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1857 found
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1 — 50 / 1857
  1. Generalizing Empirical Adequacy I: Multiplicity and Approximation.Sebastian Lutz - 2014 - Synthese 191 (14):3195-3225.
    I provide an explicit formulation of empirical adequacy, the central concept of constructive empiricism, and point out a number of problems. Based on one of the inspirations for empirical adequacy, I generalize the notion of a theory to avoid implausible presumptions about the relation of theoretical concepts and observations, and generalize empirical adequacy with the help of approximation sets to allow for lack of knowledge, approximations, and successive gain of knowledge and precision. As a test case, I provide an application (...)
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  2. Imre Lakatos: A Critical Appraisal.Leslie Allan - manuscript
    Imre Lakatos holds a well-deserved primary place in current philosophy of science. In this essay, Leslie Allan critically examines Lakatos' theory of knowledge in two key areas. The first area of consideration is Lakatos' notion that knowledge is gained through a process of competition between rival scientific research programmes. Allan identifies and discusses four problems with Lakatos' characterization of a research programme. Next, Allan considers Lakatos' proposed test of adequacy for theories of rationality using his methodology of historiographical research programmes. (...)
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  3. A Structuralist Proposal for the Foundations of the Natural Numbers.Desmond Alan Ford - manuscript
    This paper introduces a novel object that has less structure than, and is ontologically prior to the natural numbers. As such it is a candidate model of the foundation that lies beneath the natural numbers. The implications for the construction of mathematical objects built upon that foundation are discussed.
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  4. Thus Spoke Pushpa.Venkata Rayudu Posina - manuscript
    There is a lesson from the woods--Bollywood, Kollywood, Mollywood, and Tollywood--of make-believe, which speaks to the core concern of science: the practice of science. Puspha, an Indian movie that brought the movie industry to its senses, with its global popularity has this to say: Be thyself; keep it real. Situated in a remote region aeons apart from the vast concrete and intimate plastic world we are familiar with, the happenings in the distanct and alien universe of discourse--a hamlet adjacent to (...)
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  5. Unbelievable Similarities Between Georg Northoff's Ideas (Canada, 2011-2014) and Gabriel Vacariu's Ideas (2005-2008).Gabriel Vacariu - manuscript
    Many ideas from Georg Nortoff’s works (published one paper in 2010, mainly his book in 2011, other papers in 2012, 2103, 2014, especially those related to Kant’s philosophy and the notion of the “observer”, the mind-brain problem, default mode network, the self, the mental states and their “correspondence” to the brain) are surprisingly very similar to my ideas published in my article from 2002, 2005 and my book from 2008. In two papers from 2002 (also my paper from 2005 and (...)
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  6. Collected Works, Volume II: Philosophy of Physics, Time, and Space.Grünbaum Adolf (ed.) - forthcoming - New York: Oxford University of Press.
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  7. Proceedings of the 14th Congress of Logic, Methodology and Philosophy of Science Nancy, July 19-26, 2011.P.-E. Bour & P. Schroeder-Heister (eds.) - forthcoming - College Publications.
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  8. Logic, Methodology and Philosophy of Science at Warsaw University, Warszawa 2013.Anna Brożek (ed.) - forthcoming
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  9. The Supposed Spectre of Scientism.Amanda Bryant - forthcoming - In Moti Mizrahi (ed.), For and Against Scientism: Science,Methodology, and the Future of Philosophy. Rowman and Littlefield.
    This chapter considers the assumptions required to make scientisms of different forms genuinely threatening to philosophers, where a genuine threat would consist of a concrete risk to their statuses, the value of their teaching and research, their livelihoods, their preferred research methods, or the health of the discipline. I will find that strong and weak forms of scientism alike require substantive assumptions to make them threatening in those regards. In particular, they require sometimes heavy-handed circumscriptions of philosophy and science, as (...)
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  10. Hélène Metzger on Precursors: A Historian and Philosopher of Science Confronts Her Evil Demon.Cristina Chimisso & Nick Jardine - forthcoming - Hopos: The Journal of the International Society for the History of Philosophy of Science.
  11. Thinking About Progress: From Science to Philosophy.Finnur Dellsén, Insa Lawler & James Norton - forthcoming - Noûs.
    Is there progress in philosophy? If so, how much? Philosophers have recently argued for a wide range of answers to these questions, from the view that there is no progress whatsoever to the view that philosophy has provided answers to all the big philosophical questions. However, these views are difficult to compare and evaluate, because they rest on very different assumptions about the conditions under which philosophy would make progress. This paper looks to the comparatively mature debate about scientific progress (...)
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  12. Computer Simulations as a Technological Singularity in the Empirical Sciences.Juan M. Durán - forthcoming - In Jim Miller, Roman Yampolskiy, Stuart Armstrong & Vic Callaghan (eds.), The technological singularity: A pragmatic perspective.
  13. New Developments in Logic and Philosophy of Science.Laura Felline - forthcoming
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  14. The Value of Surprise in Science.Steven French & Alice Murphy - forthcoming - Erkenntnis:1-20.
    Scientific results are often presented as ‘surprising’ as if that is a good thing. Is it? And if so, why? What is the value of surprise in science? Discussions of surprise in science have been limited, but surprise has been used as a way of defending the epistemic privilege of experiments over simulations. The argument is that while experiments can ‘confound’, simulations can merely surprise (Morgan 2005). Our aim in this paper is to show that the discussion of surprise can (...)
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  15. Essay Review: Interpreting the Philosophy of Science.Ronald Giere - forthcoming - Studies in the History and Philosophy of Science.
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  16. Philosophy of Science in China: Politicized, De-Politicized, and Re-Politicized.Yuanlin Guo & David Ludwig - forthcoming - In Global Epistemologies and Philosophies of Science.
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  17. Demarcation Without Dogmas.Ilmari Hirvonen & Janne Karisto - forthcoming - Theoria.
    This paper reviews how research on the demarcation problem has developed, starting from Popper’s criterion of falsifiability and ending with recent naturalistically oriented approaches. The main differences between traditional and contemporary approaches to the problem are explicated in terms of six postulates called the traditional assumptions. It is argued that all of the assumptions can be dismissed without giving up on the demarcation problem and that doing so might benefit further discussions on pseudoscience. Four present-day research movements on evaluating the (...)
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  18. Realism, Reference and Perspective.Carl Hoefer & Genoveva Martí Campillo - forthcoming - European Journal for Philosophy of Science.
    This paper continues the defense of a version of scientific realism, Tautological Scientific Realism (TSR), that rests on the claim that, excluding some areas of fundamental physics about which doubts are entirely justified, many areas of contemporary science cannot be coherently imagined to be false other than via postulation of radically skeptical scenarios, which are not relevant to the realism debate in philosophy of science. In this paper we discuss, specifically, the threats of meaning change and reference failure associated with (...)
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  19. Wittgenstein and Other Philosophers: His Influence on Historical and Contemporary Analytic Philosophers (Volume II).Ali Hossein Khani & Gary Kemp (eds.) - forthcoming - Routledge.
    This edited volume includes 49 Chapters, each of which discusses the influence of a philosopher's reading of Wittgenstein in his/her philosophical works and the way such Wittgensteinian ideas have manifested themselves in those works.
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  20. Karim Bschir and Jamie Shaw (Editors). Interpreting Feyerabend: Critical Essays. [REVIEW]Rory Kent - forthcoming - Hopos: The Journal of the International Society for the History of Philosophy of Science.
  21. Feyerabend, Science, and Scientism.Ian James Kidd - forthcoming - In Karim Bschir & Jamie Shaw (eds.), Interpreting Feyerabend. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    I argue that we can profitably understanding Feyerabend’s work in at least the latter half of his career in terms of a series of experiments with ways of conceptualising and criticising scientism, under the aegis of a ‘critique of scientific reason’. The critique of science’s self-understanding was the more sophisticated and successful, while the critique of scientific modernity was more erratic and less effective, due mainly to the failure to take up the necessary resources.
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  22. John Preston (Ed.), Interpreting Mach. Critical Essays.Chiara Russo Krauss - forthcoming - Hopos: The Journal of the International Society for the History of Philosophy of Science.
  23. The Twilight of the Scientific Age.Martín López Corredoira - forthcoming - Eikasia. Revista de Filosofía 54:119-146.
    This brief article presents the introduction and draft of the fundamental ideas developed at length in the book of the same title, which gives a challenging point of view about science and its history/philosophy/sociology. Science is in decline. After centuries of great achievements, the exhaustion of new forms and fatigue have reached our culture in all of its manifestations including the pure sciences. Our society is saturated with knowledge which does not offer people any sense in their lives. There is (...)
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  24. Philosophy of Science.Faucher Luc & Forest Denis (eds.) - forthcoming - MIT Press.
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  25. Wissenschaft in ‚Unordnung‘? - Gefiltertes Wissen und die Glaubwürdigkeit der Wissenschaft.Nicola Mößner - forthcoming - In Nicola Mößner & Klaus Erlach (eds.), Kalibrierung der Wissenschaft – Auswirkungen der Digitalisierung auf die wissenschaftliche Erkenntnis. Bielefeld, Germany: transcript.
    Untersucht wird die These, dass die zunehmende Digitalisierung wissenschaftlicher Arbeitsprozesse einen nicht zu vernachlässigenden Einfluss auf das Problem des Vertrauensverlustes in wissenschaftliche Expertise ausüben kann. Zwar bieten die digitalen Medien einerseits die Möglichkeit, transparent über wissenschaftliche Ergebnisse zu berichten und dabei auch vielfältige Positionen zu beleuchten. Andererseits zeigt sich, dass die gegenwärtigen Instrumente der Wissenschaftskommunikation gerade diese Erwartungen nicht erfüllen. Letzteres wird mittels eines Fallbeispiels der Umgestaltung wissenschaftlicher Publikationsprozesse durch Datenbanken wie z.B. Scopus detailliert analysiert.
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  26. Measurement, Coordination, and the Relativized a Priori.Flavia Padovani - forthcoming - Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics.
  27. The Paradigms in Philosophy and History of Science.Stefano Poggi - forthcoming - Hegel-Studien.
  28. Philosophy of Science as First Philosophy The Liberal Polemics of Ernest Nagel.Eric Schliesser - forthcoming - In Matthias Neubar & Adam Tamas Tuboly (eds.), Ernest Nagel: Philosophy of Science and the Fight for Clarity. Springer.
    This chapter explores Nagel’s polemics. It shows these have a two-fold character: (i) to defend liberal civilization against all kinds of enemies. And (ii) to defend what he calls ‘contextual naturalism.’ And the chapter shows that (i-ii) reinforce each other and undermine alternative political and philosophical programs. The chapter’s argument responds to an influential argument by George Reisch that Nagel’s professional stance represents a kind of disciplinary retreat from politics. In order to respond to Reisch the relationship between Nagel’s philosophy (...)
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  29. The Metaphysics of Science at the End of a Heroic Age.Silvan S. Schweber - forthcoming - Boston Studies in the Philosophy of Science.
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  30. The Philosophy of the Sciences That Received Philosophy of Science Neglected. Historical Perspectives.Thomas Uebel (ed.) - forthcoming - Springer.
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  31. Thomas Kuhn, Hyperbole, and the Ashtray: Evidence of Morris’ Faulty Memory.K. Brad Wray - forthcoming - Philosophy of Science:1-6.
    Errol Morris has claimed that Kuhn threw an ashtray at him during a dispute about some matter in the history of science. Morris also claims that Kuhn threw him out of the graduate program at Princeton for disagreeing with him. I argue that Morris’ attack on Kuhn contains some degree of hyperbole. Further, I present evidence that shows that Morris is mistaken about key events during this period. In fact, Kuhn was supportive of Morris in his pursuit of a career (...)
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  32. What of Multi- and Interdisciplinarity? A (Personal) Case Study.Luis M. Augusto - 2022 - Journal of Knowledge Structures and Systems 3 (2):1-3.
    An analysis of--yet another--case of academic failure in multi- and interdisciplinarity. An editorial of the Journal of Knowledge Structures & Systems.
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  33. What Counts as a Memory? Definitions, Hypotheses, and 'Kinding in Progress'.David Colaço - 2022 - Philosophy of Science 89 (1):89-106.
    This paper accounts for broad definitions of memory, which extend to paradigmatic memory phenomena, like episodic memory in humans, and phenomena in worms and sea snails. These definitions may seem too broad, suggesting that they extend to phenomena that don’t count as memory or illustrate that memory is not a natural kind. However, these responses fail to consider a definition as a hypothesis. As opposed to construing definitions as expressing memory’s properties, a definition as a hypothesis is the basis to (...)
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  34. Será a Psicanálise uma Pseudociência? Reavaliando a Doutrina à luz da Proposta de Demarcação de Hansson e da Ética de Clifford.Clarice de Medeiros Chaves Ferreira - 2022 - Caderno de Resumos Do XIII Encontro Nacional de Pesquisa Em Filosofia - ENPF.
    Este resumo é um trabalho baseado no artigo publicado por Ferreira (2021), intitulado "Será a psicanálise uma pseudociência? Reavaliando a doutrina utilizando uma lista de multicritérios". Além de se apoiar nele, coloca uma proposta de expansão sobre as implicações éticas de sua conclusão. O artigo original, publicado na revista Debates em Psiquiatria, busca fazer uma avaliação da doutrina psicanalítica utilizando da proposta de demarcação de Sven Ove Hansson.
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  35. Métaphysique analytique, métaphysique naturalisée et ontologie appliquée.Baptiste Le Bihan & Adrien Barton - 2022 - In Raphaël Künstler (ed.), Métaphysique et Sciences, Nouveaux problèmes. Paris: Hermann.
    La pertinence de la métaphysique analytique a fait l'objet de critiques : Ladyman et Ross, par exemple, ont suggéré d'abandonner ce domaine. French et McKenzie ont défendu la métaphysique analytique en affirmant qu'elle développe des outils qui pourraient s'avérer utiles pour la philosophie de la physique. Dans cet article, nous montrons dans un premier temps que cette défense heuristique de la métaphysique peut être étendue au domaine scientifique de l'ontologie appliquée, qui utilise des théories et outils issus de la métaphysique (...)
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  36. Bunge’s Metascience and the Naturalization of the General Discourse.François Maurice - 2022 - Mεtascience 2:online.
    We will explain why the Treatise on Basic Philosophy is a metascientific work and not a philosophical one. We will then argue that this meta-science is part of a long process of naturalization of thought that begins at the end of the Middle Ages to give birth to the scientific thought of the study of the world. For Bunge, naturalization takes the form of the naturalization of the general thought which makes it possible to replace philosophical general discourse with scientific (...)
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  37. Presentation: Metascientific Ontology.François Maurice - 2022 - Mεtascience 2.
    Debates about the links between science and ontology are very active in contemporary philosophy, and, in fact, they have always been present. Despite the various philosophical positions on the subject, they all admit the existence of a metaphysical reality. In contrast, metascience holds that such a reality does not exist. This second issue of Mɛtascience presents seven out of twelve articles that have as a common thread either the metascientific ontology or the Bungean ontology.
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  38. Présentation: L’ontologie métascientifique.François Maurice - 2022 - Mεtascience 2:5-13.
    Les débats sur les liens qui uniraient la science à l’ontologie sont très actifs en philosophie contemporaine, et, en fait, ils ont toujours été présents. Malgré les diverses positions philosophiques sur le sujet, elles admettent toutes l’existence d’une réalité métaphysique. À l’opposé, la métascience soutient qu’une telle réalité n’existe pas. Ce second numéro de Mɛtascience présente sept articles sur douze qui ont comme fil conducteur soit l’ontologie métascientifique soit l’ontologie bungéenne.
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  39. Quand la philosophie n’est plus philosophique.François Maurice - 2022 - Mεtascience 2.
    Nous examinons l’idée selon laquelle il existerait une sous-discipline en phi-losophie des sciences, la philosophie dans les sciences, dont les chercheurs utili-seraient des outils philosophiques pour avancer des solutions à des problèmes scientifiques. Nous proposons plutôt l’idée que ces outils sont des outils épisté-miques, cognitifs ou intellectuels standards, à l’œuvre dans toute activité ration-nelle, et, par conséquent, ces chercheurs se consacrent à la recherche scienti-fique ou métascientifique.
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  40. Métascience chez Mario Bunge et naturalisation du discours général.François Maurice - 2022 - Mεtascience 2.
    Nous expliquerons pourquoi le Treatise on Basic Philosophy est une œuvre mé-tascientifique et non pas philosophique. On soutiendra ensuite que cette métas-cience s’inscrit dans un long processus de naturalisation de la pensée qui débute à la fin du Moyen Âge pour donner naissance à la pensée scientifique de l’étude du monde. La naturalisation prend la forme chez Bunge d’une naturalisation de la pensée générale qui permet de remplacer le discours général philosophique par le discours général scientifique. Finalement, cette naturalisation du (...)
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  41. Qu'est-ce que l'ontologie métascientifique?François Maurice - 2022 - Mεtascience 2.
    L’ontologie métascientifique se distingue des ontologies philosophiques par ses objectifs, ses objets et ses méthodes. Par un examen des théories ontologiques de Mario Bunge, nous montrerons que leur principal objectif est l’élaboration d’une représentation unifiée du monde tel que connu via les sciences, que leurs objets d’étude sont les concepts scientifiques, et que leurs méthodes ne diffèrent pas de celles qu’on s’attend à trouver dans toute activité rationnelle. L’ontologie métascientifique n’est donc pas transcendante parce qu’elle ne cherche pas à représenter (...)
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  42. What Is Metascientific Ontology?François Maurice - 2022 - Mεtascience 2:online.
    Metascientific ontology differs from philosophical ontologies in its objectives, objects and methods. By an examination of the ontological theories of Mario Bunge, we will show their main objective is a unified representation of the world as known through the sciences, that their objects of study are scientific concepts, and that their methods do not differ from those that one expects to find in any rational activity. Metascientific ontology is therefore not transcendent because it does not seek to represent non-concrete objects (...)
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  43. When Philosophy is No Longer Philosophical.François Maurice - 2022 - Mεtascience 2:online.
    We examine the idea that there is a sub-discipline in philosophy of science, phi-losophy in science, whose researchers use philosophical tools to advance solu-tions to scientific problems. Rather, we propose that these tools are standard epistemic, cognitive, or intellectual tools at work in all rational activity, and therefore these researchers engage in scientific or metascientific research.
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  44. Philosophical Reasoning About Science: A Quantitative, Digital Study.Moti Mizrahi & Michael Adam Dickinson - 2022 - Synthese 200 (2).
    In this paper, we set out to investigate the following question: if science relies heavily on induction, does philosophy of science rely heavily on induction as well? Using data mining and text analysis methods, we study a large corpus of philosophical texts mined from the JSTOR database (n = 14,199) in order to answer this question empirically. If philosophy of science relies heavily on induction, just as science supposedly does, then we would expect to find significantly more inductive arguments than (...)
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  45. Lakatos' Undone Work: The Practical Turn and the Division of Philosophy of Mathematics and Philosophy of Science_ - Introduction to the Special Issue on _Lakatos’ Undone Work.Sophie Nagler, Hannah Pillin & Deniz Sarikaya - 2022 - Kriterion - Journal of Philosophy 36:1-10.
    We give an overview of Lakatos’ life, his philosophy of mathematics and science, as well as of this issue. Firstly, we briefly delineate Lakatos’ key contributions to philosophy: his anti-formalist philosophy of mathematics, and his methodology of scientific research programmes in the philosophy of science. Secondly, we outline the themes and structure of the masterclass Lakatos’ Undone Work – The Practical Turn and the Division of Philosophy of Mathematics and Philosophy of Science, which gave rise to this special issue. Lastly, (...)
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  46. Philosophy of Science in Practice and Weak Scientism Together Apart.Luana Poliseli & Federica Russo - 2022 - In Moti Mizrahi (ed.), For and against scientism: science, methodology and the future of philosophy. Lanham/Boulder/New York/ London: Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 0-0.
    The term ‘scientism’ has not attracted consensus about its meaning or about its scope of application. In this paper, we consider Mizrahi’s suggestion to distinguish ‘Strong’ and ‘Weak’ scientism, and the consequences this distinction may have for philosophical methodology. While we side with Mizrahi that his definitions help advance the debate, by avoiding verbal dispute and focussing on questions of method, we also have concerns about his proposal as it defends a hierarchy of knowledge production. Mizrahi’s position is that Weak (...)
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  47. A Case for Conservative Ontology Development in Scientific Metaphysics.Sahana Rajan - 2022 - Philosophical Inquiries 1 (10):9-24.
    Over the past decade, in contrast to the traditional analytic version of metaphysics, a brand of metaphysics that prioritizes collaboration and corroboration with sciences has emerged in the form of scientific metaphysics. While there has been a shift from the methodological dependence of analytic metaphysis on intuition, and conceptual analysis to the methodological preference for empirically-motivated metaphysical insights in scientific metaphysics, such a shift has not penetrated the foundational aims. Scientific metaphysics continues to probe the nature and structure of reality, (...)
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  48. When Do Non-Epistemic Values Play an Epistemically Illegitimate Role in Science? How to Solve One Half of the New Demarcation Problem.Alexander Reutlinger - 2022 - Studies in the History and Philosophy of Science 92:152-161.
    Solving the “new demarcation problem” requires a distinction between epistemically legitimate and illegitimate roles for non-epistemic values in science. This paper addresses one ‘half’ (i.e. a sub-problem) of the new demarcation problem articulated by the Gretchenfrage: What makes the role of a non-epistemic value in science epistemically illegitimate? I will argue for the Explaining Epistemic Errors (EEE) account, according to which the epistemically illegitimate role of a non-epistemic value is defined via an explanatory claim: the fact that an epistemic agent (...)
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  49. Understanding Futures of Science: Connecting Causal Layered Analysis and Philosophy of Science.Veli Virmajoki - 2022 - Journal of Futures Studies.
    This paper analyses the similarities and connections between philosophy of science and causal layered analysis. The paper points out that philosophy of science can be understood as a kind of causal layered analysis of science. These similarities and connections mean that the insights in philosophy of science can be used to investigate the important but neglected topic of possible futures of science. The connections make it possible (i) to open up the present and past to create alternative futures of science, (...)
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  50. Consensus Versus Unanimity: Which Carries More Weight?Finnur Dellsén - 2021 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science.
    Around 97% of climate scientists endorse anthropogenic global warming (AGW), the theory that human activities are partly responsible for recent increases in global average temperatures. Clearly, this widespread endorsement of AGW is a reason for non-experts to believe in AGW. But what is the epistemic significance of the fact that some climate scientists do not endorse AGW? This paper contrasts expert unanimity, in which virtually no expert disagrees with some theory, with expert consensus, in which some non-negligible proportion either rejects (...)
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