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  1. Samuel Clarke.Timothy Yenter - 2020 - In Dana Jalobeanu & Charles T. Wolfe (eds.), Encyclopedia of Early Modern Philosophy and the Sciences.
    Samuel Clarke (1675–1729) profoundly shaped early eighteenth-century European philosophy with an a priori demonstration of the existence of God and influential defenses of substance dualism and human freedom. Throughout his works, he defended absolute space, the passivity of matter, and constant divine activity in the world, which jointly provided a metaphysical basis for the quickly popularizing Newtonian thought.
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  2. The Influence of Classical Stoicism on John Locke’s Theory of Self-Ownership.Lisa Hill & Prasanna Nidumolu - forthcoming - History of the Human Sciences:095269512091064.
    The most important parent of the idea of property in the person is undoubtedly John Locke. In this article, we argue that the origins of this idea can be traced back as far as the third century BCE, to classical Stoicism. Stoic cosmopolitanism, with its insistence on impartiality and the moral equality of all persons, lays the foundation for the idea of self-ownership, which is then given support in the doctrine of oikeiosis and the corresponding belief that nature had made (...)
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  3. Cybernetics for the Command Economy: Foregrounding Entropy in Late Soviet Planning.Diana Kurkovsky West - 2020 - History of the Human Sciences 33 (1):36-51.
    The Soviet Union had a long and complex relationship with cybernetics, especially in the domain of planning. This article looks at Soviet postwar efforts to draw up plans for the rapidly developing, industrializing, and urbanizing Siberia, where cybernetic models were used to develop a vision of cybernetic socialism. Removed from Moscow bureaucracy and politics, the various planning institutes of the Siberian Academy of Sciences became a key frontier for exploring the potential of cybernetic thinking to offer a necessary corrective to (...)
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  4. Textocracy, or, the Cybernetic Logic of French Theory.Bernard Dionysius Geoghegan - 2020 - History of the Human Sciences 33 (1):52-79.
    This article situates the emergence of cybernetic concepts in postwar French thought within a longer history of struggles surrounding the technocratic reform of French universities, including Marcel Mauss’s failed efforts to establish a large-scale centre for social-scientific research with support from the Rockefeller Foundation, the intellectual and administrative endeavours of Claude Lévi-Strauss during the 1940s and 1950s, and the rise of communications research in connection with the Centre d’Études des Communications de Masse. Although semioticians and poststructuralists used cybernetic discourse critically (...)
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  5. How Disunity Matters to the History of Cybernetics in the Human Sciences in the United States, 1940–80.Ronald Kline - 2020 - History of the Human Sciences 33 (1):12-35.
    Rather than assume a unitary cybernetics, I ask how its disunity mattered to the history of the human sciences in the United States from about 1940 to 1980. I compare the work of four prominent social scientists – Herbert Simon, George Miller, Karl Deutsch, and Talcott Parsons – who created cybernetic models in psychology, economics, political science, and sociology with the work of anthropologist Gregory Bateson, and relate their interpretations of cybernetics to those of such well-known cyberneticians as Norbert Wiener, (...)
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  6. Cybernetic Times: Norbert Wiener, John Stroud, and the ‘Brain Clock’ Hypothesis.Henning Schmidgen - 2020 - History of the Human Sciences 33 (1):80-108.
    In 1955, Norbert Wiener suggested a sociological model according to which all forms of culture ultimately depended on the temporal coordination of human activities, in particular their synchronization. The basis for Wiener’s model was provided by his insights into the temporal structures of cerebral processes. This article reconstructs the historical context of Wiener’s ‘brain clock’ hypothesis, largely via his dialogues with John W. Stroud and other scholars working at the intersection of neurophysiology, experimental psychology, and electrical engineering. Since the 19th (...)
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  7. Design as Aesthetic Education: On the Politics and Aesthetics of Learning Environments.Christina Vagt - 2020 - History of the Human Sciences 33 (1):175-187.
    The article, speaking from the double perspective of media history and political aesthetics, discusses the impact of behaviourism and early computer technology on the design of learning environments in the United States after the Second World War. By revisiting B. F. Skinner’s approaches to behavioural techniques and cultural engineering, and by showing how these principles were applied first at US design departments, and later to prison education, it argues that cybernetic and behavioural techniques merged in the common field of design (...)
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  8. ‘Ghastly Marionettes’ and the Political Metaphysics of Cognitive Liberalism: Anti-Behaviourism, Language, and the Origins of Totalitarianism.Danielle Judith Zola Carr - 2020 - History of the Human Sciences 33 (1):147-174.
    While behaviourist psychology had proven its worth to the US military during the Second World War, the 1950s saw behaviourism increasingly associated with a Cold War discourse of ‘totalitarianism’. This article considers the argument made in Hannah Arendt’s The Origins of Totalitarianism on totalitarianism as a form of behaviourist control. By connecting Arendt’s Cold War anti-behaviourism both to its discursive antecedents in a Progressive-era critique of industrial labour, and to contemporaneous attacks on behaviourism, this paper aims to answer two interlocking (...)
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  9. What is the ‘Cybernetic’ in the ‘History of Cybernetics’? A French Case, 1968 to the Present.Jacob Krell - 2020 - History of the Human Sciences 33 (1):188-211.
    This article examines the history of cybernetics in France, and the history of French cybernetics in the context of the emergent field of the history of cybernetics. Drawing upon an unfamiliar group of intellectuals and sources, I discuss the way in which French cybernetics was not primarily the hyper-philosophical strain we have come to associate with names such as Derrida and Lévi-Strauss, but an approach to thinking through political and social problems that some on the left would even deign to (...)
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  10. The Political Theology of Entropy: A Katechon for the Cybernetic Age.David Bates - 2020 - History of the Human Sciences 33 (1):109-127.
    The digital revolution invites a reconsideration of the very essence of politics. How can we think about decision, control, and will at a time when technologies of automation are transforming every dimension of human life, from military combat to mental attention, from financial systems to the intimate lives of individuals? This article looks back to a moment in the 20th century when the concept of the political as an independent logic was developed, in a time when the boundaries and operations (...)
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  11. Automatic Leviathan: Cybernetics and Politics in Carl Schmitt’s Postwar Writings.Nicolas Guilhot - 2020 - History of the Human Sciences 33 (1):128-146.
    This article questions the current vogue of Carl Schmitt among political theorists who read him as an antidote to the depoliticizing force of economics and technology in the age of neoliberalism and its algorithmic rationalities. It takes Schmitt’s sparse reflections about cybernetics and game theory as paradigmatic of the theoretical and political problems raised by any theory positing the autonomy of the political. It suggests that this ultimately misunderstands the role of cybernetic representations of political decision-making in shoring up in (...)
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  12. Cybernetics and the Human Sciences.Stefanos Geroulanos & Leif Weatherby - 2020 - History of the Human Sciences 33 (1):3-11.
    Cybernetics saturates the humanities. Norbert Wiener’s movement gave vocabulary and hardware to developments all across the early digital era, and still does so today to those who seek to interpret it. Even while the Macy Conferences were still taking place in the early 1950s, talk of feedback and information and pattern had spread to popular culture – and to Europe. The new science created a shared language and culture for surpassing political and intellectual ideas that could be relegated to a (...)
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  13. Kinsey and the Psychoanalysts: Cross-Disciplinary Knowledge Production in Post-War US Sex Research.Katie Sutton - forthcoming - History of the Human Sciences:095269512091159.
    The historical forces of war and migration impacted heavily on the disciplinary locations, practitioners, and structures of sexology and psychoanalysis that had developed in the first decades of the 20th century. By the late 1940s, the US was fast becoming the world centre of each of these prominent fields within the modern human sciences. During these years, the work of Alfred C. Kinsey and his team became synonymous with a distinctly North American brand of empirical sex research. This article offers (...)
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  14. More Than a Case of Mistaken Identity: Adult Entertainment and the Making of Early Sexology.Sarah Bull - forthcoming - History of the Human Sciences:095269512090395.
    Sexology emerged as a discipline during a period of keen concern about the social effects of sexually explicit media. In this context, sex researchers and their allies took pains to establish the respectability of their work, a process that often involved positioning sexual science in opposition to erotic literature and images. This article argues that this presentation of sexual science obfuscated sex researchers’ complex relationship with erotic print culture, which during the late 19th and early 20th centuries provided sexual scientists (...)
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  15. The Case History in the Colonies.Erik Linstrum - forthcoming - History of the Human Sciences:095269511989360.
    The case history in the colonial context was a hybrid form, caught between bureaucratic pressures toward racialization, aggregation, and generalization, on the one hand, and the individualistic bias of the genre, on the other. This tension posed a problem for colonial rulers. In their drive to harvest neat, ideologically reliable knowledge about the minds of colonial subjects, officials and researchers in the 20th-century British Empire read case histories in selective ways, pared them down to simplistic fables, and ultimately bypassed them (...)
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  16. Chemins du Cartésianisme, Edited by Antonella Del Prete and Raffaele Carbone, 2017.Mattia Mantovani - 2020 - Early Science and Medicine 25 (1):94-99.
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  17. Mechanism: A Visual, Lexical, and Conceptual History, Written by Domenico Bertoloni Meli, 2019.Fabrizio Baldassarri - 2020 - Early Science and Medicine 25 (1):91-93.
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  18. An Alchemical Quest for Universal Knowledge. The ‘Christian Philosophy’ of Jan Baptist Van Helmont (1579-1644), Written by Georgiana D. Hedesan, 2016. [REVIEW]Lyke de Vries - 2020 - Early Science and Medicine 25 (1):88-90.
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  19. L’Homme Parfait: L’Anthropologie Médicale de Harvey, Riolan, Et Perrault (1628-1688), Written by Sarah Carvallo, 2017.Anita Guerrini - 2020 - Early Science and Medicine 25 (1):85-87.
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  20. Astrolabes in Medieval Cultures, Edited by Josefina Rodriguez-Arribas, Charles Burnett, Silke Ackermann, and Ryan Szpiech, 2019.Margaret E. Gaida - 2020 - Early Science and Medicine 25 (1):76-79.
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  21. Drugs on the Page: Pharmacopoeias and Healing Knowledge in the Early Modern Atlantic World, Edited by Matthew James Crawford and Joseph M. Gabriel, 2019.Jole Shackelford - 2020 - Early Science and Medicine 25 (1):80-84.
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  22. Reproduction: Antiquity to the Present Day, Edited by Nick Hopwood, Rebecca Flemming, and Lauren Kassell, 2018.R. Allen Shotwell - 2020 - Early Science and Medicine 25 (1):73-75.
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  23. From the King’s Two Bodies to the People’s Two Bodies: Spinoza on the Body Politic.Marin Terpstra - 2020 - Early Science and Medicine 25 (1):46-71.
    In this article, using Spinoza’s treatment of the image of the political body, I aim to show what happens to the concept of a healthy commonwealth linked to a monarchist model of political order when transformed into a new context: the emergence of a democratic political order. The traditional representation of the body politic becomes problematic when people, understood as individual natural bodies, are taken as the starting point in political theory. Spinoza’s understanding of the composite body, and the assumption (...)
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  24. The Body Politic Metaphor in Communal and Post-Communal Italy – Some Remarks on the Case of Lombardy.Andrea Gamberini - 2020 - Early Science and Medicine 25 (1):8-21.
    This paper uses the body politic metaphor to explore the dialectic of power between different political players in communal and post-communal Lombardy. On the one hand, notions of corporeal links, drawing upon an ancient and venerable tradition, were key strands of public debate on state formation in the Late Middle Ages. On the other hand, there were distinctively communal and post-communal discourses based upon the body politic metaphor. My purpose is to investigate all of these aspects through analysis of the (...)
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  25. The Political Thinker as a Civil Physician: Some Thoughts on Marsilius of Padua and Machiavelli Beyond Leo Strauss’ Al-F'r'bî.Alessandro Mulieri - 2020 - Early Science and Medicine 25 (1):22-45.
    While scholars have widely acknowledged a reliance on medical language in the political theories of Marsilius of Padua and Niccolò Machiavelli, they have rarely investigated the epistemological status of this appropriation. Questioning Leo Strauss’ claim that Jewish-Arabic Platonic ideas on the philosopher-king could have been a possible model for Marsilius and Machiavelli, this paper aims to show that the use of medical language by Marsilius of Padua and Machiavelli entails a form of political knowledge that is decidedly at odds with (...)
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  26. The Body Politic From Medieval Lombardy to the Dutch Republic: An Introduction.Vasileios Syros - 2020 - Early Science and Medicine 25 (1):1-7.
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  27. Organism and Environment in Auguste Comte.Ryan McVeigh - forthcoming - History of the Human Sciences:095269512091790.
    This article focuses on Auguste Comte’s understanding of the organism–environment relationship. It makes three key claims therein: Comte’s metaphysical position privileged materiality and relativized the intellect along two dimensions: one related to the biological organism, one related to the social environment; this twofold materiality confounds attempts to reduce cognition to either nature or nurture, so Comte’s position has interesting parallels to the field of ‘epigenetics’, which sees the social environment as a causative factor in biology; and although Comte ultimately diverged (...)
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  28. Cold War Pavlov: Homosexual Aversion Therapy in the 1960s.Kate Davison - forthcoming - History of the Human Sciences:095269512091159.
    Homosexual aversion therapy enjoyed two brief but intense periods of clinical experimentation: between 1950 and 1962 in Czechoslovakia, and between 1962 and 1975 in the British Commonwealth. The specific context of its emergence was the geopolitical polarization of the Cold War and a parallel polarization within psychological medicine between Pavlovian and Freudian paradigms. In 1949, the Pavlovian paradigm became the guiding doctrine in the Communist bloc, characterized by a psychophysiological or materialist understanding of mental illness. It was taken up by (...)
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  29. Within a Single Lifetime: Recent Writings on Autism.Gregory Hollin - forthcoming - History of the Human Sciences:095269512091579.
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  30. Review on Avicenna’s philosophy of science (with approach of Seyyed Hossein Nasr). [REVIEW]Majid Asadpour - 2013 - Farhange Islami 3:122-140.
    This review is about some important ideas of famous Muslim philosopher, Avicenna about science and its philosophy on base of idea and works of Dr. Seyyed Hossein Nasr.
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  31. Proving Nothing and Illustrating Much: The Case of Michael Balint.Shaul Bar-Haim - forthcoming - History of the Human Sciences:095269511989835.
    John Forrester’s book Thinking in Cases does not provide one ultimate definition of what it means to ‘think in cases’, but rather several alternatives: a ‘style of reasoning’, ‘paradigms’ or ‘exemplars’, and ‘language games’, to mention only a few. But for Forrester, the stories behind each of the figures who suggested these different models for thinking are as important as the models themselves. In other words, the question for Forrester is not only what ‘thinking in cases’ is, but also who (...)
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  32. Periodical Amnesia and Dédoublement in Case-Reasoning: Writing Psychological Cases in Late 19th-Century France.Kim M. Hajek - forthcoming - History of the Human Sciences:095269512090462.
    The psychoanalytical case history was in many ways the pivot point of John Forrester’s reflections on case-based reasoning. Yet the Freudian case is not without its own textual forebears. This article closely analyses texts from two earlier case-writing traditions in order to elucidate some of the negotiations by which the case history as a textual form came to articulate the mode of reasoning that we now call ‘thinking in cases’. It reads Eugène Azam’s 1876 observation of Félida X and her (...)
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  33. Problem Aksiologis Penggunaan Subjek Manusia Dalam Kasus Hipotermia Nazi.Banin Diar Sukmono - 2017 - Cogito: Jurnal Mahasiswa Filsafat 4 (1):45-57.
    Artikel ini bertujuan untuk memperlihatkan pentingnya prinsip penghargaan atas subjek dalam penelitian ilmiah. Dengan menjadikan kasus hipotermia Nazi sebagai contoh, artikel ini akan menunjukkan masalah yang terjadi saat prinsip penghargaan atas subjek absen dalam andaian aksiologis penelitian. Metode yang digunakan dalam artikel ini adalah evaluasi kritis dalam tataran prinsip dan kerangka riset. Hasil evaluasi menunjukkan bahwa ketidakhadiran prinsip penghargaan atas subjek adalah konsekuensi logis atas lemahnya kerangka riset yang dijalankan Nazi dalam penelitian hipotermianya. Dengan kata lain, problem non-epistemik yang tidak (...)
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  34. Bogdanov and the Theory of Two Sciences.Agustin Ostachuk - 2015 - Sociologia Em Rede 5 (5):114-118.
    What is the relation between science and ideology? Are they incompatible, complementary or the same thing? Should science avoid “contamination” from ideology? Is there an only way to do science? Does anyone of them lead to the same results and give us the same view of the world? We will focus on the figure of Alexander Bogdanov, Russian physician and philosopher, in order to discuss these and other relevant topics. His theories gave birth to what may be called later “the (...)
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  35. The Theory of Two Sciences: Bourgeois and Proletarian Science.Agustin Ostachuk - 2015 - Revista Iberoamericana de Ciencia, Tecnología y Sociedad 10 (Suppl 1):191-194.
    What is the relation between science and ideology? Are they incompatible, complementary or the same thing? Should science avoid “contamination” from ideology? Is there an only way to do science? Does anyone of them lead to the same results and give us the same view of the world? We will focus on the figure of Alexander Bogdanov, Russian physician and philosopher, in order to discuss these and other relevant topics. His theories gave birth to what may be called later “the (...)
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  36. “Dimensionality, Symmetry, and the Inverse Square Law” (with Rex Ramsier), April 2020 (E-Print).Dimitria Gatzia - forthcoming - Notes and Records: Royal Society Journal of the History of Science.
    Kant suggested that Newton’s Inverse Square Law (ISL) determines the dimensions of space to be three. Much has been written in the philosophical literature about Kant’s suggestion, including specific arguments attempting to link the ISL to three-dimensionality. In this paper, we explore one such argument and demonstrate that it fails to support the link Kant purports to make between the ISL and the three-dimensionality of space. At best, the link that can be made is between the ISL and symmetry.
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  37. Dehumanization, Disability, and Eugenics.Robert A. Wilson - forthcoming - In Maria E. Kronfeldner (ed.), Routledge Handbook of Dehumanization. New York, NY, USA:
    This paper explores the relationship between eugenics, disability, and dehumanization, with a focus on forms of eugenics beyond Nazi eugenics.
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  38. Sociobiology.Robert A. Wilson - 2014 - Eugenics Archive.
  39. Eugenic Family Studies.Robert A. Wilson - 2014 - Eugenic Archives.
  40. Eugenics.Robert A. Wilson - 2014 - Eugenics Archive.
  41. ‘Supposing That Truth is a Woman, What Then?’: The Lie Detector, the Love Machine, and the Logic of Fantasy.Geoffrey C. Bunn - 2019 - History of the Human Sciences 32 (5):135-163.
    One of the consequences of the public outcry over the 1929 St Valentine’s Day massacre was the establishment of a Scientific Crime Detection Laboratory at Northwestern University. The photogenic ‘Lie Detector Man’, Leonarde Keeler, was the laboratory’s poster boy, and his instrument the jewel in the crown of forensic science. The press often depicted Keeler gazing at a female suspect attached to his ‘sweat box’, a galvanometer electrode in her hand, a sphygmomanometer cuff on her arm and a rubber pneumograph (...)
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  42. On ‘Modified Human Agents’: John Lilly and the Paranoid Style in American Neuroscience.Charlie Williams - 2019 - History of the Human Sciences 32 (5):84-107.
    The personal papers of the neurophysiologist John C. Lilly at Stanford University hold a classified paper he wrote in the late 1950s on the behavioural modification and control of ‘human agents’. The paper provides an unnerving prognosis of the future application of Lilly’s research, then being carried out at the National Institute of Mental Health. Lilly claimed that the use of sensory isolation, electrostimulation of the brain, and the recording and mapping of brain activity could be used to gain ‘push-button’ (...)
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  43. The ‘Disabilitization’ of Medicine: The Emergence of Quality of Life as a Space to Interrogate the Concept of the Medical Model.Arseli Dokumacı - 2019 - History of the Human Sciences 32 (5):164-190.
    This article presents an archaeological inquiry into the early histories of Quality of Life measures, and takes this as an occasion to rethink the concept of the ‘medical model of disability’. Focusing on three instruments that set the ground for the emergence of QoL measures, namely, the Karnofsky Performance Scale, and the classification of functional capacity as a diagnostic criterion for heart diseases and as a supplementary aid to therapeutic criteria in rheumatoid arthritis – I discuss how medicine, throughout the (...)
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  44. Voices Off: Stanley Milgram’s Cyranoids in Historical Context.Marcia Holmes & Daniel Pick - 2019 - History of the Human Sciences 32 (5):28-55.
    This article revisits a forgotten, late project by the social psychologist Stanley Milgram: the ‘cyranoid’ studies he conducted from 1977 to 1984. These investigations, inspired by the play Cyrano de Bergerac, explored how individuals often fail to notice when others do not speak their own thoughts, but instead relay messages from a hidden source. We situate these experiments amidst the intellectual, cultural, and political concerns of late Cold War America, and show how Milgram’s studies pulled together a variety of ideas, (...)
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  45. Practice Theory and Conservative Thought.Michael Strand - 2019 - History of the Human Sciences 32 (5):108-134.
    The concept of practice is thematically central to modern conservative thought, as evident in Edmund Burke’s writings on the aesthetic and his diatribe against the French Revolution. It is also the main organizing thread in the framework in the human sciences known as practice theory, which extends back at least to Karl Marx’s ‘Theses on Feuerbach’. This article historicizes ‘practice’ in conservative thought and practice theory, accounts for the family resemblance between the two, and takes apart that family resemblance to (...)
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  46. Behind the Rhodes Statue: Black Competency and the Imperial Academy.Robbie Shilliam - 2019 - History of the Human Sciences 32 (5):3-27.
    Recent criticisms of the Rhodes Must Fall Oxford campaign have problematized the presence of Black bodies within British higher education by reference to an ideal image of the impartial and discerning academy. In this article, I historically and intellectually contextualize the apprehension, expressed in the debates over RMF Oxford, that an intimate Black presence destabilizes the ethos of higher education. Specifically, I argue that much more than Rhodes’ statue implicates the British academy in the Empire’s southern African interests. I excavate (...)
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  47. Pornography Addiction: The Fabrication of a Transient Sexual Disease.Kris Taylor - 2019 - History of the Human Sciences 32 (5):56-83.
    While pornography addiction currently circulates as a comprehensible, diagnosable, and describable way to make sense of some people’s ostensibly problematic relationship with pornography, such a comprehensive description of this relationship has only recently been made possible. The current analysis makes visible pornography addiction as situated within a varied history of concerns about pornography, masturbation, fantasy, and technology in an effort to bring to bear a conceptual critique of the modern concept of pornography addiction. Such a critique in turn works to (...)
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  48. Higher Education Research and The Growing Artefact Revolution 4.0.Riko Riko & Iis Dewi Lestari - 2018 - Diskusi Panel Nasional Multidisiplin Hasil Penelitian Dan Pengabdian Masyarakat 1 (LPPM UNINDRA):262-266.
    This article attempts to investigate the possibilities of higher education research to response the challenge from the growing artefact Revolution 4.0. This is the investigation of philosophy of science which is meant to argue that the higher education is the place where philosophical and scientific research as the main priority, but not technology. This consideration should be advanced since technology can fulfil themselves, while philosophy and science require a special place to grow, that is, within the higher education. By nurturing (...)
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  49. Cosmology and Cosmic Order in Islamic Astronomy.Robert G. Morrison - 2019 - Early Science and Medicine 24 (4):340-366.
    This article analyzes how the astronomy of Islamic societies in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries can be understood as cosmological. By studying the Arabic translations of the relevant Greek terms and then the definitions of the medieval Arabic dictionaries, the article finds that Arabic terms did not communicate order in the way implied by the Greek ho kósmos. Yet, astronomers of the period sometimes discussed cosmic order in addition to describing the cosmos. This article finds, too, that a new technical (...)
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  50. Air and Friction in the Celestial Region: Some Medieval Solutions to the Difficulties of the Aristotelian Theory Concerning the Production of Celestial Heat.Aurora Panzica - 2019 - Early Science and Medicine 24 (4):367-390.
    This paper explores the medieval debates concerning problems with the Aristotelian theory of the production and transmission of solar heat as presented in De Caelo II, 7 and Meteorologica I, 3. In these passages, Aristotle states that celestial heat is generated by the friction set up in the air by the motion of celestial bodies. This statement is difficult to reconcile with Aristotle’s cosmology, which presupposes that the heavenly bodies are not surrounded by air, but by aether, and that the (...)
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