts with unobserved factors to produce an effect, the contingency between the observed cause and effect cannot be taken at face value to infer causality. Yet, it would be computationally intractable to consider all possible unobserved, interacting factors. Nonetheless, two experiments found that when an unobserved cause is assumed to be fairly stable over time, people can learn about such interactions and adjust their inferences about the causal efficacy of the observed cause. When they (...)
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  18. The Adjustment of Covariates in Cox’s Model Under Case-Cohort Design.Guocai Rong, Luwei Tang, Wenting Luo, Qing Li & Lifeng Deng - 2020 - Complexity 2020:1-16.
    Case-cohort design is a biased sampling method. Due to its cost-effective and theoretical significance, this design has extensive application value in many large cohort studies. The case-cohort data includes a subcohort sampled randomly from the entire cohort and all the failed subjects outside the subcohort. In this paper, the adjustment for the distorted covariates is considered to case-cohort data in Cox’s model. According to the existing adjustable methods of distorted covariates for linear and nonlinear models, we propose estimating (...)
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  19.  25
    Addition of Time‐Dependent Covariates to a Survival Model Significantly Improved Predictions for Daily Risk of Hospital Death.Jenna Wong, Monica Taljaard, Alan J. Forster, Gabriel J. Escobar & Carl van Walraven - 2013 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 19 (2):351-357.
  20.  15
    Socioeconomic Changes as Covariates of Overweight and Obesity Among Tangkhul Naga Tribal Women of Manipur, North-East India.N. K. Mungreiphy & Satwanti Kapoor - 2010 - Journal of Biosocial Science 42 (3):289-305.
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  21.  11
    Bayesian Sensitivity Models for Missing Covariates in the Analysis of Survival Data.Karla Hemming & Jane Luise Hutton - 2012 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 18 (2):238-246.
  22.  28
    Belief in Unobserved Contemporary Reality: A Realistic Experiential Analysis.Victor Lowe - 1953 - Journal of Philosophy 50 (18):541-556.
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  23.  14
    Analysing Cross-Sectional Data with Time-Dependent Covariates: The Case of Age at First Birth in South Africa.Acheampong Yaw Amoateng, I. Kalule-Sabiti & Prudence Ditlopo - 2003 - Journal of Biosocial Science 35 (3):353-367.
    Analysing time-dependent independent variables requires the use of process-oriented statistical models. Yet social scientists have often had to use data collected at a single point in time, making their task difficult. Making several assumptions about the covariates, the present study uses survival analysis and other statistical techniques to analyse the 1996 South African population census data and examine the effects of selected independent variables on the timing of parenthood in the country. It was found that the onset of parenthood (...)
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  24.  3
    A Gaussian Process Framework for Overlap and Causal Effect Estimation with High-Dimensional Covariates.Debashis Ghosh & Efrén Cruz Cortés - 2019 - Journal of Causal Inference 7 (2).
    A powerful tool for the analysis of nonrandomized observational studies has been the potential outcomes model. Utilization of this framework allows analysts to estimate average treatment effects. This article considers the situation in which high-dimensional covariates are present and revisits the standard assumptions made in causal inference. We show that by employing a flexible Gaussian process framework, the assumption of strict overlap leads to very restrictive assumptions about the distribution of covariates, results for which can be characterized using (...)
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  25. When and How Do People Reason About Unobserved Causes.B. M. Rottman, Woo-Kyoung Ahn & C. C. Luhmann - 2011 - In Phyllis McKay Illari, Federica Russo & Jon Williamson (eds.), Causality in the Sciences. Oxford University Press. pp. 150.
     
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  26.  6
    A Hazard Logit Model Analysis of Covariates of Childhood Mortality in Matlab, Bangladesh.Abbas Bhuiya & Kim Streatfield - 1992 - Journal of Biosocial Science 24 (4):447-462.
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  27.  3
    Retraction Note To: Robust Model Selection and Estimation for Censored Survival Data with High Dimensional Genomic Covariates.Guorong Chen, Sijian Wang, Guannan Sun & Huanxue Pan - 2020 - Acta Biotheoretica 68 (2):295-295.
    The authors have retracted this article [1] because they found a fundamental mistake in the methodology that is not correctable at this time. This mistake is found in the methodology and the derivation of the model with Tukey and Huber’s losses. Because of the error, the findings in the article are not reliable. All authors agree to this retraction.
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  28.  13
    Opportunity for Natural Selection Among the Indian Population: Secular Trend, Covariates and Implications.Rajesh K. Gautam - 2009 - Journal of Biosocial Science 41 (6):705.
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  29.  18
    The Force of Hume’s Skepticism About Unobserved Matters of Fact.John Greco - 1998 - Journal of Philosophical Research 23:289-306.
    According to a popular objection, Hume assumes that only deductive inferences can generate knowledge and reasonable belief, and so Hume’s skepticism can be avoided by simply recognizing the role of inductive inferences in empirical matters. This paper offers an interpretation of Hume’s skepticism that avoids this objection. The resulting skeptical argument is a powerful one in the following sense: it is not at all obvious where the argument goes wrong, and responding to the argument forces us to adopt a substantive (...)
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  30.  78
    The Force of Hume’s Skepticism About Unobserved Matters of Fact.John Greco - 1998 - Journal of Philosophical Research 23:289-306.
    According to a popular objection, Hume assumes that only deductive inferences can generate knowledge and reasonable belief, and so Hume’s skepticism can be avoided by simply recognizing the role of inductive inferences in empirical matters. This paper offers an interpretation of Hume’s skepticism that avoids this objection. The resulting skeptical argument is a powerful one in the following sense: it is not at all obvious where the argument goes wrong, and responding to the argument forces us to adopt a substantive (...)
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  31.  11
    The Invisible Hand: Toddlers Connect Probabilistic Events With Agentive Causes.Yang Wu, Paul Muentener & Laura E. Schulz - 2016 - Cognitive Science 40 (8):1854-1876.
    Children posit unobserved causes when events appear to occur spontaneously. What about when events appear to occur probabilistically? Here toddlers saw arbitrary causal relationships in a fixed, alternating order. The relationships were then changed in one of two ways. In the Deterministic condition, the event order changed ; in the Probabilistic condition, the causal relationships changed. As intended, toddlers looked equally long at both changes. We then introduced a previously unseen candidate cause. Toddlers looked longer at the appearance of (...)
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  32. Reason-Based Choice and Context-Dependence: An Explanatory Framework.Franz Dietrich & Christian List - 2016 - Economics and Philosophy 32 (2):175-229.
    We introduce a “reason-based” framework for explaining and predicting individual choices. It captures the idea that a decision-maker focuses on some but not all properties of the options and chooses an option whose motivationally salient properties he/she most prefers. Reason-based explanations allow us to distinguish between two kinds of context-dependent choice: the motivationally salient properties may (i) vary across choice contexts, and (ii) include not only “intrinsic” properties of the options, but also “context-related” properties. Our framework can accommodate boundedly rational (...)
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  33.  17
    Humeanisms: metaphysical and epistemological.Aaron Segal - forthcoming - Synthese:1-21.
    Classic inductive skepticism–the epistemological claim that we have no good reason to believe that the unobserved resembles the observed–is plausibly everyone’s lot, whether or not they embrace Hume’s metaphysical claim that distinct existents are “entirely loose and separate”. But contemporary advocates of a Humean metaphysic accept a metaphysical claim stronger than Hume’s own. I argue that their view plausibly gives rise to a radical inductive skepticism–according to which we are downright irrational in believing as we do about the (...)–that we don’t otherwise have reason to accept. The Metaphysical Neo-Humean is in an epistemological quagmire all her own. (shrink)
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  34.  84
    Reason and Prediction.Simon Blackburn - 1973 - London: Cambridge University Press.
    An original study of the philosophical problems associated with inductive reasoning. Like most of the main questions in epistemology, the classical problem of induction arises from doubts about a mode of inference used to justify some of our most familiar and pervasive beliefs. The experience of each individual is limited and fragmentary, yet the scope of our beliefs is much wider; and it is the relation between belief and experience, in particular the belief that the future will in some respects (...)
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  35. On the Methods of Cognitive Neuropsychology.Clark Glymour - 1994 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 45 (3):815-35.
    Contemporary cognitive neuropsychology attempts to infer unobserved features of normal human cognition, or ?cognitive architecture?, from experiments with normals and with brain-damaged subjects in whom certain normal cognitive capacities are altered, diminished, or absent. Fundamental methodological issues about the enterprise of cognitive neuropsychology concern the characterization of methods by which features of normal cognitive architecture can be identified from such data, the assumptions upon which the reliability of such methods are premised, and the limits of such methods?even granting their (...)
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  36.  66
    Ethics Codes and Sales Professionals' Perceptions of Their Organizations' Ethical Values.Sean Valentine & Tim Barnett - 2002 - Journal of Business Ethics 40 (3):191 - 200.
    Most large companies and many smaller ones have adopted ethics codes, but the evidence is mixed as to whether they have a positive impact on the behavior of employees. We suggest that one way that ethics codes could contribute to ethical behavior is by influencing the perceptions that employees have about the ethical values of organizations. We examine whether a group of sales professionals in organizations with ethics codes perceive that their organizational context is more supportive of ethical behavior than (...)
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  37. Hume on Causation.Helen Beebee - 2006 - Routledge.
    Hume is traditionally credited with inventing the ‘regularity theory’ of causation, according to which the causal relation between two events consists merely in the fact that events of the first kind are always followed by events of the second kind. Hume is also traditionally credited with two other, hugely influential positions: the view that the world appears to us as a world of unconnected events, and inductive scepticism: the view that the ‘problem of induction’, the problem of providing a justification (...)
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  38.  33
    Inferring Hidden Causal Structure.Tamar Kushnir, Alison Gopnik, Chris Lucas & Laura Schulz - 2010 - Cognitive Science 34 (1):148-160.
    We used a new method to assess how people can infer unobserved causal structure from patterns of observed events. Participants were taught to draw causal graphs, and then shown a pattern of associations and interventions on a novel causal system. Given minimal training and no feedback, participants in Experiment 1 used causal graph notation to spontaneously draw structures containing one observed cause, one unobserved common cause, and two unobserved independent causes, depending on the pattern of associations and (...)
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  39.  17
    The Principle of Anomaly in Quantum Mechanics.Hans Reichenbach - 1948 - Dialectica 2 (3‐4):337-350.
    SummaryThe following two questions are examined: 1o Do the unobservable parameters possess precise, though unknown, values ? 2o If these unobservable values were known, would it be possible to make precise predictions of the reults of later measurements ?The answer is shown to be negative; the questions, therefore, are not meaningless, being capable of a falsification. The inquiry leads to the establishment of a principle of anomaly, more precisely speaking, of causal anomaly, which is to be added to Heisenberg's principle (...)
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  40. Building an Ethical Environment Improves Patient Privacy and Satisfaction in the Crowded Emergency Department: A Quasi-Experimental Study. [REVIEW]Yen-Ko Lin, Wei-Che Lee, Liang-Chi Kuo, Yuan-Chia Cheng, Chia-Ju Lin, Hsing-Lin Lin, Chao-Wen Chen & Tsung-Ying Lin - 2013 - BMC Medical Ethics 14 (1):8-.
    Background: To evaluate the effectiveness of a multifaceted intervention in improving emergency department (ED) patient privacy and satisfaction in the crowded ED setting. Methods: A pre- and post-intervention study was conducted. A multifaceted intervention was implemented in a university-affiliated hospital ED. The intervention developed strategies to improve ED patient privacy and satisfaction, including redesigning the ED environment, process management, access control, and staff education and training, and encouraging ethics consultation. The effectiveness of the intervention was evaluated using patient surveys. Eligibility (...)
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  41.  72
    Uniform Consistency in Causal Inference.Richard Scheines & Peter Spirtes - unknown
    S There is a long tradition of representing causal relationships by directed acyclic graphs (Wright, 1934 ). Spirtes ( 1994), Spirtes et al. ( 1993) and Pearl & Verma ( 1991) describe procedures for inferring the presence or absence of causal arrows in the graph even if there might be unobserved confounding variables, and/or an unknown time order, and that under weak conditions, for certain combinations of directed acyclic graphs and probability distributions, are asymptotically, in sample size, consistent. These (...)
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  42.  31
    Tax Practitioners' Ethical Sensitivity: A Model and Empirical Examination. [REVIEW]Scott A. Yetmar & Kenneth K. Eastman - 2000 - Journal of Business Ethics 26 (4):271 - 288.
    Ethical sensitivity triggers the entire ethical decision-making process (i.e., recognition of ethical content in work situations). In this article, five factors are examined that affect tax practitioners' professional ethical sensitivity. The five factors that were examined include role conflict, role ambiguity, job satisfaction, professional commitment, and ethical orientation. Ethical content in work situations is examined in relation to professional ethics as enumerated by the American Institute of Certified Public Accountant's (AICPA) Statements on Responsibilities in Tax Practice (SRTP). Utilizing Hunt and (...)
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  43. Sextus Empiricus: Against the Logicians.Richard Bett (ed.) - 2005 - Cambridge University Press.
    Sextus Empiricus' Against the Logicians is by far the most detailed surviving examination by any ancient Greek sceptic of the areas of epistemology and logic. It critically examines the pretensions of non-sceptical philosophers to have discovered methods for determining the truth, either through direct observation or by inference from the observed to the unobserved. It is therefore a fine example of the Pyrrhonist sceptical method at work. It also provides a mine of information about the ideas of other Greek (...)
     
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  44.  51
    Reichenbach's Common Cause Principle.Frank Arntzenius - 2008 - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    Suppose that two geysers, about one mile apart, erupt at irregular intervals, but usually erupt almost exactly at the same time. One would suspect that they come from a common source, or at least that there is a common cause of their eruptions. And this common cause surely acts before both eruptions take place. This idea, that simultaneous correlated events must have prior common causes, was first made precise by Hans Reichenbach (Reichenbach 1956). It can be used to infer the (...)
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  45.  21
    On the Completeness of Orientation Rules for Causal Discovery in the Presence of Latent Confounders and Selection Bias.Jiji Zhang - 2008 - Artificial Intelligence 172 (16-17):1873-1896.
    Causal discovery becomes especially challenging when the possibility of latent confounding and/or selection bias is not assumed away. For this task, ancestral graph models are particularly useful in that they can represent the presence of latent confounding and selection effect, without explicitly invoking unobserved variables. Based on the machinery of ancestral graphs, there is a provably sound causal discovery algorithm, known as the FCI algorithm, that allows the possibility of latent confounders and selection bias. However, the orientation rules used (...)
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  46.  19
    The Impact of Relative Position and Relational Closeness on the Reporting of Unethical Acts.Diane L. Miller & Stuart Thomas - 2005 - Journal of Business Ethics 61 (4):315-328.
    Empowerment and teamwork are buzzwords of progressive human resource practices. Along with these new job design methods come reduced hierarchical control mechanisms. In light of recent ethical scandals, there is considerable concern regarding the effectiveness of the control systems of these more recent work designs. This study compared the willingness of participants to report unethical behavior when presented with work scenarios in which the perpetrator was in the relative position of team member, peer, or subordinate and in cohesive or non-cohesive (...)
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  47.  61
    The Financial Performance of a Socially Responsible Investment Over Time and a Possible Link with Corporate Social Responsibility.Greig A. Mill - 2006 - Journal of Business Ethics 63 (2):131-148.
    This paper empirically examines the financial performance of a UK unit trust that was initially “conventional” and later adopted socially responsible investment (SRI) principles (ethical investment principles). Comparison is made with three similar conventional funds whose investment objectives remained unchanged. Analysis techniques employed in previous studies find similar results: mean risk-adjusted performance is unchanged by the switch to SRI, with no evidence of over-or under-performance relative to the benchmark market index by any of the four funds. More interestingly, changes in (...)
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  48.  5
    ‘Lower Than a Snake’s Belly’: Discursive Constructions of Dignity and Heroism in Low-Status Garbage Work.Peter Hamilton, Tom Redman & Robert McMurray - 2019 - Journal of Business Ethics 156 (4):889-901.
    In this paper, we consider how dignity is discursively constructed in the context of work dominated by physicality and dirt. Based on semi-structured interviews with garbage workers, our analysis considers how the deprivations they experience are cast through discourses intended to construct their individual and collective worth. We consider the manner in which dignity maybe denied to such workers through popular repudiations of individuality and status. We demonstrate how this positioning arises from contact with physical dirt, and associations with socially (...)
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  49.  27
    Educational Video-Assisted Versus Conventional Informed Consent for Trauma-Related Debridement Surgery: A Parallel Group Randomized Controlled Trial.Yen-Ko Lin, Chao-Wen Chen, Wei-Che Lee, Yuan-Chia Cheng, Tsung-Ying Lin, Chia-Ju Lin, Leiyu Shi, Yin-Chun Tien & Liang-Chi Kuo - 2018 - BMC Medical Ethics 19 (1):23.
    We investigated whether, in the emergency department, educational video-assisted informed consent is superior to the conventional consent process, to inform trauma patients undergoing surgery about the procedure, benefits, risks, alternatives, and postoperative care. We conducted a prospective randomized controlled trial, with superiority study design. All trauma patients scheduled to receive trauma-related debridement surgery in the ED of Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital were included. Patients were assigned to one of two education protocols. Participants in the intervention group watched an educational video (...)
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  50.  72
    Quark Quantum Numbers and the Problem of Microphysical Observation.K. S. Shrader-Frechette - 1982 - Synthese 50 (1):125 - 145.
    The main question addressed in this essay is whether quarks have been observed in any sense and, if so, what might be meant by this use of the term, observation. In the first (or introductory) section of the paper, I explain that well-known researchers are divided on the answers to these important questions. In the second section, I investigate microphysical observation in general. Here I argue that Wilson's analogy between observation by means of high-energy accelerators and observation by means of (...)
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